Category Archives: East Asia & Pacific

How and Why Countries are Changing to Reach Universal Access in Rural Sanitation by 2030

How and Why Countries are Changing to Reach Universal Access in Rural Sanitation by 2030 | SOURCE: Eddy Perez, The Water Blog, July 2014.

In this article Eddy Perez discusses how many countries have started working to achieve the goal of universal access to improved sanitation by taking steps to make the transformational changes needed to stop doing “business as usual” in their sanitation programs. 690

He provides several examples of what countries are doing to achieve this. One method is that governments are establishing a shared vision and strategy for rural sanitation among key government and development partner stakeholders by building on evidence from at-scale pilots that serve as policy learning laboratories.

Governments are  also partnering with the private sector to increase the availability of sanitation products and services that respond to consumer preferences and their willingness and ability to pay for them and are also working to improve the adequacy of arrangements for financing the programmatic costs.

He then writes about specific sanitation progress in Indonesia, Kenya and Tanzania. In Tanzania, one of the key interventions through which the government of Tanzania is expected to achieve its sanitation vision and targets is the National Sanitation Campaign (NSC).  The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare coordinates the implementation of the National Sanitation Campaign with funding from the Water Sector Development Program.  There have also been efforts to further strengthen and sustain the NSC structure by establishing linkages to other sectors experts and also getting the Ministry of Health to dedicate a budget line for community sanitation. The Water Basket is the main financing mechanism for community sanitation and hygiene in Tanzania. In the Water Basket, there is a clear budget line for sanitation.

 

You too can become a poo!

Miraikan-Toilet-Exhibition-logo

You can dress up as a poo and get flushed down a gigantic toilet in Tokyo’s Miraikan science museum. The toilet is the centre piece of an exhibition on human excrement and the search for the ideal loo. At the end of the exhibition, visitors are thanked by a choir of toilets.

Children climbing into giant toilet

Photo: Japan Times

The exhibition, sponsored by the LIXIL Corporation, runs from 2 July until 5 October 2014 and costs 1200 yen (around US$ 11 ).

Web site: Miraikan – Special Exhibition “Toilet!? – Human Waste & Earth’s Future” English | Japanese

 

Solid Waste Management in the Pacific

Tibar dumpsite, Timor-Leste

Tibar dumpsite, Timor-Leste. Photo: M. Iyer/ADB

The Asian Development Bank has published a series of snapshots of the solid waste management situation in each of ADB’s 14 Pacific developing member countries. The series assesses solutions and challenges associated with the management of solid waste in the region, with a focus on financing, institutional arrangements and solid waste management technologies.

The series is one of the outputs of a US$ 450,000 ADB techical assistance project 45051-001, which aimed to improve the delivery of solid waste management in the Pacific region.

Overview reports

Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Appropriate Technologies June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Financial Arrangements June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Institutional Arrangements June 2014

Country snapshots

Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Cook Islands Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Fiji Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Kiribati Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: The Marshall Islands Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: The Federated States of Micronesia Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Nauru Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Palau Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Papua New Guinea Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Samoa Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Solomon Islands Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Timor-Leste Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Tonga Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Tuvalu Country Snapshot June 2014
Solid Waste Management in the Pacific: Vanuatu Country Snapshot June 2014

Market solutions to Cambodia’s toilet troubles

Sanitation marketing in Cambodia.

Sanitation marketing in Cambodia. Photo: WaterSHED

At the current rate of 1.3% increase in latrine coverage per year it will take Cambodia 60 years to become Open Defecation Free (ODF).  Using market-based approaches, the WaterSHED programme has manged to achieve a 7% annual increase in coverage in the districts where it is active, according to IRIN.

WaterSHED has helped to bring down the price of toilets from between US$ 250 and US$ 400 to a much more affordable US$ 45. This has resulted in the sale of 75,000 toilets in 59 of Cambodia’s 171 districts over the past four years.

Rath Chan Thin, a toilet salesperson in Kompong Chhnang province said in the past she would sell no more than 25 toilets a year.

“Now people buy the toilets. In the last year, I have sold 650 toilets,” she said, pointing to her dip in price and community sales events that bring suppliers and local residents together for toilet product demonstrations.

WaterSHED regional program manager Geoff Revell says that fair prices and access to credit in combination with targeted subsidies for the very poor, is the way forward to scale-up toilet construction.

But what happens when the toilet pits are full? The WaterSHED programme does not appear to deal the full sanitation chain. Developing market-based approaches for faecal sludge management services in Cambodia and Viet Nam, where WaterSHED is also active, would seem a logical next step.

Related websites:

 

 

Source: Market solutions to Cambodia’s toilet troubles, IRIN, 5 Jun 2014

Garbage clinical insurance wins sustainability entrepreneur prize

Garbage Clinical Insurance: Young Indonesian Doctor Receives Award From Prince of Wales | Source/complete article – Establishment Post, Feb 12, 2014.

Excerpts – Gamal Albinsaid, a young Indonesian doctor, has recently been awarded the inaugural “Prince of Wales Young Sustainability Entrepreneur Prize” from the Prince of Wales. He was given the award during a dinner reception at the Buckingham Palace at the end of January. His innovative project helps the poorest communities gain access to health services and education through the collection and recycling of garbage called the Garbage Clinical Insurance enterprise.

Photo: Courtesy of Indonesia Medika/Gamal Albinsaid Mr Gamal Albinsaid received his award from HRH Prince of Wales during a dinner reception at the Buckingham palace  at the end of January 2014.

Photo: Courtesy of Indonesia Medika/Gamal Albinsaid
Mr Gamal Albinsaid received his award from HRH Prince of Wales during a dinner reception at the Buckingham palace at the end of January 2014.

Mr Albinsaid, currently the chief executive officer (CEO) of Indonesia Medika, is the Founder of the Indonesian social enterprise Garbage Clinical Insurance (GCI). He was inspired to set up the micro-insurance programme to empower people to take an active role in managing their waste while improving their sanitation.

The 24-year-old doctor set up the initiative in 2009 when he was still a medical student at the Brawijaya University in Malang, East Java province. Mr Albinsaid was saddened upon hearing the death of a three year old child from diarrhea because the parents could not afford to take the child to any clinic for help.

The GCI has help communities in need turn in their household waste into something that could improve their health.

The scheme provides insurance to members of the clinic in return for their garbage.  Every weekend, members bring their organic and non-organic waste to a collection point near the clinic to be directly processed and sold.

Afterward, collected garbage is processed into money considered as “health fund premium” for all members.

WSP promoted CLTS approach in Indonesia criticised

A highly critical article in Development and Change argues that the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, which the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has promoted in Indonesia, is not only “inadequate” but also “echoes coercive, race-based colonial public health practices”.

Susan Engel

Dr Susan Engel, University of Wollongong, Australis

Authors Dr Susan Engel and Anggun Susilo reveal striking similarities between developments in Indonesian sanitation in the 1920s and the 1990s. In both eras the focus changed from “the provision of hardware to […] participation and social mobilization” to encourage “individuals and communities to construct and maintain their own sanitation facilities”.

In the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation led the change, 70 years later it was WSP. In both cases the approaches are said to have met resistance because they were coercive and humiliating for the poorest, who also had to pay for latrines they couldn’t really afford.

Engel and Susilo found no evidence that the CLTS approach in Indonesia was sustainable. They conclude that government involvement, not just self-help CLTS approaches, is essential for successful sanitation.

Engel, S, and Susilo, A., 2014. Shaming and sanitation in Indonesia : a return to colonial public health practices?. Development and change, 45, 1, pp. 157-178. DOI: 10.1111/dech.12075

See also:

  • India, Madhya Pradesh: sanitation campaign humiliates women, say critics, Sanitation Updates, 24 Dec 2014
  • WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Sanitation Updates, 13 Dec 2013
  • Topic: CLTS and human rights: Should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?, SuSanA Forum

 

WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation

Issue 126 December 13, 2013 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation

This issue updates the May 2013 Weekly on CLTS with more recent reports and other resources. Included are presentations from a sanitation workshop in Benin, reviews of CLTS successes and shortcomings, a UNICEF overview of CLTS in Asia and the Pacific, a video on school-led total sanitation in Nepal, among others. weekly

REVIEWS

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Literature Review (Grey Literature), 2012. V Venkataramanan. (Full text)
This study presents findings from a systematic literature review on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. This document was prepared by The Water Institute at UNC for Plan International USA as part of the project Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Community-Led Total Sanitation in Africa: Helpdesk Report, 2013. Health & Education Advice & Resource Team (HEART). (Full text)
Decreases in diarrhea, cholera, and skin infections were the main health outcomes reported in this study. However, methodological weaknesses, including the lack of clarity around the proportions of the population exposed before and after implementation of CLTS to these conditions, made it challenging to determine the quality of the evidence presented.

The Cost of a Knowledge Silo: A Systematic Re-Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions, 2013. M Loevinsohn. (Full text)
The health impacts of CLTS have yet to be comprehensively assessed, although it is evident that people realize a range of benefits such as dignity, privacy, security—especially for women—and a clean environment, which they may value more than protection from infection.

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