Tag Archives: Community-Led Total Sanitation

One day CLTS sharing and learning workshops

CLTS Knowledge Hub logo

Conference goers in Asia and Africa can get updated on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) during two one day sharing and learning workshops.

The CLTS Knowledge Hub at IDS will host the first workshop on Sunday 14 September in conjunction with the annual WEDC Conference that takes place in Hanoi, Viet Nam from 15-19 September 2014.

The second workshop is on 7 October 2014 in Dakar, Senegal. This is one day before the start of AfricaSan 4 conference that is being held in Dakar, Senegal from 8-10 October 2014.

For full details go to: www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/events

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation

Issue 149 | June 6, 2014 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

This issue updates the December 2013 Weekly on CLTS with 2014 studies, reports, and videos. Included are a May 2014 video of Dr. Kamal Kar discussing CLTS challenges, an article criticizing CLTS, a UNICEF evaluation of its Community Approaches to Total Sanitation program, and other reports and videos. washplusweekly

The June 13th issue of the Weekly will focus on cookstove issues and the next issue of the Weekly on WASH-related issues will be on June 27, 2014.

OVERVIEWS

The Potential of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in Achieving an Open Defecation Free World, 2014. Institute of Development Studies. (Video)
(NOTE: The actual presentation begins at about 4 minutes into the video.) Dr. Kamal Kar, the pioneer of CLTS, speaks about the potential of the CLTS approach in achieving the sanitation Millennium Development Goals with a special focus on Africa. He also discusses second and third generation challenges of CLTS such as sustainability, waste containment, and the politics of scaling up.

CRITICISMS OF THE CLTS APPROACH

Shaming and Sanitation in Indonesia: A Return to Colonial Public Health Practices?Development and Change, Jan 2014. S Engel. (Link)
CLTS involves more than just education and encouragement; it uses social shaming and punishment. The authors argue that this is not only an inadequate approach but one that echoes coercive, race-based colonial public health practices. This article thus integrates extant historiography on Indonesian colonial medicine with contemporary scholarly literature and field research on CLTS using case studies of a 1920s hookworm-eradication program funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, and the current World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, both in Java.

EVALUATIONS/LITERATURE REVIEWS

Evaluation of the WASH Sector Strategy “Community Approaches to Total Sanitation” (CATS), 2014. UNICEF. (Link)
In the context of the recent evolution of the sanitation sector, CATS can be seen in a twofold way: as a move from technically based, supply-driven approaches toward behavior change, demand-driven approaches; and also as a recognition of the centrality of the adoption of a new social norm around ending open defecation as a key issue to be addressed, with impact on and linkages with other sectors.

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Literature Review, 2012. V Venkataramanan. (Link)
This report presents findings from a systematic literature review conducted by The Water Institute at UNC as part of the Plan International USA project: “Testing Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Approaches for Scalability.” Despite widespread implementation of CLTS and many claims of success, no systematic review has been carried out on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. The objectives of the systematic review of the grey literature were to characterize the breadth of grey literature on CLTS and to describe the role of key internal actors—natural leaders, teachers, and local government—on sanitation and hygiene outcomes.

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Towards total sanitation workshop report – key findings

Cotonu Workshop Key Findings report

How can Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and other programmatic approaches be  integrated into a service-led rural sanitation delivery? This was the topic that attracted  around 70 practitioners from 16 different countries  to Cotonu, Benin in November 2013 for a Learning and Exchange workshop  “Towards sustainable total sanitation”. The workshop was organised  by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in partnership with WaterAid, SNV and UNICEF.

The key findings of the workshop a presented in a new report, which is divided into four categories, covering the four conditions to trigger a service:

  • strengthening the enabling environment
  • demand creation and advocacy to change behaviour
  • strengthening the supply chain, and
  • appropriate incentives and financial arrangements.

Study examines sustainability of CLTS programmes in Africa

Plan-ODF-sustainability-coverDespite the widespread implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programs and many claims of success, there has been very little systematic investigation into their sustainability.  A new study, which aims to change that, is creating a stir in the WASH sector.

A study commissioned by Plan International on the sustainability of CLTS programs in Africa revealed that 87% of the households still had a functioning latrine. This would indicate a remarkably low rate of reversion (13%) to open defecation (OD) or “slippage”.

However, if the criteria used to originally award open defecation free (ODF) status to villages are used, then the overall slippage rate increased dramatically to  92%. These criteria are:

  • A functioning latrine with a superstructure
  • A means of keeping flies from the pit (either water seal or lid)
  • Absence of excreta in the vicinity of the house
  • Hand washing facilities with water and soap or soap-substitute such as ash
  • Evidence that the latrine and hand washing facilities were being used

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WSP promoted CLTS approach in Indonesia criticised

A highly critical article in Development and Change argues that the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, which the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has promoted in Indonesia, is not only “inadequate” but also “echoes coercive, race-based colonial public health practices”.

Susan Engel

Dr Susan Engel, University of Wollongong, Australis

Authors Dr Susan Engel and Anggun Susilo reveal striking similarities between developments in Indonesian sanitation in the 1920s and the 1990s. In both eras the focus changed from “the provision of hardware to [...] participation and social mobilization” to encourage “individuals and communities to construct and maintain their own sanitation facilities”.

In the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation led the change, 70 years later it was WSP. In both cases the approaches are said to have met resistance because they were coercive and humiliating for the poorest, who also had to pay for latrines they couldn’t really afford.

Engel and Susilo found no evidence that the CLTS approach in Indonesia was sustainable. They conclude that government involvement, not just self-help CLTS approaches, is essential for successful sanitation.

Engel, S, and Susilo, A., 2014. Shaming and sanitation in Indonesia : a return to colonial public health practices?. Development and change, 45, 1, pp. 157-178. DOI: 10.1111/dech.12075

See also:

  • India, Madhya Pradesh: sanitation campaign humiliates women, say critics, Sanitation Updates, 24 Dec 2014
  • WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Sanitation Updates, 13 Dec 2013
  • Topic: CLTS and human rights: Should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?, SuSanA Forum

 

India, Madhya Pradesh: sanitation campaign humiliates women, say critics

Controversial illustration from Madya Pradesh sanitation campaign booklet

Controversial illustration from Madya Pradesh sanitation campaign booklet

A government campaign to stop open defecation in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh has been criticised for using humiliation to change behaviour. Journalist M. Poornima writes that the ambitious scheme called ‘Maryada Abhiyan’ (Hindi for dignity), “gives little of it to women”.

From catcalls to publishing names to photographing the people caught — the government booklet [1] suggests a number of measures meant to humiliate people. That it would hit women the hardest is not a thought that appears to have occurred to the authorities.

The criticism is backed up by WaterAid programme officer Binu Arickal, who called whistling at or photographing women practising open defecation “foolish”. This reflects a discussion started at the beginning of this year on community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and human rights in the SuSanA Forum, which was sparked by a journal article [2] by Jamie Bartram and others.

UNICEF contributed to the Maryada campaign booklet. The campaign’s brand ambassador is Anita Narre, the bride from a Madhya Pradesh who  sparked a “sanitation revolution” in her village by forcing her husband to build a toilet in their home.

[1] Madhya Pradesh. State Water and Sanitation Mission (2012?). Maryada Abhiyan: guideline. Available at: <http://washurl.net/42kkyn>

[2] Bartram, J. … [et al.] (2012). Commentary on community-led total sanitation and human rights: Should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?. Journal of water and health, 10(4), pp. 499–503. doi: 10.2166/wh.2012.205. Available at: <http://washurl.net/56qm77>

Related web sites:

Source: M. Poornima, No ‘maryada’ for women in MP govt’s sanitation drive, Hindustan Times, 24 Dec 2013

WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation

Issue 126 December 13, 2013 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation

This issue updates the May 2013 Weekly on CLTS with more recent reports and other resources. Included are presentations from a sanitation workshop in Benin, reviews of CLTS successes and shortcomings, a UNICEF overview of CLTS in Asia and the Pacific, a video on school-led total sanitation in Nepal, among others. weekly

REVIEWS

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Literature Review (Grey Literature), 2012. V Venkataramanan. (Full text)
This study presents findings from a systematic literature review on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. This document was prepared by The Water Institute at UNC for Plan International USA as part of the project Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Community-Led Total Sanitation in Africa: Helpdesk Report, 2013. Health & Education Advice & Resource Team (HEART). (Full text)
Decreases in diarrhea, cholera, and skin infections were the main health outcomes reported in this study. However, methodological weaknesses, including the lack of clarity around the proportions of the population exposed before and after implementation of CLTS to these conditions, made it challenging to determine the quality of the evidence presented.

The Cost of a Knowledge Silo: A Systematic Re-Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions, 2013. M Loevinsohn. (Full text)
The health impacts of CLTS have yet to be comprehensively assessed, although it is evident that people realize a range of benefits such as dignity, privacy, security—especially for women—and a clean environment, which they may value more than protection from infection.

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