Tag Archives: behaviour change

Towards total sanitation workshop report – key findings

Cotonu Workshop Key Findings report

How can Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and other programmatic approaches be  integrated into a service-led rural sanitation delivery? This was the topic that attracted  around 70 practitioners from 16 different countries  to Cotonu, Benin in November 2013 for a Learning and Exchange workshop  “Towards sustainable total sanitation”. The workshop was organised  by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in partnership with WaterAid, SNV and UNICEF.

The key findings of the workshop a presented in a new report, which is divided into four categories, covering the four conditions to trigger a service:

  • strengthening the enabling environment
  • demand creation and advocacy to change behaviour
  • strengthening the supply chain, and
  • appropriate incentives and financial arrangements.

Nepal: first municipality achieves “Total Behaviour Change”

Hygiene and Sanitation indicators - Nepali.  RWSSP-WN

Hygiene and Sanitation indicators – Nepali. RWSSP-WN

A municipality in western-central Nepal has been the first in the country to achieve Total Behaviour Change (TBC) in Hygiene and Sanitation.

TBC refers to a set of water, sanitation and hygiene behaviours and practices that lead to long term community health improvements.

Dana VDC (Village Development Committee) in Myagdi District was  declared to have achieved TBC in Hygiene and Sanitation on 14 August, 2013. Certification was awarded by the District Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committee (DWASHCC).

Myagdi is one the districts covered by the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Western Nepal (RWSSP-WN),  a bilateral development cooperation project funded by the governments of Nepal and Finland.

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Improving Access to WASH: Is the Answer Individual Behavioral Change?

Improving Access to Water and Sanitation: Is the Answer Individual Behavioral Change? | Source: Dr. John Akudago, Pacific Institute – June 25, 2013 |

Born and raised in rural Africa where I spent my youthful life, open defecation was not only the norm but preferred to outhouses that were poorly ventilated and unbearably hot. We did not understand the consequences of exposing human waste around our houses. At that time, the best practice for sanitation and hygiene was to use a hoe to excavate the ground and bury our feces during the farming season so that the food we grew in the wild did not get contaminated.

Our knowledge on water was even poorer. We drank any water we found in the streams and rivers with little understanding that the water source could be contaminated. The few hand-dug wells in the villages at that time were considered to be the best source of potable water because they appeared the cleanest. However, with an entire village relying on a few water sources, the demand for water from these wells was high and sometimes resulted in arguments over who got what water and how much of it.  Not surprisingly, the lack of potable water in the villages led to a high prevalence of water related diseases.  Guinea-worm and bilharzia were common water-related diseases suffered by most children, especially those of us who swam in rivers and streams.

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Preventing sanitation failure by using evidence-based behaviour change

Mass media campaign with loudspeaker rickshaw, Bangladesh. Photo: Eawag

Evidenced-based methods are more cost effective than traditional NGO awareness raising approaches to ensure sustained behaviour change in the WASH sector, says environmental psychologist Prof. Hans-Joachim Mosler.

Prof. Mosler

Two of his presentations on evidence-based behaviour change are now available online.  An accompanying guideline for behaviour change [1] was published in June 2012.

Mosler begins his first presentation with examples of failed sanitation and water projects. What they have in common is that they focus on hardware and neglect behaviour change. In one striking study, the construction of new school latrines actually increased health risks among girls because hygiene behaviour did not improve [2].

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Behavioral Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Senegal and Peru: Emergent Learning

A new Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Learning Note found that beliefs and ease of access to soap and water were correlated with handwashing with soap behaviors for given proxy measures among mothers and caretakers in Peru and Senegal.

“Behavioral Determinants of Handwashing with Soap Among Mothers and Caretakers: Emergent Learning from Senegal and Peru,” is based on survey data from nearly 3,500 households in Peru and 1,500 households in Senegal. This data was analyzed using FOAM, a conceptual framework developed by WSP to help identify factors that might facilitate or impeded handwashing with soap practices at critical times.

The analysis revealed that the impact of different determinants varies depending on the chosen proxy measure, such as the presence of a handwashing station or its distance from kitchen or latrine facilities. Given this variability, the Learning Note found that program managers must clearly define the exact behavior they seek to improve before choosing which determinant to focus on in their formative research.

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Research-Based Campaign Messaging is Critical for Sustaining Handwashing Behavior Change

Using data from formative research to focus messaging on mothers’ aspirations for their children and fine-tuning activities based on feedback from the field and household survey data have been key to developing and implementing a handwashing with soap behavior change program in Vietnam.

A new Learning Note, Vietnam: A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program published by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), describes the steps that were taken to design, implement, and monitor the program to aid program managers in developing other handwashing and hygiene promotion efforts.

Working closely with the Woman’s Union, the program’s activities in Vietnam reached 540 communes in 10 provinces. The project also trained more than 15,000 community motivators who reached more than 1.76 million women through interpersonal communications activities. As the Learning Note reports, these activities evolved over time based on information from the monitoring systems.

“As the target audiences move beyond knowledge to intention to handwash with soap, behavior change messages must also be modified,” the report found, adding that as the project progressed, opportunities arose to “fine-tune the interpersonal communications activities based on feedback from the field and from the household monitoring data.”

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Introducing SaniFOAM : a framework to analyze sanitation behaviors

Devine, J. (2009). Introducing SaniFOAM : a framework to analyze sanitation behaviors to design effective sanitation programs. (Learning to scale up. Working paper). Washington, DC, USA, Water and Sanitation Program. 28 p.

Download paper

SaniFOAM is a conceptual behaviour change framework that can be used both in community-led and in sanitation marketing approaches. It is designed to help program managers and implementers to promote sanitation at all stages of their interventions, from program design through implementation to monitoring and evaluation.

The paper describes the four elements of the framework and provides examples from formative research findings and field-based experiences.

The elements of SaniFOAM are:

F for Focus: What are the desired sanitation behaviors, and who is the target population?
O for Opportunity: Does the individual have the chance to perform the behavior?
A for Ability: Is the individual capable of performing it?
M for Motivation: Does the individual want to perform it?

SaniFOAM-framework-fig

SaniFOAM is one of the tools being developed in the Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project, implemented by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). The project is currently applying SaniFOAM in three countries: Tanzania, Indonesia and India. Most notably, in East Java, Indonesia, the SaniFOAM framework has been used to design qualitative and quantitative surveys, develop communication materials supporting community-led efforts aimed at eradicating open defecation and design a strategy aimed at strengthening the supply of sanitation products and services.

India: Going Beyond Sanitation in Andhra Pradesh

What started as a campaign to improve rural sanitation in Andhra Pradesh, has galvanized communities to address through collective behavior change a broadening range of issues, from planting tress to improved management of disposed plastics.

Andhra Pradesh has benefited from both the national Total Sanitation Campaign and the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (clean village award) program [...], but the most impressive progress has come over the past year, after the state adopted its own state awards program for sanitation, the Shubhram Awards for cleanliness:

Read more: WSP Access, Aug 2008