Tag Archives: Ethiopia

Ethiopia – Ministry to count water, sanitation, hygiene facilities

Jan 29, 2011 – The Ministry of Water and Energy said that it has finalized preparations to begin counting the number of potable water, sanitation and hygiene facilities available in the country.

Ministry Public Relations and Communication Directorate Director, Bizuneh Tolcha, told WIC today that the counting process will be carried out from February-June, 2011.

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Sustainable Sanitation Practice: The ROSA Project

Issue 4 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP), published by the EcoSan Club, Austria,  is s special issue that presents the highlights and main findings of the EU-funded ROSA (Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa) project.
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The ROSA project was implemented in four pilot cities: Arba Minch in Ethiopia, Nakuru in Kenya, Arusha in Tanzania, and Kitgum in Uganda.

The 7 papers included in this special issue show specific aspects of the as well as an outlook on future activities. Topics covered include scaling-up ecosan toilets in Ethiopia, urine-diversion dry toilets in schools in Kenya, urban agriculture in Tanzania, operation and maintenance, and the development of Strategic Sanitation and Waste Plans (SSWPs).

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WSP – Stepping Onto the Sanitation Ladder: Stopping Open Defecation in Rural Ethiopia

Ethiopia: Nearly a quarter of Addis residents lack toilets

ADDIS ABABA, 20 April 2010 (IRIN) – Almost a quarter of Addis Ababa residents have no access to toilets, says a new report by the Addis Ababa city authorities.

“We estimate that some three million people live in Addis Ababa. Out of this nearly 25 percent of the population have no access to toilets and defecate in rivers crossing the city” the report says.

“We cannot tolerate any more waste in rivers and roads. We should be ashamed. We want to make sure that the city is clean and a better place to live,” said Mekuria Haile, a senior local government official, at the launch of the report entitled:  Cleaning and Beautifying Addis Ababa: Intensifying Environmental and Health Issues with Public Participation.

“Addis Ababa is one of the biggest cities in sub-Saharan Africa… but is still fighting against solid waste management and health problems posed by unsafe drinking water and inadequate sanitation,” said Haile.

The outbreak of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) which hit most parts of the city in August 2009 “was the result of poor sanitation and hygiene, coupled with solid waste from the city” the report said.

“I cannot trust the water that comes through a pipeline since that outbreak. I boil my water every day before serving my family,” said Senait Habte, a resident of the city’s Kolfe Keraniyo slum.

“My relatives in rural Ethiopia live a better life than us in the city. They have good toilets and access to safe drinking water. Seems like the government has forgotten us,” she told IRIN, adding: “There are continuous electricity blackouts. Sometimes we don’t have water for five days. Life is becoming difficult in Addis nowadays.”

Public relations chief at the Water Resources Ministry Bizuneh Tolcha told IRIN nearly 66 percent of the Ethiopian population has access to safe drinking water and 56 percent has access to a latrine.
 
“According to our water tests, the water in Addis is very clean but the problem is contamination due to its unsafe use,” Tolcha told IRIN.

The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) says 60-80 percent of the current disease burden in Ethiopia is attributable to environmental health risks, which include poor hygiene and inadequate sanitation.
 
Eco-toilets

US-based NGO Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and its partners have been promoting an ecological toilet called the ArborLoo, designed by Zimbabwean Peter Morgan specifically for African conditions. It serves both as a basic toilet and makes use of excreta for growing fruit trees.

The AborLoo is a single pit shallow compost toilet 1.0-1.5m deep comprising a ring beam, slab and structure.

“Each concrete toilet slab costs US$7-20 and anyone can use it. It best suits the elderly and disabled people. You can dig it in half a day and can also plant trees on it,” says Bekele Abaire, programme manager at the CRS office in Ethiopia.

During use, fly and odour problems are reduced by regularly adding soil, wood ash and leaves to the excreta in the pit. Once full, the old toilet site is covered with soil and left to compost with the parts of the toilet being moved to another place, rebuilt and used in the same way again.

A tree is planted on the old site, preferably at the start of the rainy season, after the old pit contents have composted for a while.

“All of my family used to defecate at the back of our house or in an open field. This is the case everywhere in our `kebele’ [district]; it is normal. We now understand that latrines are important for our hygiene and health. ArborLoo has helped us a lot. We plant fruits, vegetables, trees and above all we are safe from acute watery diarrhoea and other diseases,” said Seid Abdo who is now using ArborLoo in Arsi Zone, Oromiya Regional State.

“Many communities achieved 100 percent sanitation coverage in areas that had 1 percent or less [coverage] before the project. And surprisingly none of these areas were affected by AWD, while others suffered from it,” Bekele told IRIN.

“We are trying to implement more eco toilet projects in Addis Ababa. We want to scale it up in urban areas like Addis Ababa and Adama but we are challenged by lack of adequate policy and lack of funding,” Bekele told IRIN.

Source – http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88861

Household pit latrines and child health in rural Ethiopia

Does ‘improved’ sanitation make children healthier? Household pit latrines and child health in rural Ethiopia, February 2009. (pdf, 352KB)

Lita Cameron. Young Lives, Department of International Development, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TB, UK

In response to pressure to reach the Millennium Development Goal of improved sanitation access, the  E thiopian government has developed an ambitious plan to achieve 100 per cent access to pit latrines by 2012. The plans to achieve this target rely upon the assumption that universal access to pit latrines will lead to improved health outcomes. Using the Young Lives pro-poor longitudinal data of Ethiopian children, this research uses propensity score matching to test this assumption.

Children who experienced a change from no toilet to a household pit latrine between rounds of data collection were compared to those who continue to use a forest/field. The findings show that there is no significant difference between groups in terms of health outcomes and that a pit latrine does not necessarily signal improved methods of waste disposal.

Individual and group interviews conducted by Young Lives suggest that poor infrastructure and care for pit latrines deter children from using such facilities and promote a preference for the use of other methods of waste disposal. Policy makers should note that simply increasing access to pit latrines will not necessarily promote better health outcomes, especially when ‘improved’ sanitation appears to be less clean than other available options.

USAID Global Development Alliance – Safe Drinking Water Alliance

USAID Global Development Alliance. (2010). Safe Drinking Water Alliance – Experiences in Haiti, Ethiopia, and Pakistan: Lessons for future water treatment programs.

Full-text: http://www.ehproject.org/PDF/ehkm/gda2010.pdf

To address some of the challenges created by lack of access to safe water, in 2004, the United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Global Development Alliance (GDA) brought together Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Population Services International (PSI), CARE USA, and Procter & Gamble (P&G) to create the Safe Drinking Water Alliance (SDWA). The general goal of the Alliance was to test three marketing models to increase demand for water treatment and to identify the potential of P&G’s PUR in each model as an alternative POU technology. PUR is a household-based water treatment product that combines disinfection with removal of dirt and other pollutants and transforms turbid contaminated water into clear, potable water. The three models tested by the SWDA included:

(1) a commercial marketing model with full cost recovery in Pakistan;
(2) a social marketing model where some promotional costs were subsidized in Haiti; and
(3) an emergency relief model in Ethiopia.

In Pakistan and Haiti a combination of behavior change communication activities and PUR-branded messages and materials were disseminated to increase the demand for water treatment and to introduce PUR. In both countries, CCP led the behavior change campaigns, while in Haiti PSI handled the specific promotion and distribution of PUR. In Pakistan, P&G focused on creating demand for PUR. In Ethiopia, CARE staff working in the Community-Based Therapeutic program were fully in charge of introducing PUR and providing the motivation and information for its use.

In all three contexts SDWA partners also studied barriers and facilitators to sustained water treatment behaviors, as well as reactions to and use of PUR specifically. Findings have clear programmatic relevance, and add to the emerging literature on water treatment behavior and the adoption of new technologies, and particularly provide insights about feasible directions for PUR.

Sanitation/water photos from Benin, Kenya, Ethiopia & Indonesia – Jay Graham/USAID

Benin

You are invited to view Jay’s photo album: Environmental Health Photos: Benin, Kenya, Ethiopia and Indonesia (2009):