Tag Archives: cholera

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH-related disesases

Issue 135 February 21, 2014 | Focus on WASH-Related Diseases

This issue contains recent studies and reports on several WASH-related diseases: neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), malnutrition, cholera, diarrhea, fluorosis, and malaria. Some of the resources include: a WASH and NTDs global manual and country reports from the Sightsavers Innovation Fund; an article on the origins of the cholera outbreak in Haiti; a review of evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth; Cochrane Reviews on the prevention and control of malaria; and additional studies and resources. weekly

We welcome your suggestions for future issues of the Weekly. Topics for upcoming issues include World Water Day 2014, WASH and nutrition, behavior change, community-led total sanitation, household water treatment, and menstrual hygiene management.

GENERAL/OVERVIEW

Human Health and the Water Environment: Using the DPSEEA Framework to Identify the Driving Forces of DiseaseScience of the Total Environment, 2014. J Gentry-Shields.(Link)

There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force–Pressure–State–Exposure–Effect–Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces.

Seasonal Effects of Water Quality: The Hidden Costs of the Green Revolution to Infant and Child Health in India, 2013. E Brainerd. (Link)
This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using water quality data combined with data on child health outcomes from the Demographic and Health Surveys of India. The results indicate that children exposed to higher concentrations of agrichemicals during their first month experience worse health outcomes on a variety of measures; these effects are largest among the most vulnerable groups, particularly the children of uneducated poor women living in rural India.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Evidence Paper, 2013. Department for International Development. (Link)
This paper aims to provide an accessible guide to existing evidence, including a conceptual framework for understanding how WASH impacts health and well-being and a description of methods used for ascertaining the health, economic, and social impacts of WASH. It also presents the available evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of WASH interventions.

NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES

WASH and the Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Global Manual for WASH Implementers, 2014. Sightsavers, et al. (Link) | (Blog post)
These manuals are free to download and distribute. New users must create an account to download the manuals, which are divided into disease-specific chapters that describe the transmission cycle, symptoms, and disease burden of the WASH-related NTDs. Each chapter includes information about WASH activities that are most essential to the control of each disease. Maps of disease prevalence are provided to enable identification of disease-endemic communities most in need of sustainable WASH services. Country-specific versions of the manual are available so far for Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

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WASHplus Weekly: Cholera Prevention and Control

Issue 111 August 9, 2013 | Cholera Prevention and Control

This issue updates the August 2012 Weekly with studies and resources published in 2013 on cholera prevention and control. Included are the latest statistics from WHO on the number of cholera cases and deaths. WHO states that annual figures in this report exclude the estimated 500,000–700,000 annual cases labeled “acute watery diarrhea” occurring in southeastern and central Asia. The actual numbers of cholera cases are known to be much higher than those reported. Other resources in this issue are the 2013 Cholera Toolkit by UNICEF, studies on socioeconomic and environmental factors that affect cholera outbreaks, country studies from Bangladesh, Cameroon, Haiti, and other studies.

EVENTS

August 1, 2013 – Subcommittee Hearing: The Impact of U.S. Water Programs on Global Health. (Video)
Witnesses: Panel I – Christian Holmes, Global Water Coordinator, USAID | Aaron A. Salzberg, Special Coordinator for Water Resources, U.S. Department of State. Panel II- John Oldfield, Chief Executive Officer, WASH Advocates | Malcolm Morris, Chairman, Millennium Water Alliance | Buey Ray Tut, Executive Director, Aqua Africa

June 2013 – USAID and World Vision Join Coalition to Eliminate Cholera from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Pan American Health Organization, June 2013.(Link)
USAID and World Vision recently became the newest members of the Regional Coalition on Water and Sanitation to Eliminate Cholera in Hispaniola, an alliance of more than 20 agencies and associations that are supporting efforts by the governments of Haiti and the Dominican Republic to eliminate the transmission of cholera.

CHOLERA STATISTICS

Cholera in 2012Weekly Epidem Rec, Aug 2013. WHO. (Full text)
After several years of steady increases in the number of cholera cases reported to WHO as well as the number of countries that reported cholera cases, there was an important decrease in cases in 2012. Of the 30 countries that reported deaths from cholera, 23 were from the African continent, accounting for 2042 deaths or 67% of the global total, while in the Americas, the Dominican Republic and Haiti reported 962 deaths or 31% of the global total.

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WASHplus Weekly on WASH-Related Diseases

This issue contains recent studies and resources on several WASH-related diseases: cholera, dengue, diarrhea, leptospirosis, neglected tropical diseases, malnutrition, and typhoid. Included are a just-published UNICEF cholera toolkit, an updated review of WASH-related diseases from DfID, typhoid case studies from Bangladesh and Fiji, and other resources. weekly2

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggested the topic for this issue, and we welcome other suggestions for topics. Future issues will focus on menstrual hygiene management, innovation, water point mapping, mobile applications, and WASH in schools; more than 100 past issues of the Weekly are archived on the WASHplus website.

UNICEF launches groundbreaking cholera toolkit

To tackle the alarming resurgence of cholera, UNICEF has launched a new comprehensive Cholera Toolkit on 15 May 2013.

The toolkit launch [...] will be the culmination of a thorough review of existing guidance and global consultation with UNICEF at all levels and from all divisions in Africa, along with main partners in the fight against cholera, such as the World Health Organization as the lead agency.

There are 3-5 million cholera cases each year, killing 100,000 to 120,000 people, half of whom are children under 5 years old. Only 5-10% of cases are reported. In Western and Central Africa, there were more than 80,000 cases of cholera in 2012 resulting in nearly 1,500 deaths.

The Toolkit provides the health and WASH sectors an integrated approach to cholera prevention, preparedness and response. In addition it includes specific content linked to education, nutrition, communication for development (C4D), child protection and other relevant sectors.

UNICEF Cholera Kit, p. 41

UNICEF Cholera Kit, p. 41

“What the toolkit does is harvest the best and most up-to-date knowledge in the field and brings it together in one location,” said UNICEF Chief of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sanjay Wijesekera. “It looks at the evidence. It looks at practices that have produced results.”

Download the Toolkit at: www.unicef.org/cholera

Related websites:

Source: UNICEF, 15 May 2013

 

 

Oxfam publishes advice on handling a cholera outbreak – but are we right?

Source: Oxfam Policy and Practice Blog, Aug 13, 2012, by Elizabeth Lamond, HSP Public Health Engineer Coordinator

Oxfam’s Cholera Outbreak Guidelines were developed as an internal resource, but today we are sharing them externally in order to seek input from the international humanitarian community. We hope that this feedback will inform later editions in order to develop a powerful resource for anyone looking to prepare for, prevent and control a cholera outbreak. Here, one of the authors of the Guideline, Bibi Lamond, explains more. 

I have been responsible for implementing and coordinating cholera outbreak programmes since 2006. In my work I have found that, although there are numerous documents and books on medical intervention for cholera control, there are no comprehensive water, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH) guidelines.

Oxfam’s new publication, the Cholera Outbreak Guidelines aims to meet this need and could set standards for other emergency WASH actors.

The content of the Guidelines has evolved from firsthand field experience in Oxfam’s emergency cholera programmes in Haiti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe. It has also drawn on information from other NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières, renowned for their cholera work in the field.

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WASHplus Weekly – Focus on WASH-Related Diseases

Issue 58 June 1, 2012 | Focus on WASH-Related Diseases

The World Health Organization lists more than 20 diseases that are related to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions. This issue focuses on three of those:

  • cholera,
  • diarrhea, and
  • typhoid fever

Information and resources for each of the three diseases include fact sheets, videos, recent peer-review studies, and links to additional resources. Future issues will focus on additional WASH-related diseases.

OXFAM – Hygiene promotion: determining what works

OXFAM – Hygiene promotion: determining what works, 2012. Humanitarian field studies | Cholera response in Haiti

When a massive earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010, followed by a cholera epidemic that broke out in October of that year, Oxfam rushed assistance—clean water, sanitation, and hygiene materials and information—to hard-hit areas to protect public health.

Hygiene promotion is arguably the most important intervention in a cholera epidemic: the route of cholera transmission is fecal-oral, and contaminated hands are often the principal vector. So Oxfam engages in a wide range of hygiene-promotion activities to encourage washing hands—specifically, washing hands with soap at key moments, such as before eating and after defecation.

But which of our interventions have been the most effective, and why? Is it more important to put resources into hygiene-themed theater productions or radio call-in shows? There is little hard evidence to suggest that—in Haiti or in emergencies anywhere—one hygiene-promotion activity works better than another. But lives, not to mention valuable resources, may depend on the answer, so in the spring of 2011, Oxfam engaged Eawag, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, to study the effectiveness of our hygiene-promotion activities in Haiti.

Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says

Woman at Leogane camp saying the latrines behind her are full and smell foul. Photo credit: Haiti Grassroots Watch

Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out that the country’s lack of proper sanitation was the real cause of the outbreak.

Clinton made the remarks after he toured a new public teaching hospital in Haiti’s Central Plateau that was built by the Boston-based Partners in Health.

In November 2011, the Boston-based Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti (IJDH) filed a demand for hundreds of millions of dollars in compensation from Haitian cholera victims.

Money to empty refugee camp toilets has run out

Clinton’s own foundation, together with UNICEF and USAID, supplied some 11,000 mobile toilets for the refugee camps that emerged after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The NGOs that distributed the toilets and paid for them to be emptied are now pulling out one by one, leaving overflowing toilets behind, according to an IPS report.

Donor funds are being used to set up excreta treatment centres, one is now in operation in Morne-à-Cabri while a second centre is planned for Titanye, but these are not servicing the remaining refugee camps, home to nearly half a million people.

Source:

  • AP, Former President Clinton urges officials to stem Haiti cholera outbreak, Washington Post, 07 Mar 2012
  • Phares Jerome and Valery Daudier, Money for cleaning toilets in Haiti down the drain? – Part 1, IPS, 07 Mar 2012

Haiti: Twitter data accurately tracked cholera outbreak

Twitter messages were providing data that would have been a quicker way of detecting and tracking the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti than traditional methods, according to a study [1] published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

The study found that online social media and news feeds were faster than, and broadly as accurate as, the official records at detecting the start and early progress of the epidemic, which hit Haiti after the earthquake in January 2010 and has killed more than 6,500 people.

[...]

The authors used HealthMap, an automated surveillance platform, to measure the volume of news media generated during the first 100 days of the outbreak, and they also looked at the number of ‘cholera’ posts on Twitter.

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Haiti: cholera victims demand UN compensation

The United Nations has been hit with a demand for hundreds of millions of dollars in compensation from Haitian cholera victims.

The Boston, USA-based Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti (IJDH) filed the demand on behalf of some 5,000 victims.

IJDH is demanding US$ 50,000 in compensation for each sick person and US$ 100,000  for each death. In addition, it wants a public apology and an adequate nationwide response – including medical care and clean water and sanitation infrastructure.

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