Category Archives: Sanitation and Health

Rose George – What is life like when your period means you are shunned by society?

What is life like when your period means you are shunned by society? by Rose George, WaterAid Blog, July 2014 |

Journalist Rose George reports on her visit to WaterAid Nepal, where she saw the impact of menstrual taboos on women and girls.

Excerpts – For Radha dinner is served at 7. She crouches down behind a shed, a good distance from her house, then waits.

She knows what the menu will be: boiled rice, the same as yesterday and the day before. She knows that it will be her little sister who serves it, throwing the rice onto her plate from a height, the way you would feed a dog.

Radha Bishwa Karma serving food behind the toilet. Credit: WaterAid/Poulomi Basu

Radha Bishwa Karma serving food behind the toilet.
Credit: WaterAid/Poulomi Basu

In Jamu, Radha’s village in western Nepal, her status is lower than a dog’s, because she is menstruating.

She is only 16, yet, for the length of her period, Radha can’t enter her house or eat anything but boiled rice. She can’t touch other women – not even her grandmother or sister – because her touch will pollute them. If she touches a man or a boy, he will start shivering and sicken.

If she eats butter or buffalo milk, the buffalo will sicken too and stop milking. If she enters a temple or worships at all, her gods will be furious and take their revenge, by sending snakes or some other calamity.

Here, menstruation is dirty, and a menstruating girl is a powerful, polluting thing. A thing to be feared and shunned.

 

Deprived of water and sanitation in Gaza

We don’t want another catastrophe besides the one we already have. Fatma (43) mother of 9 children

Since the start of the Israeli assault on Gaza on 7 July 2014, codenamed “Protective Edge”, the water and wastewater infrastructure in Gaza has been heavily affected by Israeli airstrikes and shelling.

Main water supply and wastewater as well as electricity infrastructure has been hit. As a result services have been cut or severely disrupted, affecting the entire population in Gaza.

Up to 25 per cent of Gaza’s population were displaced. The 1.8 million people in Gaza, living in homes and shelters have extremely restricted access to water and sanitation.

Fatma, 45, was displaced with her family and sought shelter at a school in Ash Shuja’iyeh. She speaks in a Thirsting for Justice campaign video about the problems with water, sanitation and hygiene that her family faces amongst the many other displaced.

Photo: EWASH

Thirsting for Justice is an initiative of EWASH, the Emergency Water Sanitation and Hygiene group in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Cholera and Ebola Outbreaks

Issue 157 | August 8, 2014 | Focus on Disease Outbreaks

This issue highlights recent alerts, news and publications on cholera and Ebola outbreaks. On August 1, 2014, WHO published its latest statistics on the number of cholera cases and cholera-related deaths in 2013. In 2013, there was a 47% decrease in the number of cases reported compared to 2012 and this is the second consecutive year in which reported cholera era cases declined. Resources on the Ebola outbreaks include WHO alerts, a WHO fact sheet, recent newspaper articles and reports on the One Health approach, which investigates human, animal, and environmental interconnectedness and its impact on health.

CHOLERA NEWS/OUTBREAK ALERTS

Recent Newspaper Articles on Outbreaks – Cameroon – Aug 6, 2014 | Ghana – Aug 4, 2014 | South Sudan – July 30, 2014 | Vietnam – Aug 6 2014 |

CHOLERA STATISTICS/FACT SHEETS

Cholera Fact Sheet, 2014. World Health Organization. (Link)
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Every year, there are an estimated 3–5 million cholera cases and 100,000–120,000 deaths due to cholera. The short incubation period of two hours to five days enhances the potentially explosive pattern of outbreaks.

USAID-IWASH Ebola Preparedness Response

USAID-IWASH Ebola Preparedness Response

Cholera in 2013. Weekly Epidem Rec, Aug 2014. WHO. (Link)
In 2013, 47 countries reported a total of 129,064 cases of cholera including 2102 deaths, giving a case-fatality rate of 1.63%. This represents a decrease of 47% in the number of cases reported compared to 2012 and this is the second consecutive year in which reported cholera era cases declined.

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The Bangladesh Paradox: exceptional health and sanitation advances despite poverty

Dr. Mushtaque Chowdhury from BRAC on the Bangladesh public health miracle, aid or trade, arsenic, floating latrines and the post-2015 development agenda.

Dr. Mushtaque Chowdhury from BRAC presents the "Bangladesh Paradox", International Water House, The Hague, Yje Netherlaands, 30 July 2014

Dr. Mushtaque Chowdhury from BRAC presents the “Bangladesh Paradox”, International Water House, The Hague, The Netherlands, 30 July 2014

By Cor Dietvorst and Vera van der Grift, IRC
Originally posted on the IRC web site, 01 August 2014

Bangladesh has made tremendous progress in the fields of health and sanitation. With a population of 149 million, it now has the highest life expectancy; the lowest fertility rate and the lowest mortality rate of children under five in South Asia (excepting Sri Lanka), although it spends less on health care than most neighbouring countries. Only 10% of the population in Bangladesh practices Open Defecation (OD) compared to 50% in India.

It is one of only six countries that are on track to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on reducing child mortality and improving maternal health.

Emerging from the war of liberation in 1971, Bangladesh embraced a new more liberal identity, which manifested itself in a change in societal attitudes towards women, and girls’ education in particular.

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WaterAid – Assessing the water, sanitation and hygiene needs of people living with HIV and AIDS in Papua New Guinea

Assessing the water, sanitation and hygiene needs of people living with HIV and AIDS in Papua New Guinea, 2014. WaterAid.

The research revealed that people living with HIV in PNG have increased needs for WASH, and that these needs are not being adequately met. Stigma and discrimination were found to be barriers to access to WASH for respondents and their families. In addition, this study identified priority areas for service providers to direct future activities and best integrate WASH into programming for people living with HIV. Priority areas include hygiene education, safe treatment and storage of water, self-treatment for diarrhoea, latrine construction, and education around the transmission of HIV.

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, 2nd Edition

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies 2nd Edition, 2014. IWA; EAWAG.

Authors: E. Tilley, et al. eawag

This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into one concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions.

  • Part 1 describes different system configurations for a variety of contexts.
  • Part 2 consists of 57 different technology information sheets, which describe the main advantages, disadvantages, applications and the appropriateness of the technologies required to build a comprehensive sanitation system. Each technology information sheet is complemented by a descriptive illustration.
Download the English 2nd Edition
Download the 1st Edition

 

Water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition: successes, challenges, and implications for integration

Water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition: successes, challenges, and implications for integration. Int J Public Health, 2014 Jul 11.

Authors: Teague J, Johnston EA, P Graham J.
Author email: jteague@washadvocates.org

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the integration of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and nutrition programming for improved child health outcomes and aims to identify barriers to and necessary steps for successful integration.

METHODS: Sixteen semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from both the WASH and nutrition sectors, exploring barriers to integration and potential steps to more effectively integrate programs.

RESULTS: Key barriers included insufficient and siloed funding, staff capacity and interest, knowledge of the two sectors, coordination, and limited evidence on the impact of integrated programs. To achieve more effective integration, respondents highlighted the need for more holistic strategies that consider both sectors, improved coordination, donor support and funding, a stronger evidence base for integration, and leadership at all levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Organizations desiring to integrate programs can use these results to prepare for challenges and to know what conditions are necessary for successfully integrated programs. Donors should encourage integration and fund operational research to improve the efficiency of integration efforts. Knowledge among sectors should be shared and incentives should be designed to facilitate better coordination, especially where both sectors are working toward common goals.