Handwashing Promotion: Monitoring and Evaluation Module, 2013. UNICEF.
Prepared by Jelena Vujcic, MPH and Pavani K. Ram, MD, University at Buffalo.
This guide will walk you through planning and implementing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for your handwashing promotion programme. Programmes that promote handwashing are diverse and vary in scope. The content of this module is designed to be adapted to a variety of programmes. In this guide, you will be introduced to:
- The 7 major steps of monitoring and evaluating handwashing promotion.
- Choosing indicators appropriate to the programme’s objectives.
- Collecting the necessary data, and sample questions for indicators relevant to handwashing advocacy, education and behaviour change.
- Health impact measurement and caveats for the inclusion of health impact assessment as part of an M&E plan.
Monitor Deloitte has estimated that the demand for rural toilets in India could be worth INR 500-700 billion (US$ 10-14 billion), with an INR 300-450 billion (US$ 6-9 billion) financing opportunity. This is one of key key highlights from their recent white paper.
Photo: Monitor Deloitte
The paper identified two main types of business models to deliver rural toilets: the Do It Yourself (DIY) model and a Turnkey Solution Provider (TSP) model. Both models require a central player or ‘market maker’ to conduct market-building activities to get the models started. Organisations such as NGOs, microfinance institution (MFIs) and cement companies can play this role, while the Government has a key role in facilitating the development of the sanitation market.
The Government of India has approved funding of over US$ 4 billion for rural sanitation, but less than 60% of these funds have been used, the paper says. Census data indicates that many of these Government supported toilets may be non-existent or not-in-use.
Research by Monitor Deloitte in the Indian state of Bihar showed 84% of households surveyed in rural Bihar indicated their desire for a toilet and 38% of these households had actually researched available product options. Safety of women, convenience and privacy as opposed to health were key drivers.
Deloitte is organising a series of open conference calls to discuss their findings on the following dates:
- February 12, 10am IST
- February 25, 10am IST
- March 5, 9:30am IST
- March 13, 9:30pm IST
Please request RSVPs to firstname.lastname@example.org for more information and materials for the call.
August 2014: Urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) with walls made of old beer cans (Botswana). Photo: Stefanie Lorenz, Sept 2009
A toilet made from beer cans (August) and Mahatma Gandhi’s toilet (September) are both featured in defeatDD’s 2014 “Places We Go” toilet calender. You can download and print the calendar for free. All the entries submitted to the “Places We Go” contest are on Pinterest.
defeatDD.org was launched in 2009 alongside a Call to Action against diarrhoeal disease by international nonprofit PATH.
. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People
Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report , WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.
The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are:
- Think like a business
- Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs
- Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market
- Track progress and lessons
The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant.
Read the full report
 Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation : a synthesis of Water For People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO,USA: Water For People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitation-microfinance.pdf>
Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013
Posted in Africa, Funding, Latin America & Caribbean, Publications, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia
Tagged Bolivia, finance, Guatemala, India, Malawi, microfinance, Peru, Rwanda, Sanitation as a business, Uganda, Water for People
Monitor Inclusive Markets, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, has written a white paper titled “A Market Led, Evidence Based Approach to Rural Sanitation” on supply side market-based approaches to scale rural sanitation in India, based mainly on findings from the PSI-led “Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements” (3SI) project in Bihar and supplemented by additional investigation of interventions in other parts of India.
The white paper explains that demand for toilets does exist in rural India, and the availability of quality and affordable products as well as financing are key levers to unlocking this demand. It goes on to propose business models that could profitably deliver solutions that meet customer needs, and highlights players in the sanitation ecosystem who could serve as the “market maker,” conducting market-building activities and creating an enabling environment for growth.
Please visit www.inclusive-markets.org/sanitation to see a more complete set of outputs from the 3SI project as well as annexures to the white paper providing overviews of some organizations already delivering sanitation solutions or providing sanitation financing in rural India.
More attention should be given to the assessment of nutrition practices when assessing the impact of WASH on the health of school children. We also don’t know enough about the long term impact of WASH interventions on child health. These are some of the conclusions that researchers from the Center for Global Health and Development at the the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) drew from a review of the literature .
Dr. Ashish Joshi and research assistant Chioma Amadi reviewed the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. For their final analysis they selected 15 peer-reviewed English-language studies published between 2009 and 2012 that focused on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children.
India, urban sanitation, and the toilet challenge, 2013.
Elledge, M.F., McClatchey, M. RTI International.
This research brief builds upon a literature review and stakeholder interviews in India on urban sanitation to examine the public policy landscape for sanitation innovation in the country. India ranks low in terms of sanitation coverage; the country experiences very high rates of open defecation and significant use of unimproved toilets. The majority of fecal sludge goes untreated into waterways in urban areas. India’s demographic trends show rapid urban growth, both geographically and in terms of population, which is also expanding the gap in access to improved sanitation in urban areas. Adequate government funding and policy implementation is lacking.
The past focus on centralized sewerage systems and simple on-site sanitation is not an acceptable default option, nor is it technically feasible or financially viable given growth patterns. Groundbreaking new technology, management, and operational models are required to solve the sanitation challenge at scale. Recent attention from the donor community, the private sector, and others brings focus to using innovation to solve the sanitation challenge. This review highlights that urban sanitation is under-researched. More work is required to spur funding, inform technology development, and support the policy-enabling environment for bringing in new approaches to improved urban sanitation.
Substantial local government investment is essential for sustainable services, but difficult to achieve. Barriers include institutional lack of clarity over responsibilities (particularly in sanitation provision), weak capacity to collect and manage revenues, unpredictable transfers from national to local government, and a lack of data on past spending and its effectiveness. This Practice Note looks at some ways in which WSUP and Water For People are working to strengthen this link in the investment chain.