Despite the widespread implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programs and many claims of success, there has been very little systematic investigation into their sustainability. A new study, which aims to change that, is creating a stir in the WASH sector.
A study commissioned by Plan International on the sustainability of CLTS programs in Africa revealed that 87% of the households still had a functioning latrine. This would indicate a remarkably low rate of reversion (13%) to open defecation (OD) or “slippage”.
However, if the criteria used to originally award open defecation free (ODF) status to villages are used, then the overall slippage rate increased dramatically to 92%. These criteria are:
- A functioning latrine with a superstructure
- A means of keeping flies from the pit (either water seal or lid)
- Absence of excreta in the vicinity of the house
- Hand washing facilities with water and soap or soap-substitute such as ash
- Evidence that the latrine and hand washing facilities were being used
Posted in Africa, Hygiene Promotion, Publications, Research, Sanitary Facilities
Tagged Community-Led Total Sanitation, Ethiopia, handwashing, Kenya, Plan International, Sierra Leone, slippage, Sustainability, Uganda
WSUP believes that the issue of gender inclusion is fundamental to effective WASH service provision. To mark International Women’s Day and to recognise the importance of this issue, we have produced a new Practice Note which provides a contextual background on gender issues in WASH, before illustrating what a gender-inclusive approach looks like in practice. This Practice Note is based on direct experience of communal sanitation in Maputo (Mozambique) and Naivasha (Kenya), and demonstrates how the concerns of women and girls can be addressed at every step of programme planning and implementation.
This is a free resource and is available for download by clicking on the image above or visiting our online resource library.
Posted in Africa, Publications, Resources, Sanitary Facilities, Uncategorized
Tagged communal sanitation, gender, inclusive sanitation, International Women's Day, Kenya, Maputo, Mozambique, Naivasha, sanitation, urban sanitation
Benin – Behaviour change, a must for improved sanitation | Source/complete article: Edmund Smith-Asante | Graphic.com – 21 February 2014
Excerpts - Benin’s Minister of Health, Professor Dorothéme Kinde Gazard, has called on African nations to lay emphasis on behaviour change communication, as it is the surest way to achieve improved sanitation.
Disclosing that 87 per cent of Africans were still engaged in open defecation, while only three out of 10 people washed their hands with soap, she stated, “So the challenge is also on behaviour change.”
Some of the participants at the Benin workshop.
The Health Minister therefore urged African countries to strike a balance between change in behaviour and the provision of sanitation facilities.
Governments’ Commitments to WASH
Professor Dorothéme Gazard made the statements when she addressed the opening of a three-day regional workshop on “Advocacy, Communications and Monitoring of [water, sanitation and hygiene] WASH Commitments” for selected journalists, in Cotonou on Tuesday.
August 2014: Urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) with walls made of old beer cans (Botswana). Photo: Stefanie Lorenz, Sept 2009
A toilet made from beer cans (August) and Mahatma Gandhi’s toilet (September) are both featured in defeatDD’s 2014 “Places We Go” toilet calender. You can download and print the calendar for free. All the entries submitted to the “Places We Go” contest are on Pinterest.
defeatDD.org was launched in 2009 alongside a Call to Action against diarrhoeal disease by international nonprofit PATH.
. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People
Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report , WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.
The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are:
- Think like a business
- Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs
- Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market
- Track progress and lessons
The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant.
Read the full report
 Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation : a synthesis of Water For People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO,USA: Water For People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitation-microfinance.pdf>
Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013
Posted in Africa, Funding, Latin America & Caribbean, Publications, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia
Tagged Bolivia, finance, Guatemala, India, Malawi, microfinance, Peru, Rwanda, Sanitation as a business, Uganda, Water for People
The Tiger Roars: New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good! | Complete article/source: USAID Development Innovation Ventures
Excerpts – DIV is delighted to announce a new Stage 1 award of over $170,000 to Bear Valley Ventures Ltd to conduct a field trial of the Tiger Toilet in India, Uganda, and Burma. The Tiger Toilet is a latrine system that has the potential to be an affordable, compact, and superior alternative to pit latrines and septic tanks. It harnesses the capabilities of composting worms such as the Tiger Worm (Eisenia fetida), to digest the solids within the system, making it very compact and particularly suitable to high density urban environments.
The project aims to address the global challenge of providing access to adequate sanitation; worldwide, over 4 billion people currently use latrines that can be unpleasant and unhygienic or lack sanitation provisions entirely. Sewered systems will never be a reality for many around the world; therefore an on-site (i.e. a system that does not require piping the waste off-site for treatment) option is needed. Presently the best on-site option is a septic tank, which is often financially out of reach.
Walter Gibson, Director of Bear Valley Ventures, adds that “Vast numbers of people in the world have to put up with inadequate sanitation every day of their lives. It’s imperative that we develop better, more affordable solutions that address their needs and aspirations for a decent toilet. We believe the Tiger Toilet represents one such option. We are very grateful to USAID for this support which allows us to test its potential.”
The Tiger Toilet is linked to a normal pour flush system, so the user experience is therefore the same as using a septic tank or a pour flush latrine. The waste then enters a tank which contains the worms and a drainage layer. The solids are trapped at the top of the system where the worms consume it, and the liquid is filtered through the drainage layer. Extensive laboratory scale trials found that the worms reduce the solids in the system by above 80%, and the effluent quality is higher than that from a septic tank. An initial prototype has been running at the Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales, UK for over a year.
No shame in a simple pit latrine - Complete article/source – Diane Coffey, RICE Institute, Dec 11 2013.
Excerpts - Today I just want to take a couple of minutes to share a short story about a modest pit latrine. Amit and I were doing an interview for the quantitative survey with an older man in Rewari block. He answered our questions kindly and patiently, but when we got to the section in which Amit was supposed to observe the man’s latrine, the man said it not at the house (it is common in Rewari for people to built latrines on the plot of land where they keep their animals). I told Amit to finish the interview and that we’d fill in that section later. When we finished the interview, we again asked to see the latrine, asking whether there was a child from the house who could take us to the plot.
The man looked uncomfortable and said that that would not work. We suggested we could find our way ourselves, and he said no, so we gave up.Why would the older man be ashamed of his latrine in a place where so many people practice open defecation?
Well, in Haryana, people tend to build extremely fancy latrines, or none at all. The fancy latrines have water seals that prevent bad smells and in many cases flush tanks – we even saw latrines equipped with both a western toilet seat and an Indian one.
Complete article/source - Diane Coffey, RICE Institute, Dec 11 2013.