Tag Archives: handwashing

THE URBAN PROGRAMMING GUIDE: How to design and implement a pro-poor urban WASH programme

Improving water, sanitation and hygiene services to low-income urban areas is a highly challenging and complex task. Traditional approaches have often failed to work. We need new approaches and fresh thinking. We need governments, donors and sector professionals genuinely committed to improving services in slum settlements. It’s challenging but it can be done! This guide offers some solutions based around WSUP’s experience: all you have to do is put them into practice!

The guide provides an introduction to urban WASH programming: how to design and implement a pro-poor urban water, sanitation and hygiene programme.

Urban Programming Guide
Who is this guide for?
This guide is primarily designed for WASH professionals working in governments, development agencies, funding agencies or civil society organisations. It will also be useful for professionals working for service providers including water utilities, local authorities and in the private sector.

How to use this guide
The guide provides an overview of some key strategies and service delivery models. It’s not intended to be encyclopaedic: it’s a rapid-reference document with the following intended uses:

  • To aid the planning, design and implementation of urban WASH programmes.
  • To assist with investment planning by service providers.
  • To point the reader towards further sources of information and guidance.

The guide is free to download from WSUP’s website: http://www.wsup.com/resource/the-urban-programming-guide

Unilever Lifebuoy Handwashing Campaign Reduces Diarrhea

Unilever Lifebuoy Handwashing Campaign Reduces Diarrhea from 36& to 5% in Indian Village unilever-logo

March 2014 – Unilever’s health soap Lifebuoy has this month announced the results of its Help A Child Reach 5 handwashing programmes launched in Thesgora, India, noting an overwhelming drop in incidence of diarrhoea from 36% to 5%.

The decrease in diarrhoea in this village – known for having one of the highest rates in India of this deadly yet preventable disease – was observed over the period of Lifebuoy’s intervention in an independent evaluation of 1485 households with children aged below 12 years, conducted by Nielsen in September 2013.

Lifebuoy’s Help A Child Reach 5 campaign aims to eradicate preventable deaths from diseases like diarrhoea one village at a time through teaching lifesaving handwashing habits. The campaign was launched with an award winning film http://www.youtube.com/helpachildreach5 and handwashing initiatives in Thesgora, a village in Madhya Pradesh.

These new results show that handwashing programmes have significant positive impact on both the handwashing behaviours and health of a community. Lifebuoy’s handwashing programmes are now being rolled out to villages across a further eight countries and scaled up in India to reach 45 million people.

Study examines sustainability of CLTS programmes in Africa

Plan-ODF-sustainability-coverDespite the widespread implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programs and many claims of success, there has been very little systematic investigation into their sustainability.  A new study, which aims to change that, is creating a stir in the WASH sector.

A study commissioned by Plan International on the sustainability of CLTS programs in Africa revealed that 87% of the households still had a functioning latrine. This would indicate a remarkably low rate of reversion (13%) to open defecation (OD) or “slippage”.

However, if the criteria used to originally award open defecation free (ODF) status to villages are used, then the overall slippage rate increased dramatically to  92%. These criteria are:

  • A functioning latrine with a superstructure
  • A means of keeping flies from the pit (either water seal or lid)
  • Absence of excreta in the vicinity of the house
  • Hand washing facilities with water and soap or soap-substitute such as ash
  • Evidence that the latrine and hand washing facilities were being used

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“SuperAmma” campaign results in significant improvements in people’s handwashing behaviour

“SuperAmma” campaign results in significant improvements in people’s handwashing behaviour | Source: SHARE, Feb 27 2014 |

A unique handwashing campaign jointly funded by SHARE and the Wellcome Trust has shown for the first time that using emotional motivators – such as feelings of disgust and nurture – rather than health messages, can result in significant, long-lasting improvements in people’s handwashing behaviour, and could in turn help to reduce the risk of infectious diseases. SuperAmma

“Every year, diarrhoea kills around 800,000 children under 5 years old. Handwashing with soap could prevent perhaps a third of these deaths”, explains study author Dr Val Curtis, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).

“Handwashing campaigns usually try to educate people with health messages about germs and diseases, but so far efforts to change handwashing behaviour on a large scale have had little success. Understanding the motivating factors for routine hand washing is essential to any initiative likely to achieve lasting behaviour change.”

An evaluation of the behaviour-change intervention, published by the Lancet Global Health journal today, shows that 6 months after the campaign was rolled out in 14 villages in rural India, rates of handwashing with soap increased by 31%, compared to communities without the programme, and were sustained for 12 months.

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Tropical plant Moringa provides alternative to soap for handwashing

Moringa oleofera leaves and powde

Moringa oleofera leaves and powder. Photo: New Flavor House Inc.

SHARE-funded research [1] has found that Moringa oleifera, a common plant in many tropical and subtropical countries, can be an effective handwashing product if used in the correct concentration. Laboratory tests show that the plant has antibacterial activity against different pathogen, but its potential effect as a hand washing product had not been studied before.

By testing the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder on hands artificially contaminated with E. coli and comparing this to the effect of non-medicated liquid soap, the researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and SBI Consulting Ltd in Mozambique found that four grams of Moringa oleifera powder had the same effect as non-medicated soap when used for hand washing.

The next step will be to try this product in real conditions and study its acceptability and convenience for potential users.

To take part in a discussion on the use of Moringa as soap visit the SuSanA  Forum.

SHARE stands for Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity, and is a five year initiative (2010-2015) funded by the UK Department for International Development

[1] Torondel, B., Opare, D., Brandberg, B., Cobb, E. and Cairncross, S., 2014. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product : a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 14 (57), pp. 1-7.   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-57

Source: SHARE, 21 Feb 2014

UNICEF – Handwashing Promotion: Monitoring and Evaluation Module

Handwashing Promotion: Monitoring and Evaluation Module, 2013. UNICEF.

Prepared by Jelena Vujcic, MPH and Pavani K. Ram, MD, University at Buffalo. UNICEF-M&E-Toolkit-Final-11-24-Low-Res-10

This guide will walk you through planning and implementing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for your handwashing promotion programme. Programmes that promote handwashing are diverse and vary in scope. The content of this module is designed to be adapted to a variety of programmes. In this guide, you will be introduced to:

  • The 7 major steps of monitoring and evaluating handwashing promotion.
  • Choosing indicators appropriate to the programme’s objectives.
  • Collecting the necessary data, and sample questions for indicators relevant to handwashing advocacy, education and behaviour change.
  • Health impact measurement and caveats for the inclusion of health impact assessment as part of an M&E plan.

How to Trigger for Handwashing with Soap

How to Trigger for Handwashing with Soap.  Frontiers of CLTS:  Innovations and Insights, Issue 02, January 2014.

Author: Jolly Ann Maulit for UNICEF Malawi Frontiers

The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi. This is a very positive development!

Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing with soap one of the most cost-effective interventions for reducing illness and preventable deaths among children in Malawi. It is therefore quite worthwhile for us to be working together to increase handwashing practices.

Since Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is our key intervention for sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi, it provides an excellent opportunity to facilitate handwashing behaviour change. However, up till now, the ‘triggering tools’ for achieving HWWS behaviour change from CLTS have not been well known by implementers in Malawi. The purpose of this document is to outline several practical tools which can be used as a part of CLTS in order to trigger realisation among communities of the importance of handwashing with soap, as well as eliminating open defecation.