Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, 11(9), 9694-9711; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694
Joshua V. Garn, Bethany A. Caruso, et al.
The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils’ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils’ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils’ use at specific facilities.
We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98).
Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.
USAID Deliver Project – Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker, 2014. (In English and French)
The USAID | DELIVER PROJECT has published a French language version of the Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker. This illustrated guide is now available in French and English.
This publication provides practical guidance for community health workers on how to safely handle and dispose of hazardous waste. It describes the basic principles of waste management and offers solutions for managing the waste generated from everyday activities carried out in the community.
In this catalogue you will find 27 business propositions from sanitation entrepreneur association APPSANI in Indonesia to ZanaAfrica sanitary pads in Kenya.
Together, they offer a variety of services and all of them are looking to consolidate or expand their business, and bring sanitation services to scale for customers at the Base of the Pyramid.
This catalogue was produced for the Sanitation Business Matchmaking event at the first World BoP Convention & Expo in Singapore, 28-30 of August 2014.
Each individual business sheet in this catalogue describes what the entrepreneur offers and what he is looking for.
Download the catalogue at:
Promoted as their best video of the day, the Guardian has produced a short video animation highlighting the plight of the 2.5 billion without a toilet.
More people have access to mobile phones than to bog-standard sanitation around the world. The numbers are actually quite close – both are around the 4.5bn mark. But the implications are clear: as a species, we value a text, a tweet, the incessant pulse of blinking pixels over one of our most basic sanitary needs: the loo.
Below are updates from Sanivation, check out the latest newsletter for more information on Sanivation projects and activities.
One thing we believe in our bones is the customer is king. Over the past couple months, we have been sharing meals, asking questions, and collecting feedback from customers on both toilets and fuel. We have captured some inspiring quotes and wanted to share them with you. This month we will be introducing each short update in this newsletter with a quote from one of our customers.
Learnings from Kakuma: “Two people came and commented positively on my new latrine. One person came, a Somali lady, and asked me if I could sell it to her.”
We’re currently processing (and soon to be publishing!) all of our learnings from Kakuma. From initial glances, the refugees were not only were satisfied but became promoters of the approach.After an initial review of feedback, we found that the refugees were not only satisfied but also became promoters of the approach. Already, one of our big lessons has been in the power of instituting quick feedback loops and a customer service approach to toilets. We feel honored to have worked with such great partners and are looking forward to continuing work with UNHCR, NRC, and CDC on how to bring this approach to even more refugees. The US Embassy Nairobi made an awesome video of our work. Check it out!
Composting latrine vs. flush toilet: A crowd-funded study | Source: by Rob Goodier, EngineeringForChange, Aug 2014 |
Excerpt: What we know is that composting toilets have clear ecological and economical advantages over flush toilets. They turn waste into compost, and the compost can fertilize crops, completing a circle of nutrients that saves soils and saves money. They save money in the costs of sewage and in fertilizer. Importantly, they also require much less water.
In this composting pit latrine design, when waste has filled the first pit, the latrine is moved over the second pit. The first pit converts to compost and can be emptied to fertilize fields. Credit: E4C Solutions Library
Those arguments for composting latrines are well documented and have been made for years, but how do they compare in hygiene and how do they fare within the cultures of the different people who use them? Do they limit the spread of disease as well as a flush system with a septic tank or a sewer might? And do they feel as comfortable for families to use? Are they as accessible? And are they really the most sustainable solution in global sanitation?
To answer these questions, Jeff Deal the director of health studies at the water and sanitation engineering non-profit Water Missions International, is raising money through the site that crowdfunds scientific research, experiment.com. The goal is $22,000, which Water Missions International will match to pay for the study.