12th Specialised Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems and 4th Specialised Conference on Resource Oriented Sanitation
02-04 November 2014, Muscat, Oman
Organised by: International Water Association (IWA)
Small water and wastewater treatment plants play an important role in the management of water quality in rural and small communities to treat their domestic and industrial effluents. Resource oriented sanitation concepts promote ecologically socially and economically sound approaches.
Below is a link to Darren Saywell’s presentation to the USAID Sanitation Working Group on December 12, 2012.
- Urban Frontiers for Sanitation Programs - Time to Get Real or Time to Get Really Worried?
- How urban sanitation is different
- The gap in urban sanitation
- What’s new and different?
- Community-Led Total Sanitation
- And more
The study presented in October through the blog post: “Fecal Sludge Management: A smelly but fruitful business”, is now available.
The study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and is entitled “Business analysis of fecal sludge management: emptying and transportation services in Africa and Asia”. The purpose of the study is to analyse the fecal sludge management (FSM) sector and its operating models in 30 cities across 10 countries. 2.1 billion people in urban centres use non-piped sanitation facilities and unavoidably require the emptying of fecal sludge (see picture below). Mismanagement of FSM represents a serious threat to public health and the environment.
The study also aims at filling the important information gaps on this business sector, which is often unregulated and leads to situations where households pay excessive fees for these services or are compelled to undertake emptying manually exposing themselves to serious health hazards.
Chowdhry, S. and Kone, D., 2012. Business analysis of fecal sludge management : emptying and transportation services in Africa and Asia. Seattle, WA, USA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 116 p.; 47 fig.; 22 tab. With bibliography p. 115-116
Available at: <http://www.washdoc.info/docsearch/title/179741>
By Pascal B. Garde, Consultant, WASH Policy and Governance, @GardePascal
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre announces a renewed research call for:
Faecal sludge secondary treatment technologies for challenging settings
This call is part of the BRAC WASH II programme in which EUR 1.5 million will be used for innovative research, tendered to consortia of leading European and Bangladeshi research organisations.
The planned duration of the faecal sludge research project will be 18 months.
The anticipated cost of the project is EUR 325,000. In addition there is EUR 50,000 available for piloting. (Separate budget needs to be included for this).
To download the guidelines and application form go to: www.irc.nl/page/73136
The deadline for submission of full proposal application forms is: 11 January 2013.
Future research calls will focus on low-cost water supply technologies; Geo-referenced database for monitoring; menstrual hygiene management; and saline intrusion.
Please do not send requests for information or applications to the Sanitation Updates blog.
Getting ready to access the pit for emptying, eThekwini , South Africa. Photo: Elisabeth von Muench, SuSanA
Since many experts believe that flush toilets and sewerage are unaffordable for the large majority urban and rural communities, faecal sludge management (FSM) is seen as a key link to up-scaling sanitation.
But do we need to reinvent the toilet or invent a sanitation industry? That was the concluding thought of Water for People’s Steven Sugden, one of the 100 or so presenters at the Second International Faecal Sludge Management conference (FSM2). Looking at all the presentations, the impression you get is that we need both better technologies and better business models.
FSM2 ook place in Durban, South Africa from 29-31 October 2012. The conference was structured around the following themes:
- On-site Sanitation as a Business
- Socio-political Aspects of On-site Sanitation
- Understanding On-site Sanitation
- Toilet Design for FSM Optimisation
- Pit Emptying – What are the Options?
- The How of Faecal Sludge Treatment
- Waste Not Want Not – Beneficial Use of Faecal Sludges
- Technology and Innovation
- Health Aspects of Faecal Sludges
All the presentations are available on the SuSanA website.
Kigali Eco-Toilet. Photo: Eugene Dusingizumuremyi / SuSanA
The capital city of Rwanda has turned a delay in funding into an opportunity to revise its plans so that more areas get connected to a new centralised sewerage system. Construction of a US$ 70 million wastewater treatment plant in Giti Cyinyoni, Nyarugenge District, was due to start in 2012 but has been delayed by one year.
The lack of a centralised sewage system in Kigali (pop. 1 million) has been forcing real estate developers to provide onsite sewerage systems for new housing units. Schools, hospitals and other public buildings are already required by law to have their own sewerage systems. In future all these onsite systems will be connected to the new centralised system.
In 2008, according to a survey, 80% of the people in Kigali still used pit latrines . These have proved to be not only hard to maintain, but also expensive to manage in the long run. That’s why the city council recently passed a bylaw that instructs developers to install flush toilets connected to septic tanks.
 Hohne, A., 2011. State and drivers of change of Kigali’s sanitation : a demand perspective : paper presented at the East Africa practioners workshop on pro-poor urban sanitation and hygiene, Laico Umbano Hotel, Kigali, Rwanda, March 29th – 31st 2011 . [online] The Hague, The Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. Available at: <http://www.irc.nl/page/64586>
Related website: Kigali City – Water and Sanitation Programmes
- Susan Babijja, City Council reviews sewage management plan, New Times, 26 Oct 2012
- Rwanda: Kigali sewage system delayed by funds, Rwanda Express / allAfrica.com, 14 Jun 2012
- Eric Didier Karinganire, Sewage in Kigali still an issue of concern, Rwanda Focus, 09 Apr 2012
Today, 2.1 billion people in urban areas use non-sewered (or on-site) sanitation facilities. While much of the work in rural areas is focused on creating and sustaining open defecation free communities and generating demand for communities to construct toilets, the downstream activities of collecting and transporting fecal sludge present a unique challenge for urban residents. These services are mostly provided by private operators, and are generally uncontrolled and unregulated. The inadequate disposal of fecal sludge in the environment represents a direct threat to public health and negates the positive outcomes from behavioral change and improvements in sanitation access.
The urban population in developing countries, and in particular the poor, rely on fecal sludge collection and transportation services that are often not affordable. In addition, pit emptying is often done by hand, exposing the operators to serious health risks (see figure below). Often mechanical emptiers, using vacuum trucks, charge excessive fees to customers but do not pay taxes or comply with laws and standards due to a general lack of regulation for these services. This makes it a highly profitable business. For example an emptying service provider in Abuja makes US$ 15,000 per month.
Manual emptier in Senegal, also called Baay Pelles