Category Archives: Hygiene Promotion

Social and psychological impact of limited access to sanitation: The link between MHM and reproductive tract infections, and between WASH practices and pregnancy

Social and psychological impact of limited access to sanitation: The link between MHM and reproductive tract infections, and between WASH practices and pregnancy, October 2014. SHARE, WSSCC.

The approach utilizes a baseline cross-sectional survey to quantify  WASH practices and reported health history among a randomly-selected subset of girls and women from each of the four life-course groups in tribal, rural, and urban areas of Odisha, and a set of overlapping sub-studies each testing focused hypotheses about pathways between sanitation access, SRPS, hygiene behaviour and health.

Some Key Findings (for Practitioners):

  • While most sanitation challenges are universal for women, their  relative severity and frequency differed in urban, rural, and tribal areas and among young women, married women, and older adults. Strategies for improving latrine access and use could potentially utilize context-specific promotional strategies to
    encourage behaviour change.
  • Sanitation encompasses much more than defecation, specifically  within the Indian context. The act of defecation is embedded within other behaviours, including post-defecation cleaning, ritual bathing, and changing clothing; as well as menstrual management and urination. Strategies to improve sanitation
    coverage in India must be aware of how defecation practices are positioned within these larger behavioural patterns and responsive strategies are needed in order to facilitate adoption and use of sanitation technologies.

Oct 29, 2014 – The 3rd Annual Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) in WASH in Schools Virtual Conference

The 3rd Annual Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) in WASH in Schools Virtual Conference, Wednesday 29 October 2014

The 3rd virtual MHM in WinS conference will build on the content and recommendations of the prior two conferences and continue the effort to fill in the gaps in the existing knowledge and advocacy around this important issue. The one-day conference will bring together academics and health, gender, education, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) experts from around the world currently implementing MHM-related activities.

Conference objectives:

  • To share recent research findings that relate to various aspects of MHM in WinS
  • To highlight school-based MHM program descriptions and their potential for scale
  • To share recommendations about how new MHM programs can be developed by WinS practitioners

What to do with infant poo? The blind spot of the blind spot

After a few years researching and working on sanitation, I feel (felt) that I have a good knowledge about the topic, or at least good knowledge of most of it and a clear picture of the areas I should learn more about. Moreover as a shit-worker I –and probably most of us in the sector– have developed a sort of pride or even vanity about being a herald of a neglected cause…

Last week at the UNC Water and Health Conference I was humbled and even slightly embarrassed when I ‘discovered’ the world of children’s faeces in an exciting side session: “What to Do with Infant Poo? Evidence-based Programming to support safe disposal of young children’s faeces”. Convened by WSP, UNICEF and USAID / WASHPlus Project, the session included presentations of experiences from Kenya, Bangladesh and Cambodia, followed by group work on ways forward. infant_poo

It is not that I ignored everything about child faeces; I had read something, had had some coincidental observations while staying in Indian villages, where I also included the issue partially in household surveys by gathering information of individuals’ defecation practices. But overall my knowledge was limited to the fact that child faeces have more pathogens than adult shit, and therefore should be disposed of safely; I had not fully acknowledged the complexities of the issue and kind of took for granted that improvements in adult sanitation would automatically lead to better management of child faeces. I was thus struck by a study in Bangladesh (by ICDDR,B), a country where adult open defecation is minimal, that showed that only 11-14% of children’s faeces are disposed of in latrines.

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Validity of Rapid Measures of Handwashing Behavior: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Impact Evaluations

Validity of Rapid Measures of Handwashing Behavior: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Impact Evaluations in the Global Scaling Up
Handwashing Project, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program.

Authors: Pavani K. Ram, Michelle W. Sahli, Benjamin Arnold, John M. Colford, Claire Chase, Bertha Briceño, Alexandra Orsola-Vidal, and Paul Gertler

This multicountry analysis has shown that observation of handwashing materials at the places where people wash hands, at the times most necessary for washing (after fecal contact and before food preparation), is a valid measure of handwashing with soap in multiple cultural and geographic contexts. There continues to be an overarching need for developing valid measures of handwashing behavior that can be collected in an efficient and inexpensive fashion. The structured observation data indicating low rates of soap use for handwashing at times of pathogen transmission reinforce the global imperative to improve handwashing behavior for prevention of the leading causes of death in young children.

WEDC – Menstruation hygiene management for schoolgirls

Menstruation hygiene management for schoolgirls, 2014.

Author: Tracey Crofts, WEDC.

This guide outlines the problems experienced by menstruating schoolgirls in low-income countries. Although its focus is predominantly sub-Saharan Africa, many of the issues raised are relevant to girls in most low-income countries, although there may be differences in popular practice and beliefs. Menstrual-hygiene-on-line-8

The guide also evaluates simple solutions to these problems including the use of low-cost sanitary pads, and suggests ways in which menstruation hygiene management (MHM) can be included in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes.

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Handwashing

Issue 156 | August 1, 2014 | Focus on Hand Washing

This issue contains journal articles and reports published to date in 2014 on hand washing. Journal articles include an updated review of hand washing’s health effects, an evaluation on the use of soapy water, a new Community Handwashing Guide, and an article on the Super Amma campaign in India.

Reports include a review of hand washing in the perinatal period, a social media toolkit from the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, a report from the Institute of Development Studies on developing hand washing campaigns as part of community-led total sanitation programs, and others.

EVENTS handwashing

What Does Sustainability Mean for Handwashing and Hygiene? Handwashing & Hygiene Track, Sustainability Forum, July 2014. Overview by J Rosenbaum, USAID/WASHplus. (Link)
The literature on improving hand washing practice and then sustaining or maintaining the practice suggests determinants such as social norms, policy, and presence of “enabling technologies” (like tippy taps and water treatment products) are the primary factors required to sustain behaviors rather than issues around functioning hardware, community maintenance, and local governance. These technology and systems issues lie within the household domain rather than with community or government. Availability of  key supplies and spare parts, and willingness to pay also factor into the equation, as does sustained maintenance of hand washing stations and water filters.

LITERATURE REVIEWS

Periodic Overview of Handwashing Literature: Summary of Selected Peer-Reviewed and Grey Literature Published July – December 2013. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW). (Link)
Twice a year, PPPHW publishes overviews of handwashing literature that provide practical guidance for implementers. This is a compilation of peer-reviewed and grey literature that were published between July through December 2013.

2014 JOURNAL ARTICLES BY PUBLICATION DATE

Hygiene and Health: Systematic Review of Handwashing Practices Worldwide and Update of Health Effects. Trop Med Int Health, Aug 2014. M Freeman. (Link)
From the 42 studies reporting hand washing prevalence the authors estimate that approximately 19 percent of the world’s population washes hands with soap after contact with excreta (i.e., use of a sanitation facility or contact with children’s excreta). Meta-regression of risk estimates suggests that hand washing reduces the risk of diarrheal disease by 40 percent; however, when they included an adjustment for unblinded studies, the effect estimate was reduced to 23 percent. Results show that hand washing after contact with excreta is poorly practiced globally, despite the likely positive health benefits.

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WSUP animation – welcome to the world of urban WASH programming!

How do you design and implement an effective urban WASH programme? In WSUP’s recent publication “The Urban Programming Guide” we set out the many activities involved, from planning and capacity building to improving services and promoting behaviour change. This short animation brings the publication to life and takes you on a virtual tour of some of these activities in action: enjoy the ride!

You can download the Urban Programming Guide for free from our website.