Validity of Rapid Measures of Handwashing Behavior: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Impact Evaluations

Validity of Rapid Measures of Handwashing Behavior: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Impact Evaluations in the Global Scaling Up
Handwashing Project, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program.

Authors: Pavani K. Ram, Michelle W. Sahli, Benjamin Arnold, John M. Colford, Claire Chase, Bertha Briceño, Alexandra Orsola-Vidal, and Paul Gertler

This multicountry analysis has shown that observation of handwashing materials at the places where people wash hands, at the times most necessary for washing (after fecal contact and before food preparation), is a valid measure of handwashing with soap in multiple cultural and geographic contexts. There continues to be an overarching need for developing valid measures of handwashing behavior that can be collected in an efficient and inexpensive fashion. The structured observation data indicating low rates of soap use for handwashing at times of pathogen transmission reinforce the global imperative to improve handwashing behavior for prevention of the leading causes of death in young children.

IWA – Faecal Sludge Management, systems approach for implementation and operation

This link also has a info on an online course, how to order the hardcopy, etc;

The first book dedicated to Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) has been published recently by IWA Publishing. The book ‘Faecal Sludge Management, systems approach for implementation and operation‘ as well as the individual chapters can be downloaded from this page. Damir Brdjanovic, Professor of Sanitary Engineering and Mariska Ronteltap, Senior Lecturer of Sanitary Engineering at UNESCO-IHE have edited the book, together with Dr. Linda Strande, director of the Excreta and Wastewater Management group at EAWAG (the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology). The book is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. fsm_book_0
Summary

The appropriate and adequate management of faecal sludge deriving from onsite technologies is imperative for the protection of human and environmental health. This is the first book dedicated to faecal sludge management. It compiles the current state of knowledge of this rapidly evolving field, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management and planning. It addresses the planning and organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge and treatment options, to the final enduse or disposal of treated sludge. In addition to providing fundamentals and an overview of technologies, the book goes into details of operational, institutional and financial aspects, and provides guidance on how to plan a city-level faecal sludge management project with the involvement of all the stakeholders.

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WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH & Human Rights

Issue 162 | Sept 19, 2014 | Focus on WASH & Human Rights

This issue highlights the just-published handbook on WASH and human rights by Catarina de Albuquerque, the UN special rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. Also included are studies from the UNC Water Institute; Human Rights Watch; fact sheets and position statements from the UN and UNICEF; country reports from the DRC, Haiti, and South Africa; and links to relevant websites.

Realising the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook, 2014. C de Albuquerque. (Link)
This handbook is the product of six years of work by the first UN special rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation. It explains the meaning and legal obligations that arise from these rights, translating the often complex technical and legal language into accessible information. The target audiences for this handbook are governments at all levels, donors, and national regulatory bodies. It provides information that will also be useful to other local, regional, and international stakeholders, including civil society, service providers, and human rights organizations.

Fact Sheet on the Right to Water, n.d. United Nations. | Arabic | English | French |Spanish
The roots of the current water and sanitation crisis can be traced to poverty, inequality, and unequal power relationships, and it is exacerbated by social and environmental challenges: accelerating urbanization, climate change, and increasing pollution and depletion of water resources. To address this crisis, the international community has increasingly recognized that access to safe drinking water and sanitation must be considered within a human rights framework.

Translating the Human Right to Water and Sanitation into Public Policy Reform.Science and Engineering Ethics, Jan 2014. B Meier. (Link)
The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through 43 interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and NGOs, this research examines interpretations of this new human right on global governance, national policy, and local practice.

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Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools

Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, 11(9), 9694-9711; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694

Joshua V. Garn, Bethany A. Caruso, et al.

The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils’ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils’ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils’ use at specific facilities.

We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98).

Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.

USAID DELIVER – Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker

USAID Deliver Project – Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker, 2014. (In English and French)

The USAID | DELIVER PROJECT has published a French language version of the Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker. This illustrated guide is now available in French and English. wastemanagementfrench

This publication provides practical guidance for community health workers on how to safely handle and dispose of hazardous waste. It describes the basic principles of waste management and offers solutions for managing the waste generated from everyday activities carried out in the community.

Designing the next generation of sanitation businesses

Designing the next generation of sanitation businesses: a report by HYSTRA for the Toilet Board Coalition, 2014hystrasanitation_4pp_web-1

Fortunately, a number of market-based models have emerged in both rural and urban areas to address the sanitation crisis. They all serve the Base of the Pyramid in a sustainable manner by offering improved solutions, at a price that the poor are willing and able to pay. In this Report, we analyze two models that combine an aspirational value proposition for low-income families and a strong potential for financial sustainability: projects that facilitate the creation of a local, sanitation market in rural areas and enterprises servicing home mobile toilets in urban areas.

Based on an in-depth analysis of 12 projects representative of these two models, the Report suggests strategies to overcome challenges to sustainability and scale. Finally, the Report explores how these models would benefit from corporate and industrial expertise and resources, opening up opportunities for large corporations to contribute to solving the sanitation crisis.

Video: 7 journalists win prestigious media awards for excellence in reporting on critical water, sanitation and hygiene issues