Tag Archives: Ghana

The business case for Base of the Pyramid sanitation

Ready for Funding: Innovative  sanitation businesses cover

The Sanitation Business Matchmaking Estafetta initiative has published a guide to business opportunities for sanitation in small towns and peri-urban areas in upcoming economies.

The sanitation sector offers long term, slow and stable return on investments and this can be a pearl in your portfolio. Moreover, sanitation services create social benefits which may be of interest for impact investors. The challenge of the sanitation industry is to access to the  right blend of financial products. Investors are invited to guide the sanitation industry in creating the conditions needed to realize ventures that prove to be attractive investment opportunities.

The guide targets investors, intermediaries and the private sector. It covers both household and public sanitation, as well as emptying & collection services, smart small sewerage, and treatment & reuse. Using Ghana as a case study, the guide presents a market analysis for sanitation investment opportunities for each of the before mentioned sanitation components and services.

Download Ready for Funding: Innovative sanitation businesses

DFID pledges €28 million to SNV for multi-country sanitation programme

More funding for a local government-led approach introduced in 2008 by SNV and IRC to scale up sanitation from community to district level.

The UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) has awarded SNV Netherlands Development Organisation a €28 million (US$ 32 million) service contract to fund the Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All (SSH4A) Results Programme. Introduced by SNV and IRC in 2008 in Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia, Viet Nam and Laos, SSH4A is a comprehensive, local government-led approach to scale up sanitation from community to district level.

With funding from the DFID Results Fund, the SSH4A Results Programme will provide improved sanitation to more than 2 million people in nine countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nepal, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The programme will also reach out to over 2.7 million people with hygiene promotion, make 1,200 communities Open Defecation Free (ODF), ensure that 400,000 people practice hand washing with soap at critical times, assist the preparation of district sanitation plans and improve local governments’ capacity for steering improved sanitation.

SSH4A diagram

SSH4A programmes have been implemented with rural communities in 15 countries across Asia and Africa. In Asia, more than 2.2 million rural people have been reached, of whom 700,000 received improved sanitation.

More information:

 

SourceSNV, 28 Apr 2014

THE URBAN PROGRAMMING GUIDE: How to design and implement a pro-poor urban WASH programme

Improving water, sanitation and hygiene services to low-income urban areas is a highly challenging and complex task. Traditional approaches have often failed to work. We need new approaches and fresh thinking. We need governments, donors and sector professionals genuinely committed to improving services in slum settlements. It’s challenging but it can be done! This guide offers some solutions based around WSUP’s experience: all you have to do is put them into practice!

The guide provides an introduction to urban WASH programming: how to design and implement a pro-poor urban water, sanitation and hygiene programme.

Urban Programming Guide
Who is this guide for?
This guide is primarily designed for WASH professionals working in governments, development agencies, funding agencies or civil society organisations. It will also be useful for professionals working for service providers including water utilities, local authorities and in the private sector.

How to use this guide
The guide provides an overview of some key strategies and service delivery models. It’s not intended to be encyclopaedic: it’s a rapid-reference document with the following intended uses:

  • To aid the planning, design and implementation of urban WASH programmes.
  • To assist with investment planning by service providers.
  • To point the reader towards further sources of information and guidance.

The guide is free to download from WSUP’s website: http://www.wsup.com/resource/the-urban-programming-guide

WaterAid – Keeping promises: why African leaders need now to deliver on their past water and sanitation commitments

210 million more Africans lack access to sanitation than in 1990 | Source: WaterAid-Feb 18, 2013

African Governments are failing to keep their funding promises on sanitation, a new WaterAid report has revealed. The report warns that unless investment is increased, the challenges of urbanisation, climate change and most critically population growth risk turning the clock back on sanitation access even further(1).

Kroo Bay slum in Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2012, during the worst cholera outbreak in nearly 15 years. Credit: Tommy Trenchard

Kroo Bay slum in Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2012, during the worst cholera outbreak in nearly 15 years. Credit: Tommy Trenchard

From 1990 to 2010, the population of Sub-Saharan Africa grew by 340 million, however only 130 million people secured access to sanitation over the same period(2). In total nearly 600 million Sub-Saharan Africans – 70% of the population – are without access to a safe toilet(3).

The Keeping promises: why African leaders need now to deliver on their past water and sanitation commitments report uses official Government figures from five African Governments – Ghana, Niger, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Uganda – to show that funding on sanitation is falling short of government commitments across the continent.

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The Gendered Nature of Schooling in Ghana: Hurdles to Girls’ Menstrual Management in School

JENdA: Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, (20) 2012

The Gendered Nature of Schooling in Ghana: Hurdles to Girls’ Menstrual Management in School

Marni Sommer, Nana Mokoah Ackatia-Armah

Read the full article (subscription required) at: www.africaknowledgeproject.org/index.php/jenda/article/view/1578

View the table of the contents of the whole issue at:
www.africaknowledgeproject.org/index.php/jenda/issue/view/137

This article explores girls’ voiced experiences of menstruation and schooling in rural and urban Ghana. The study was conducted in the Greater Accra Region (rural and urban) and the Tamale-Tolon-Kumbungu Districts of Northern Ghana. These regions are predominantly populated by the Ga-Dangme, and the Dagbani. The major aim of the study was to better understand the intersection of menarche, menstrual management and schooling for pubescent girls in Ghana, in order to adapt a Tanzania’s girl’s puberty book to the Ghana context.

The methodology included a comparative case study using participatory research with adolescent girls in and out of school. The research highlighted the significant gap in girls’ understandings around menstrual onset and overall pubertal body changes, along with aspects of the school physical and social environment that create barriers to girls’ successful attendance and participation during monthly menses. The findings highlight the importance of girl-focused approaches to developing guidance for healthy transitions through puberty.

Sanitary Pad Interventions for Girls’ Education in Ghana: A Pilot Study

PLoS ONE, Oct 2012.

Sanitary Pad Interventions for Girls’ Education in Ghana: A Pilot Study

Paul Montgomery, et al.

Background – Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls’ transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls’ education.

Methods – A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education). The primary outcome was school attendance.

Results – After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, p<.001). After 5 months, puberty education alone improved attendance to a similar level (M = 91.26, SD = 7.82) as sites where pads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37), all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39). The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level.

Conclusion – This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls’ education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these results suggest that a large-scale cluster randomized trial is warranted.

Delegated management of water and sanitation services in urban areas: experiences from Kumasi, Ghana

Historically, water and sanitation service providers in low-income countries have struggled to accommodate rapid urban expansion, and particularly to serve the poor in peri-urban areas. One way to approach these challenges is to develop alternative approaches to service delivery, incorporating innovative institutional and contractual arrangements, and involving partnerships between communities, utilities, the private sector and regulators.

This Topic Brief focuses on a delegated management model developed in Kumasi (Ghana), where a WSUP-facilitated partnership between the water utility, the Metropolitan Assembly and a community management committee is starting to play a key role in expanding the provision of clean, affordable water and improved public toilet facilities in the low-income district of Kotei. The Brief explores the nature of the model, the contractual arrangements, and the central role of the community management committee. It also examines the potential for scale-up and replication.

For more resources like this, visit www.wsup.com/sharing

Seminar – Helping entrepreneurs provide sustainable sanitation services

Small private providers, from retailers to masons, from public toilet operators to latrine emptying businesses, are of vital importance to medium- and lower-income communities, according to BPD Water & Sanitation [1]. The sanitation sector needs to capitalise on the growing interest in social entrepreneurship and the ‘bottom of the pyramid’ especially in urban areas.

There are numerous resilient private sanitation providers but the majority get limited support or oversight from public bodies, NGOs and others. Changing this requires requires relatively little effort, contends BPD, and would reap many economic, health and environmental benefits.

At the World Water Week in Stockholm, BPD, the Stockholm Environment Institute and WASTE are organising a seminar on “Helping Entrepreneurs Provide Sustainable Sanitation Services” (24 August 2011, 14.00 – 17.00, Room T6). The seminar explores the different markets and incentives for sanitation entrepreneurs from Bolivia, Ghana and Malawi. In discussion with entrepreneurs and organisations/ specialists that support them, this interactive session will engage participants in debate around two key topics: finance and business support. The session will finish with an interactive ‘sanitation marketplace’.

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Ghana: only 0.1% of budget committed to sanitation

In spite of the Government’s pledge to commit 0.5% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to sanitation, the 2011 budget made provision for 0.1%, said Executive Secretary of the Coalition of NGOs in water and sanitation (CONIWAS), Mr Benjamin Arthur. Ghana is one of the signatories of the 2008 eThekwini Declaration in which 17 African governments pledged to allocate a minimum of 0.5% of GDP for sanitation and hygiene.

Arthur said despite the government’s 2010 promise to commit 200 million dollars every year towards water and sanitation activities beginning in 2011, this year’s budget did not reflect that commitment.

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US-Ghana team gets Gates Foundation grant to transform human waste into energy

A US-Ghanaian team has been awarded US$ 1.5 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to develop a biorefinery that will convert fecal sludge to biodiesel and methane.

Prof. Kartik Chandran. Photo: Columbia University

Kartik Chandran, an associate professor of Earth and Environmental Engineering at Columbia Engineering is leading the team that includes Ashley Murray, founder and director of Waste Enterprisers, and Moses Mensah, a Chemical Engineering professor at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Chandran may involve the Columbia University Engineers without Borders Ghana team, for whom he acts as faculty advisor, as well.

Chandran and his team aim to develop a bioprocess technology to convert the organic compounds present in fecal sludge to biodiesel and methane, two potent sources of energy, and thus convert a waste-processing facility into a biorefinery. The biorefinery will not only be an economical source of fuel, but, by minimizing discharge of fecal sludge into local water bodies, it will also contribute to improved human health and sanitation. Chandran says that potential outcomes of his work will also include integrating the bioprocess technology component into a social enterprise business model that will further promote widespread implementation of this approach and technology across the globe, especially in developing economies.

Earlier Waste Enterprisers conducted an exploratory study, funded by the Gates Foundation, to identify promising fecal sludge reuse and management options for  Greater Accra, Ghana. Their study incorporated  detailed analyses of emerging energy-related reuse options. Waste Enterprisers is one of the partners in a European Water Initiative ERA-NET – SPLASH project on “Faecal Management Enterprises (FaME)” in Ghana, Senegal, and Uganda. One of project activities is to demonstrate the technical and financial viability of using faecal sludge as a fuel in cement manufacturing (and other industrial processes).

Dr. Ashley Murray, founder Waste Enterprisers, Ghana and a 2011 recipient of a National Geographic's Emerging Explorers Program award. Photo: Matthew Muspratt

Since about two years the Gates Foundation has shifted its focus from water and hygiene to sanitation. While the Foundation continues to provide limited funding to promising clean water and hygiene solutions, its main grantmaking will go to three areas: ending open defecation; investment in sanitation tools and technologies; and policy and advocacy.

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Source: Columbia University, 01 Jun 2011