- Nice and quick overview about CW's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: AquaVerde December 19, 2014Advanced Treatment Wetlands: A 4 th Generation Technology David Austin, P.E. North American Wetland Engineering White Bear Lake, Minnesota, U.S.A. www.jlakes.org/web/FourthGenerationWetlands.pdf to my surprise: "...The first engineered treatment wetland design is found in a 1901 United States patent. Although the patent is surprisingly sophisticated, no […]
- Thematic Discussion Series coming to the SuSanA Forum! - by: secretariat December 19, 2014The SuSanA Secretariat would like to announce the introduction of an exciting new initiative on the SuSanA Forum in the New Year: the Thematic Discussion Series. ANNOUNCEMENT: NEW SUSANA INITIATIVE From the recent Forum Survey (question 23, forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-gen...2&start=12#10938) 74% percent suggested that structured discussions, and […]
- Our Sanitation Highlights in 2014 - and what are yours? - by: secretariat December 19, 2014Dear all, 2014 has indeed been a productive year for SuSanA and the SuSanA secretariat! Let's look back in time for this year's highlights: Second Phase of BMGF Grant for co-funding the SuSanA forum, new front door and project database (the latter is brand new, hasn't even been advertised yet) For more information on each of these, see: www.fo […]
- Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: sharadaprasad December 19, 2014Hello all, I am trying to estimate the concentration of pathogens in untreated (fresh from the septic tank) septage. I could find papers that estimate the pathogen concentration in treated sludge but not in fresh septage. Many papers acknowledge the lack of data related to the biological characteristics of fecal sludge (data related to physical and chemical […]
- Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: Marijn Zandee December 19, 2014Dear Elisabeth, Thanks for giving my post a second life. Regarding the household scale biogas in Nepal. Many plants that are being build these days have toilets attached. And I must say that I do wonder sometimes about the potential for spreading pathogens that this poses. If we really consider this, I think once more we will come down to the discussion whet […]
- Nice and quick overview about CW's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: AquaVerde December 19, 2014
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Category Archives: Research
In Sub-Saharan Africa sanitation needs of the majority of the urban population are met by onsite sanitation technologies such as pit latrines. As part of the SPLASH sanitation research programme the FaME (Faecal Management Enterprises) and U-ACT Project researched innovative solutions to increase access to sustainable sanitation services. Building on this research Sandec/Eawag has recently started the SEEK Project (Sludge to Energy Enterprises) researching co-processing of faecal sludge and other urban waste streams into fuel pellets and with these electricity through gasification.
Published on Sep 12, 2014 -“Behind The Data: The People Who Make Research Happen” is a short documentary, highlighting the work that was done in rural communities by the people who were instrumental in collecting and recording data for a sanitation-based research project. We aim to show the fundamental value of each person’s role in achieving the ultimate research objectives.
Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility
Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8319-8346.
Marion W. Jenkins 1,2,*, Matthew C. Freeman 3 and Parimita Routray 2
1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA
2 Environmental Health Group, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
3 Department of Environmental Health, Rollings School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Abstract: Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility.
The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine.
The iDE Sanitation Marketing Scale Up (SMSU) project operates in seven Cambodian provinces. It started with a pilot project in 2009 and scaling-up began in September 2011. So far total latrine sales including the pilot is 118,000.
The average latrine coverage in the seven provinces where the project is taking place inceased by 11% to 40% over the two years since scale up began. Coverage for the poor increased 6% overall. In Kandal province alone, 18% of project-linked sales went to poor households, nearly doubling poor coverage in that province from 15% to 29%.
The three-year SMSU project is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Stone Family Foundation, and technically supported by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of the World Bank. The project is supported by the Ministry of Rural Development.
For every latrine sold through a small business trained by iDE, another latrine is sold through a non-connected business, creating a ripple effect. The average latrine sells for US$ 41.50.
Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes. PLoS One, April 2014.
Authors: Marieke Heijnen, Oliver Cumming, Rachel Peletz, Gabrielle Ka-Seen Chan, Joe Brown, Kelly Baker, Thomas Clasen.
Background: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines.
Methods and Findings: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18–1.76).
Conclusion: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.
A team at the University of Delaware has received US$ 250,000 in additional funding to continue its research on “breathable membrane” linings for pit latrines.
The breathable fabric helps to prevent groundwater pollution, while also protecting sanitation workers from exposure to pathogens. Heat from biodegradation of the feces or from the sun gradually expels water vapour, but prevents the escape of particulate or dissolved constituents.
The first phase of the research (November 2011 – October 2013) was funded through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Grand Challenges Explorations Fund.
Dentel is piloting the membrane technology in the slums of Kanpur, India, in collaboration with WaterAid. He wants to get them in place before the beginning of the rainy season in June. Since the membrane is reusable, the cost of using susch a sophisticated technology can be reduced.
At the same time, Dentel is working with UD engineering colleagues Daniel Cha and Paul Imhoff to apply the technology in wastewater treatment facilities in the USA and South Korea.
For more information you can follow and take part in a discussion about the research with Prof Dentel on the SuSan Forum.
Source: Karen B. Roberts, Bacteria fighting fabric, UDaily, 17 Apr 2014