Tag Archives: diarrhoeal diseases

Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry

Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trop Med Intl Health, Mar 2014.

Authors: Laura D. Zambrano, Karen Levy, Neia P. Menezes and Matthew C. Freeman

Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections.

We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal–pathogen pairs.

We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90–3.93).

Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk.

 

 

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH-related disesases

Issue 135 February 21, 2014 | Focus on WASH-Related Diseases

This issue contains recent studies and reports on several WASH-related diseases: neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), malnutrition, cholera, diarrhea, fluorosis, and malaria. Some of the resources include: a WASH and NTDs global manual and country reports from the Sightsavers Innovation Fund; an article on the origins of the cholera outbreak in Haiti; a review of evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth; Cochrane Reviews on the prevention and control of malaria; and additional studies and resources. weekly

We welcome your suggestions for future issues of the Weekly. Topics for upcoming issues include World Water Day 2014, WASH and nutrition, behavior change, community-led total sanitation, household water treatment, and menstrual hygiene management.

GENERAL/OVERVIEW

Human Health and the Water Environment: Using the DPSEEA Framework to Identify the Driving Forces of DiseaseScience of the Total Environment, 2014. J Gentry-Shields.(Link)

There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force–Pressure–State–Exposure–Effect–Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces.

Seasonal Effects of Water Quality: The Hidden Costs of the Green Revolution to Infant and Child Health in India, 2013. E Brainerd. (Link)
This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using water quality data combined with data on child health outcomes from the Demographic and Health Surveys of India. The results indicate that children exposed to higher concentrations of agrichemicals during their first month experience worse health outcomes on a variety of measures; these effects are largest among the most vulnerable groups, particularly the children of uneducated poor women living in rural India.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Evidence Paper, 2013. Department for International Development. (Link)
This paper aims to provide an accessible guide to existing evidence, including a conceptual framework for understanding how WASH impacts health and well-being and a description of methods used for ascertaining the health, economic, and social impacts of WASH. It also presents the available evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of WASH interventions.

NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES

WASH and the Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Global Manual for WASH Implementers, 2014. Sightsavers, et al. (Link) | (Blog post)
These manuals are free to download and distribute. New users must create an account to download the manuals, which are divided into disease-specific chapters that describe the transmission cycle, symptoms, and disease burden of the WASH-related NTDs. Each chapter includes information about WASH activities that are most essential to the control of each disease. Maps of disease prevalence are provided to enable identification of disease-endemic communities most in need of sustainable WASH services. Country-specific versions of the manual are available so far for Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

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Eastern Africa drought: seven million people in need of WASH services

Seven million people, including over 700,000 refugees are in need of waster, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services according to a United Nations report of 15 July 2011.

The drought affecting Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti is being called the worst in 50 years. UN agencies have asked for US$ 1.6 billion to pay for essential programmes in the Horn of Africa, but have only received half that amount so far.

Water trucking is still needed in the driest areas as natural water points failed to refill sufficiently. Two million people have been given better access to safe drinking water so far in 2011.

Paradoxically, some areas in Ethiopia and Somalia are expected to receive above-normal rainfall in the June to September period. This is likely to increase the risk of flooding and subsequent outbreaks of waterborne diseases.

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India: “edutainment” health camps focus on preventing diarrhoeal disease

A US-based health research firm, Abt Associates, has organised a series of diarrhoea prevention camps in low-income settlements in cities of Lucknow, Kanpur and Varanasi. The camps took place between May and July, the peak period of diarrhoeal outbreaks.

Saathi Bachpan Ke logo

Saathi Bachpan Ke logo

The camps are part of the ‘Saathi Bachpan Ke‘ (Friends of Childhood) programme, funded through the USAID-India Market-Based Partnerships for Health Project.

Puppet theater teaches camp participants the importance of washing hands with soap, ORS use and purifying water to prevent and manage diarrhea. Photo: Abt Associates

The Abt team has produced an “edutainment” package for parents, caregivers and children participating in the camps. They are taught important life-saving behaviors – from washing hands with soap and purifying water to rehydrating children suffering with diarrhea. Key messages are reinforced through puppet shows, interactive games and quizzes.

Presentations and demonstrations are provided by physicians and other program supporters including manufacturers of soap, water purifiers, and oral rehydration salts, and public sector partners.

Related web site:  USAID India – Market-based Partnerships for Health (MBPH) – Saathi Bachpan Ke

See a promotional video of “Saathi Bachpan Ke” initiative on USAID India’s Facebook page.

Source: PTI / Deccan Herald, 07 Jul 2011 ; Abt Associates, 06 Jul 2011

Global deaths from diarrhoea, malaria, AIDS declining, study predicts

Book coverUnder-five child mortality from diarrhoeal diseases, which was 1.7 million in 2005, is expected to fall to just over half a million by 2030 and around 130,000 in 2060, a new study [1] predicts.

The study notes that headway is being made in fighting communicable diseases such as diarrhoea, malaria and AIDS. At the global level disease burdens are shifting from communicable diseases to chronic ones such as cancer, diabetes and heart disease.

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India: inadequate sanitation costs the equivalent of 6.4 percent of GDP

Cover WSP report Economic Impacts Sanitation India

Inadequate sanitation costs India US$ 53.8 billion, which is equivalent to 6.4 percent of India’s GDP in 2006, according to a new report [1] from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

The study analyzed the evidence on the adverse economic impacts of inadequate sanitation, which include costs associated with death and disease, accessing and treating water, and losses in education, productivity, time, and tourism. The findings are based on 2006 figures, although a similar magnitude of losses is likely in later years.

The report indicates that premature mortality and other health-related impacts of inadequate sanitation, were the most costly at US$ 38.5 billion, 71.6 percent of total impacts, followed by productive time lost to access sanitation facilities or sites for defecation at US$ 10.7 billion, 20 percent, and drinking water-related impacts at US$ 4.2 billion, 7.8 percent.

“The cost is more than I expected,” UNICEF’s water, sanitation and hygiene chief Clarissa Brocklehurst said in an interview with news site Bloomberg. “Yet, if you know the scale of open defecation in India, it’s not all that surprising.”

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Robert Crane, biochemist who created oral rehydration therapy (ORT), dies

Dr. Robert Crane in 2009

Dr. Robert Kellogg Crane, a biochemist whose discoveries about how salt and sugar are absorbed by the body led to the development of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), has died on 31 October 2010 at the age of 90.

ORT is used to treat people, especially children, with diarrhoea and cholera and has been credited with saving millions of lives, particularly in developing countries.

Dr. Crane was researching metabolism at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis when he discovered that sodium and glucose are most efficiently absorbed in the small intestine when mixed. The breakthrough was described in 1978 as “potentially the most important medical advance this century” by The Lancet.

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