Tag Archives: Indonesia

New WSP/World Bank report shows catalytic potential of factoring political economy into sanitation investments

A better understanding of a county’s political and social processes and entities that determine the extent and nature of investments in sanitation could catalyze a sharp increase in numbers of people with access, especially for the poor, according to a new report released by the World Bank and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

Recent World Bank research shows that the current limited focus on sanitation is driven largely by political motivation in the context of competing demands for resources, and to a lesser extent by technical or economic considerations.

Based on an analysis of experiences in Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Senegal, The Political Economy of Sanitation, proposes an approach to address the political economy of sanitation in a given country in order to more effectively advocate with policy makers to invest more and to better target services for poor people.

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Poor sanitation in Indonesia hits kids hard

Jan 27, 2011 – Changing a mindset is easier said than done.

In Indonesia, public awareness of the importance of hygiene remains low. About 30 percent of the total population of about 240 million, for example, still practice open defecation, according to government figures.

Experts point out that insufficient sanitation management and poor awareness of hygiene practices have led to preventable diseases, and children are among those affected most.

About 18.6 percent of children in Indonesia suffer from malnutrition and diseases such as respiratory infections and diarrhea, according to MercyCorps, a nongovernmental organization working to reduce urban poverty.

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Marketing Sanitation in Rural East Java – 4th Place Award in Sanitation Video Contest

WSP – Marketing Sanitation in Rural East Java

Indonesia: ADB extends US$ 35 million for sanitation improvement in Medan and Yogyakarta

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is extending a US$ 35 million loan to help Indonesia rehabilitate and expand sanitation facilities in the cities of Medan and Yogyakarta.

Medan, the capital of North Sumatra province, and Yogyakarta, the capital of Yogyakarta province, have a combined population of around 4.5 million people.

The loan will be used to build around 280 communal sanitation facilities in poor areas in the two cities, as well as two wastewater treatment systems for low-cost housing development projects in Medan. Sewerage systems will be rehabilitated and expanded with up to 28,000 additional household connections. The Metropolitan Sanitation Management and Health Project will also provide support to mobilize community involvement in the planning, operation and maintenance of communal facilities, and will ensure women are strongly involved in the process.

“A gender action plan in the project design will ensure women fully participate in the decision-making process for the development of facilities, and that they benefit equally with men from improved communal services,” said Rudolf Frauendorfer in ADB’s Southeast Asia Department.

Sanitation services have steadily improved in Indonesia, but still lag behind many neighboring countries, with partial sewerage coverage only available in a small number of urban centers. Since the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998, new sanitation investments have been postponed and existing treatment systems have deteriorated due to lack of repair and maintenance. As a result, many of the poor living in informal settlements suffer high rates of diarrhea, skin diseases and other illnesses caused by polluted water and untreated waste.

“This project will sharply reduce pollution of surface and shallow groundwater in the two cities, resulting in improved health and quality of life particularly for women, children and the elderly who suffer the most from unclean environments,” Mr. Frauendorfer said.

The loan is structured to ensure that operating and maintenance spending on revenue-generating services can be fully funded from user tariff income by the middle of 2014, while remaining affordable to low-income communities. Insufficient revenue for service providers and low user charges, which deter private investment in new facilities, have been a major impediment to the expansion of sanitation services.

To complement the loan, ADB will provide a US$ 500,000 grant from its Technical Assistance Special Fund to strengthen the capacity and management capabilities of local governments, utilities and communities involved in providing or overseeing sanitation services. Further technical assistance of US$ 1 million in the form of a grant from the Government of Australia, will be administered by ADB.

The loan has a 25-year term, with a five-year grace period and an interest rate determined in accordance with ADB’s LIBOR-based lending facility. The Government of Indonesia will provide additional funding of US$ 14.2 million, with regional governments committing US$ 13.5 million, and provincial governments almost US$ 500,000, for a total project of about US$ 63.2 million.

The Ministry of Public Works is the executing agency for the project which is expected to be completed around December 2014.

Source: ADB, 20 Jul 2010

Indonesia, Tangerang: Taiwan funds community-based urban sanitation project

RTI International has been awarded a grant from the Taiwan Ministry of Foreign Affairs to implement a small project to address low-income urban sanitation conditions in one sub-district in Tangerang, Banten Province.

The program will work in partnership with an Indonesian non-profit organization and in collaboration with the Environmental Quality Protection Foundation (EQPF) of Taiwan to facilitate community-based planning and targeted infrastructure improvements in the selected community and school districts.

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This program will build upon the good practices of a well-regarded Indonesian non-governmental organization, the Institute for Integrated Social and Economic Development, better known as BEST (Bina Ekonomi Sosial Terpadu). BEST, established in 1995, has a strong track record of sanitation programming in Tangerang, among other locations in the country.

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Tangerang has a large population of urban migrant workers, living in densely populated and low-resourced urban areas. Urban infrastructure improvements and basic services have not kept pace with the rapid population growth. Many of the low-income labor force live in areas that are poorly served with water, improved sanitation or solid waste infrastructure and services.

RTI International a research institute with its headquarters in the USA and international offices in 7 other countries including Indonesia, South Africa and El Salvador. For more about RTI’s activities in water supply and sanitation see their brochure and list of international environmental projects.

Source: RTI, 13 May 2010

Indonesia, Jakarta: slums struggle with sanitation

In Jakarta’s northern Muara Angke coastal area, a lack of access to piped water has forced people to bathe and wash clothes using murky grey water from fish ponds.

“I don’t feel disgusted at all. I’ve gotten used to it,” Ibu Nunung, who shells mussels for a living, told IRIN outside her house in Muara Angke Blok Empang, a slum in the area.

Nunung said residents, many of whom live on less than US$2 a day, had to fork out the equivalent of up to $1 daily to buy clean water for drinking and cooking from vendors transporting water in jugs.

She admitted that itchy skin was a common problem among locals.

Jakarta, a city of 10 million people, is dotted with slums like the one in Muara Angke.

Many people live without running water in shanty towns built in the shadow of gleaming skyscrapers, and gutters are clogged with rubbish, causing foul smells.

“Poor sanitation, lack of access to clean water, overcrowding and poor nutrition are among [the] major problems in Jakarta, and the government’s commitment is needed to address these problems,” said Erlyn Sulistyaningsih, a project manager with Mercy Corps Indonesia.

Less than 50 percent of Jakarta’s residents have access to piped water, according to the NGO, which runs water, sanitation and health programmes in the city.

More than 75 percent of the city’s residents rely on shallow groundwater, but an official study found that 90 percent of shallow wells are contaminated with coliform bacteria or heavy metals, Mercy Corps said in a 2008 publication entitled Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy.

Jakarta produces 6,000 tons of waste each day, but can only manage 50 percent of it, it said.

Sulistyaningsih heads a project aimed at increasing access to sanitary facilities, including toilets, providing access to clean water, and educating child caregivers about nutrition in several villages in Jakarta and neighbouring Bekasi District.

“Our programme seeks to prevent diseases which are spread by the faeces-to-mouth route, and we hope it can be replicated by other communities,” she told IRIN.

Premature deaths

A study released by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Programme in 2008 revealed that only 57 percent of Indonesian households had easy access to a private and safe place to urinate and defecate in 2004.

Poor sanitation, including poor hygiene, causes at least 120 million disease episodes and 50,000 premature deaths annually, the report said.

The study also found that poor sanitation costs the Indonesian economy $6.3 billion per year, or equal to 2.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product.

Nugroho Tri Utomo, head of the subdirectorate of drinking water and waste water at the National Development Planning Agency, said part of the problem was a lack of funding, with spending on sanitation accounting for only 1 percent of the city’s budget.

“Both the general public and authorities have yet to realize the importance of sanitation, not only to health but also to the economy,” he said.

Improvement plans under way

The government last month launched a programme to provide access to adequate sanitation to 80 percent of urban households by 2014.

The Settlement Sanitation Development Programme, estimated to cost $5.5 billion, aims to develop waste water services in 226 cities, build sanitary landfills serving 240 urban areas, and stop inundations in strategic urban locations covering 22,500 hectares.

Under a separate programme called the National Strategy for Community-Based Total Sanitation, launched in 2008, the government aims to provide access to sanitation and introduce more effective water treatment methods in 10,000 villages by 2012.

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Source: IRIN, 16 Apr 2010