Where it has been introduced, CLTS has been integrated with other development initiatives. Besides ending open defecation, the focus is on a more comprehensive package which includes wastewater management, solid waste disposal, overall hygiene and more. The approach has also been modified in some countries to ‘School-led Total Sanitation (SLTS)’, whereby schools are the prime drivers in achieving ODF status. This has widened the spread of CLTS and its impact, both among adults and children. Plan, Water Aid and UNICEF have become important disseminators and champions of CLTS. Today, it is present in many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, it has taken root in 28 countries and gained the support of decision makers and professionals, who have recognised it as a successful, cost-effective approach and have issued a declaration to urge governments to take more decisive steps to ensure ODF environments among local communities.
- Re: Nice and quick overview about constructed wetland's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: F H Mughal December 21, 2014That is a nice brief publication on wetlands' history. I think, USEPA has been instrumental in the use of wetlands. The attached publication, a joint publication of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Protection Agency,Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and Wildlife Service, and Natural Resources Conservation Service, is a guide on […]
- Re: Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: SusannahSoilet December 21, 2014I wonder if we need to take a step back from 'counting pathogens' and look at the 'overall transmissibility and outcome of exposure' to these biological entities. For a pathogen/parasite to successfully infect a new host through fecal sludge, it must surmount several steps: 1: gain contact 2: retain infectivity - i.e. have enough vitality […]
- Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday December 21, 2014Dear Dennis and Detlef, Dennis, the idea would be to treat this blackwater just as well as if we were dumping it into the environment, only never dump it into the environment, so maybe somewhere between 0 and 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml. It would be key to eliminate any smell or color, so users do not enough notice the difference. Detlef, thanks f […]
- Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: KeithBell December 20, 2014Other than clostridium botulinum, another pathogenic clostridia of concern in biogas is clostridium perfringens. High concentration of Clostridium perfringens found at 45 days reveals a risk to use the digested slurry on the arable land. Some Clostridium spp. may cause infection in animals e.g. blackleg (Clostridium chauveoi), malignant (Clostridium septicum […]
- Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: muench December 20, 2014Keith, I was actually going to post the same thing as Christoph, but he was faster. The suggestion I would make to you is this: If you want to bring up the botulism issue again in a new thread, please be so kind to include in your post a link to the earlier discussion (you are right, Dan-Eric might have missed it, which is why you should have pointed it out; […]
- Re: Nice and quick overview about constructed wetland's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: F H Mughal December 21, 2014
- An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.
Add to favourites