This video investigates the cost of having in place inclusive water, sanitation and hygiene services in Uganda. A team of WaterAid and partner staff carried out an accessibility audit on water and sanitation facilities constructed by the community in the districts of Amuria and Katakwi north east Uganda after being trained on making water, sanitation and hygiene services accessible to the disabled , the elderly and people with chronic sicknesses.
This research project aims at understanding barriers faced by persons with disability, chronically ill and elderly when attempting to use standard water, sanitation and hygiene facilities.
It is interesting to see how local communities are using the knowledge acquired to make innovations using locally available materials to put in place inclusive water and sanitation facilities. This is a clear indication that when local communities are given the right information, they can drive their own change and priorities.
Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 13 November 2013.
David J. Bradley and Jamie K. Bartram
Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency.
This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users.
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. – RTI International has been awarded a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to develop a toilet for use in developing nations that converts human waste into burnable fuel, stored energy and disinfected, non-potable water.
RTI is partnered with Duke University, Colorado State University, NASA’s Ames Research Center and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to develop a prototype of this safe, sanitary and affordable waste treatment system. Our team includes experts in engineering, water and sanitation, energy, and economics.
- RTI International is developing a toilet that converts human waste into burnable fuel, stored energy and disinfected, non-potable water
- Novel waste treatment system could help improve public health and quality of life among people in developing nations
- The system will not require piped-in water, a sewer connection or outside electricity
India, urban sanitation, and the toilet challenge, 2013.
Elledge, M.F., McClatchey, M. RTI International.
This research brief builds upon a literature review and stakeholder interviews in India on urban sanitation to examine the public policy landscape for sanitation innovation in the country. India ranks low in terms of sanitation coverage; the country experiences very high rates of open defecation and significant use of unimproved toilets. The majority of fecal sludge goes untreated into waterways in urban areas. India’s demographic trends show rapid urban growth, both geographically and in terms of population, which is also expanding the gap in access to improved sanitation in urban areas. Adequate government funding and policy implementation is lacking.
The past focus on centralized sewerage systems and simple on-site sanitation is not an acceptable default option, nor is it technically feasible or financially viable given growth patterns. Groundbreaking new technology, management, and operational models are required to solve the sanitation challenge at scale. Recent attention from the donor community, the private sector, and others brings focus to using innovation to solve the sanitation challenge. This review highlights that urban sanitation is under-researched. More work is required to spur funding, inform technology development, and support the policy-enabling environment for bringing in new approaches to improved urban sanitation.
Tapping the Market: Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Sanitation for the Poor, 2013. Conference Edition.
World Bank; WSP; IFIC.
The current market for improved on-site sanitation services in the four countries is large: supplying new systems and replacing old ones is conservatively estimated to be worth US$300 million a year. But the potential market is much larger: one-time sales of improved sanitation facilities to the 228 million people without access are worth at least US$2.6 billion.
Poor people alone would account for sales of about US$700 million. New customers would increase the replacement market to about US$550 million a year. Private sector activity associated with the market is not limited to the installation of latrines and toilets. The domestic private sector in these countries is engaged in a range of activities, including wholesale and retail sales of materials and components, the manufacture of prefabricated cement products used to build latrines and toilets, and the provision of advice on and the design of latrines and toilets.
Some enterprises also offer financing facilities or are engaged in related services, such as repairs, pit emptying, and septage disposal, which have the potential to be sizable business opportunities (the potential market for truck-based pit emptying in Indonesia is about $100 million a year, for example).
The study’s recommendations focus primarily on the constraints inherent in current technologies and in the supply chains that support provision of on-site sanitation services. It is these constraints that lead to households being offered products and services that they are not very interested in buying. The recommendations are aimed at governments, development partners, and industry.
USAID and Rotary International adopt innovative sustainability monitoring tool | Source: Harold Lockwood, Water Services That Last – August 12, 2013 |
This is great news and fantastic to see USAID adopting and promoting this approach which aims to really track and better understand the underlying causes of poor sustainability in the WASH sector. Sustaining WASH services is complex and dependent not only the hardware (the pumps, latrines and pipes), but also a range of the so-called software elements, for example reliable management entities, long-term external support and monitoring, adequate financing and so on. Measuring coverage is one thing, looking at functionality is also a useful proxy, but if we really want to know where the pinch-points are and how something so seemingly simple as water flowing out of a tap can fall down, it requires a comprehensive and powerful tool.
This is just what USAID and Rotary International have developed with the new Sustainability Index Tool, or SIT, which has just been released and is available for download on the WASHPlus website here. The tool was developed by Aguaconsult over a period of more than a year and a half and has been tested in three country programmes, with a further two countries being rolled out in the coming months.
Miranda Wang and Jeanny Yao have identified a new bacteria that breaks down nasty compounds called phthalates, common to flexible plastics and linked to health problems. And they’re still teenagers.
International H2O Collaboration
The USAID-Rotary International H2O Collaboration was launched in March 2009, and the first round of pilot projects were finalized in 2012 in the Dominican Republic, Ghana, and the Philippines. The central goal of this collaboration between Rotary International and USAID is to support water, sanitation, and hygiene initiatives that will have lasting impacts in target communities.The partnership between Rotary International and USAID is an official Global Development Alliance (GDA), which is an innovative public-private alliance model developed and used by USAID for improving social and economic conditions in developing countries.
One outcome of the Alliance is the publication of theSustainability Index Tool documents which are listed below:
- Sustainability Index of WASH Interventions: Global Findings and Lessons Learned. The Sustainability Index Tool, focuses on four critical areas that are known to be importance to the long-term sustainability of WASH interventions: institutional, management, financial, and technical factors. (Full text|pdf-1.27MB)
- Dominican Republic: Sustainability Index of WASH Activities. (Full text|pdf-2.51MB)
- Ghana: Sustainability Index of WASH Activities & Partnership Evaluation. (Full text|pdf-1.82MB)
- Philippines: Sustainability Index of WASH Activities & Alliance Evaluation. (Full text|pdf-1.59MB)