WaterSHED’s Vietnamese HappyTap. Photo: WaterSHED
The HappyTap, a low-cost handwashing device for the Vietnamese market, is one of seven innovations to receive a grant from the WASH for Life Partnership. This US$ 17 million initiative is co-funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and USAID’s Development Innovation Ventures (DIV).
In 2010, with USAID support, the WaterSHED program teamed with the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) to develop and market a new handwashing device. The design came from IDEO.org, which itself has received a WASH for Life grant for Clean Kumasi, an digitally-supported approach to Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). Together with Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP), IDEO.org is working to combat open defecation in Kumasi, Ghana using mobile phones and open-source mapping.
Examples of signs posted to prompt residents to flash Clean Kumasi. Photo: IDEO.org
Posted in Africa, East Asia & Pacific, Hygiene Promotion, Sanitation and Health, South Asia
Tagged Bear Valley Ventures, changing behaviour, chlornation, Clean Hands Inc, Clean Kumasi, Community-Led Total Sanitation, Gates Foundation, handwashing, HappyTap, IDEO.org, Innovations for Poverty Action, open defecation, Sanergy, USAID, WASH for Life Partnership, WaterSHED
Developing and Monitoring Protocol for the Elimination of Open Defecation in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2013. UNICEF.
Eliminating open defecation is increasingly seen as a key health outcome, with links to reduced stunting, improved educational and positive health outcomes for children. In Sub Saharan Africa, over 35 countries are implementing some form of CLTS, ranging from TATS in Tanzania to CLTSH in Ethiopia. Since the introduction of CLTS in 2005 in the region, rapid scale-up has been achieved with suggested numbers of ODF communities in the range of 30,000 affecting over 15 million people in SubSaharan Africa. Several countries have set aggressive targets for elimination of Open Defecation in rural areas for the next five years which often include not only safe disposal of faeces but handwashing facilities, cleanliness and solid waste management.
Sustaining the progress made through the application of the CLTS process is emerging as a challenge with experience suggesting that sustainability is determined by the process followed to achieve ODF. Rapid scale up in SSA is arguably linked to the fact that CLTS is based on the concept of triggering community-wide behaviour change, requires no subsidies and integrates easily into existing health programming structures. Current focus is on ‘triggering’ communities into action; while considerably less resources and emphasis on following up and mentoring of communities ‘post-triggering’.
This paper reviews process and protocol for defining, reporting, declaring, certifying ODF and sustaining ODF, highlighting where the process varies between countries and potential determinants of sustainability within the process itself. Critical questions include what elements (should) constitute an ODF protocol, what are the determinants of sustainability and what impact does target-setting have on achievement of ODF goals in country?