Category Archives: Progress on Sanitation

FSM services in Lusaka: moving up the excreta management ladder

Despite most residents of African and Asian cities depending on non-sewered sanitation, only a handful of sanitation authorities have addressed the management of faecal sludge from these systems. This Practice Note describes the launch of a faecal sludge management (FSM) service in the peri-urban area of Kanyama, in Zambia.

Click on the image below for a free download.

PN017 FSM in Zambia

Multi-level sanitation governance: Understanding and overcoming the challenges in the sanitation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

Multi-level sanitation governance: Understanding and overcoming the challenges in the sanitation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014.

Nelson Ekane, Björn Nykvist, Marianne Kjellén, Stacey Noel and Nina Weitz. Stockholm Environment Institute.

This paper shows how analysis of multi-level governance, path dependency, and institutional inertia can be used to improve understanding of some of the challenges in the sanitation sector in SSA, and discusses approaches that can contribute to improving the sanitation situation in a sustainable way. In addition, the paper asserts that demand-driven strategies and private sector involvement in the sanitation sector is paramount for establishing new sanitation paradigms and socio-technical regimes. We conclude that a good understanding of actors at all levels – that is, their various roles as well as interactions and the way they interpret and respond to policies – is key to accelerating progress in sustainable sanitation coverage in SSA.

AfricaSan 4 dates and venue confirmed!

AfricaSan_Conference

The African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) and the Government of Senegal are pleased to announce the dates and venue of the fourth AfricaSan conference, AfricaSan 4.
Date: 8 – 10 October 2014
Location: Dakar, Senegal (King Fahd Hotel)

Registration website: coming soon, watch this space!

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Fecal Sludge Management

Issue 153 | July 11, 2014 | Focus on Fecal Sludge Management

This issue focuses on studies, reports, and other materials that have been published so far in 2014 on fecal sludge management (FSM). Included is a just-published and comprehensive guide on planning and organizing the entire fecal sludge management service chain. A WASTE report evaluates FSM methods in emergency situations, and a Water and Sanitation Program  report examines FSM in 12 cities. washplus

EVENTS

3rd International Faecal Sludge Management Conference, Jan 18-22, 2015, Hanoi, Vietnam(3rd Conference Link) | (2nd Conference Presentations)
Building on the success of the two previous International FSM Conferences in Durban (2011 and 2012), FSM3 will bring together world-class research and science and donors, cities, utilities, investors, consultants, governments, service providers, and industries with the aim of fostering an effective dialogue on solving the problem of dealing with human waste.

GUIDES

Faecal Sludge Management (FSM): Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation, 2014. L Strande, ed., EAWAG. (Link)
This guide compiles the current state of knowledge of this rapidly evolving field and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management, and planning. It addresses the planning and organization of the entire FSM service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge and treatment options, to the final end use or disposal of treated sludge.

Emergency Sanitation: Faecal Sludge Treatment, 2014. J Spit, WASTE. (Link)
This research aims to expand the knowledge of possible simple fecal sludge treatment technologies that could be rapidly deployed in the event of an emergency and are effective under challenging physical conditions such as unstable soils, high water tables, and flood-prone areas. Three fecal sludge sanitization methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment, and hydrated lime treatment—were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi.

Facilitation Manual: Sanitation Entrepreneur Training, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). (Link)
A WSP team felt there was a growing need for a standard reference for implementing sanitation entrepreneur training and developed a training program and guide that could be replicated and carried out independently by interested stakeholders.

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Further co-funding for the SuSanA Discussion Forum

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has provided co-funding for the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) Discussion Forum for the past 1.5 years via a grant to Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). The Forum has catalyzed knowledge exchange amongst experts and engaged citizens within the sanitation, water and hygiene sector.

sei2

On the 3rd anniversary of the SuSanA Discussion Forum, SEI is pleased to announce that the Gates Foundation has provided a follow-up grant for “Extension of the SuSanA Discussion Forum”, supporting online knowledge management, dissemination and peer discussions of the Gates Foundation’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene projects. The size of the grant is 250,000 US$ and it will span a period of 18 months.

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Focus on Violence and Gender in the WASH and Household Energy Sectors

WASHplus Weekly | Issue 151 | June 27, 2014 | Focus on Violence and Gender in the WASH and Household Energy Sectors

There have been several new initiatives to deal with the problem of violence and gender. In the WASH sector, several key organizations have worked together to publish a recent toolkit that discusses how to make WASH safer and more effective. In the household energy sector, the SAFE strategy, or the Global Strategy for Safe Access to Fuel and Energy was recently launched by the UN High High Commissioner for Refugees. The SAFE strategy principally addresses technology and program management and provides guidance on a holistic approach to the safety challenge in humanitarian settings. USAID has also published a new toolkit to support the implementation of the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally.

WASH RESOURCES/STUDIES

TOOLKITS

Violence, Gender and WASH: A Practitioner’s Toolkit, 2014. (Link)
The toolkit has been developed by Sarah House, Suzanne Ferron, Marni Sommer and Sue Cavill on behalf of WaterAid with contributions from a wide range of actors. It was funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the British Government through the Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research For Equity (SHARE) Consortium. By recognizing both the risks of violence associated with WASH and the potential benefits of WASH, this toolkit aims to shine a light on this problem and encourage practitioners to recognize their capacity to make WASH safer and more effective.

Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluating Gender-Based Violence Interventions along the Relief to Development Continuum, 2014. USAID. (Link)
USAID developed this toolkit to support the implementation of the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally. It provides guidance to USAID staff, implementing partners and the larger community of international relief and development practitioners on how to monitor and evaluate gender-based violence interventions along the Relief to Development Continuum (RDC). The RDC is divided broadly into three phases: (1) the pre-crisis phase, (2) the crisis phase, and (3) the post-crisis phase. The toolkit identifies opportunities for doing monitoring and evaluation along the RDC and gives advice on how to address constraints and challenges relating to each phase.

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The toilet tripod: Understanding successful sanitation in rural India

The toilet tripod: Understanding successful sanitation in rural India. Health Place. 2014 Jun 19.

O’Reilly K, Louiss׳ E.

Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod):

  • (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term;
  • (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets;
  • (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use.

This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation.

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation

Issue 149 | June 6, 2014 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

This issue updates the December 2013 Weekly on CLTS with 2014 studies, reports, and videos. Included are a May 2014 video of Dr. Kamal Kar discussing CLTS challenges, an article criticizing CLTS, a UNICEF evaluation of its Community Approaches to Total Sanitation program, and other reports and videos. washplusweekly

The June 13th issue of the Weekly will focus on cookstove issues and the next issue of the Weekly on WASH-related issues will be on June 27, 2014.

OVERVIEWS

The Potential of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in Achieving an Open Defecation Free World, 2014. Institute of Development Studies. (Video)
(NOTE: The actual presentation begins at about 4 minutes into the video.) Dr. Kamal Kar, the pioneer of CLTS, speaks about the potential of the CLTS approach in achieving the sanitation Millennium Development Goals with a special focus on Africa. He also discusses second and third generation challenges of CLTS such as sustainability, waste containment, and the politics of scaling up.

CRITICISMS OF THE CLTS APPROACH

Shaming and Sanitation in Indonesia: A Return to Colonial Public Health Practices?Development and Change, Jan 2014. S Engel. (Link)
CLTS involves more than just education and encouragement; it uses social shaming and punishment. The authors argue that this is not only an inadequate approach but one that echoes coercive, race-based colonial public health practices. This article thus integrates extant historiography on Indonesian colonial medicine with contemporary scholarly literature and field research on CLTS using case studies of a 1920s hookworm-eradication program funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, and the current World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, both in Java.

EVALUATIONS/LITERATURE REVIEWS

Evaluation of the WASH Sector Strategy “Community Approaches to Total Sanitation” (CATS), 2014. UNICEF. (Link)
In the context of the recent evolution of the sanitation sector, CATS can be seen in a twofold way: as a move from technically based, supply-driven approaches toward behavior change, demand-driven approaches; and also as a recognition of the centrality of the adoption of a new social norm around ending open defecation as a key issue to be addressed, with impact on and linkages with other sectors.

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Literature Review, 2012. V Venkataramanan. (Link)
This report presents findings from a systematic literature review conducted by The Water Institute at UNC as part of the Plan International USA project: “Testing Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Approaches for Scalability.” Despite widespread implementation of CLTS and many claims of success, no systematic review has been carried out on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. The objectives of the systematic review of the grey literature were to characterize the breadth of grey literature on CLTS and to describe the role of key internal actors—natural leaders, teachers, and local government—on sanitation and hygiene outcomes.

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Peace Corps Benin WASH Resources in French

WASHplus and Peace Corps/Benin have teamed up to produce a set of training and job aids for Peace Corps Volunteers and their counterparts.  Eventually, Peace Corps/Benin would like all volunteers serving in Benin to have some WASH training to integrate WASH into whatever their primary program focus is – education, health, environment.
wash_schools_toolkit-french2014-3

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Toolkit

- Part 1 - Boîte à Outils: Assainissement Total Pilote par la Communaute (ATPC), 2014. Cette boîte à outils soutient l’exécution de la méthode « Assainissement Total Piloté par le Communauté » (ATPC). Cette méthode est basée sur les activités qui permettent aux membres de la communauté de prendre conscience du fait que la défécation à l’air- libre est un risque sanitaire pour tout le monde.

- Part 2 - Le Manuel Pas a Pas, 2014.

Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage

- Part 1 - Boîte à Outils: Le Traitement de l’Eau et la Conservation Sûre, 2014. Avoir accès à l’eau potable est un élément important pour rester en bonne santé et éviter les maladies – spécifiquement les maladies diarrhéiques.

- Part 2 - Manuel de Formation des Comites de Gestion d’Eau Villageois, 2014. Les matières dans cette boîte à outils servent principalement à aider les personnes chargées de promouvoir le traitement de l’eau et la conservation au niveau des ménages.

WASH in Schools Toolkit

- Part 1 - Boîte à Outils: l’Eau, l’Hygiene et l’Assainissement (WASH) en Milieu Scolaire, 2014. Pour cela, nous avons développé cette boîte à outils pour les activités en vue de la promotion de l’eau, l’hygiène, et l’assainissement (dénommé WASH) en milieu scolaire. Cette boîte contient l’essentiel pour la réussite d’une gamme d’activités.

- Part 2 - Guide des Possibilites d’Assainissement en Milieu Scolaire: Options pour l’Amelioration de ‘Assainissement, 2014.

A Simple Yet Brilliant $1.50 Sanitation Idea

A Simple Yet Brilliant $1.50 Sanitation Idea - Made by the toilet manufacturer American Standard, this “trap door” seals off open pit latrines that are a major source of disease in the developing world.

This article discusses a sanitation solution by bathroom and kitchen fixture company American Standard. Funded by the  Gates Foundation, American Standard has developed a $1.50 latrine pan that cuts down on sanitation-related disease transmission by sealing off pit toilets. american_standard-sanitation

The $1.50 pan has been a hit in field trials in Bangladesh; in addition to being more sanitary, the pan also blocks off nasty smells from the latrine. While American Standard hoped to get the price down to a $1, McHale still believes the product is affordable.

So far, American Standard has sold close to 70,000 units in Bangladesh, and in 2013, the company donated 533,352 of the pans for distribution this year. The company is now thinking about how to launch the product in India. It’s also working on a design for Africa that uses less water.