Tag Archives: Peru

Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation

. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People

. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People

Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report [1], WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.

The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are:

  1. Think like a business
  2. Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs
  3. Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market
  4. Track progress and lessons

The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant.

Read the full report

[1]  Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation : a synthesis of Water For People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO,USA: Water For People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitation-microfinance.pdf>

Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013

Peace Corps/Peru – Build Your Own Soap Dispenser

Got Soap? A Volunteer in Peru put together this great tutorial on how to build your own soap dispenser.

Materials : 2 liter soda bottle, 3 liter soda bottle, 1 “closet bolt” or other bolt (1/4”x 2”), 5 of ¼” nuts, 2 rubber washers, Africano contact glue, screw(s) to attach holder to wall. Drill & bit. 

Remove bottle labels and cut off both bottle bottoms. Cut off top of the 3 L bottle, about 2” from cap, so that it creates a 2” diameter hole.

Mount the inverted 3L bottle on a wall or suspend by string as standard Tippy Tap.

Drill a clean 3/8” hole in the center of the 2 L cap. Smooth edges with steel wool or sandpaper.

Plunger assembly: Thread all nuts up to the bolt head, glue one rubber washer to inside of cap and the other to underside of bolt head (or nut), (contact cement MUST be slightly dry before assembly). Slide open end of bolt through cap hole and thread on bolt cap.

Put the cap on the 2L bottle and insert entire unit into the 3L holder.
Fill with liquid soap (thicker the better). You may coat the 2 washer contact surfaces with Vaseline for better seal.

Behavioral Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Senegal and Peru: Emergent Learning

A new Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Learning Note found that beliefs and ease of access to soap and water were correlated with handwashing with soap behaviors for given proxy measures among mothers and caretakers in Peru and Senegal.

“Behavioral Determinants of Handwashing with Soap Among Mothers and Caretakers: Emergent Learning from Senegal and Peru,” is based on survey data from nearly 3,500 households in Peru and 1,500 households in Senegal. This data was analyzed using FOAM, a conceptual framework developed by WSP to help identify factors that might facilitate or impeded handwashing with soap practices at critical times.

The analysis revealed that the impact of different determinants varies depending on the chosen proxy measure, such as the presence of a handwashing station or its distance from kitchen or latrine facilities. Given this variability, the Learning Note found that program managers must clearly define the exact behavior they seek to improve before choosing which determinant to focus on in their formative research.

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Sustaining Behavior Change Interventions: Enabling Environment for Handwashing with Soap in Peru

A new endline report discusses how Peru’s enabling environment for handwashing with soap has progressed since 2007.  The research, conducted by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), indicates that the enabling environment has been strengthened at both national and regional levels. In addition, efforts to integrate and institutionalize handwashing with soap behavior change into national, regional, and local policies related to health and nutrition, education, water, and sanitation have largely been achieved.

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WSP – Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing and Online Toolkit

Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing, 2011.
Print and Online Toolkit, by Jacqueline Devine and Craig Kullmann, Water and Sanitation Program.
Download Full-text (pdf) and view Online Toolkit

Sanitation marketing is an emerging field with a relatively small group of practitioners who are learning by doing. With an Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing and a companion online toolkit the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) seeks to contribute to the field by sharing practical guidance on the design, implementation, and monitoring of rural sanitation marketing programs at scale in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania, plus additional projects implemented in Cambodia and Peru.

The online toolkit includes narrated overviews, videos, and downloadable documents including research reports, sample questionnaires, and more.

Sanitation marketing, together with Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and behaviour change are the three core components WSP’s approach to scaling up rural sanitation, which also includes strengthening the enabling environment.

WSP – Scaling Up Handwashing Behavior: Findings from Peru

Scaling Up Handwashing Behavior: Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Peru, August 2010.

Download Full-text (pdf, 3.99MB)

Sebastian Galiani and Alexandra Orsola-Vidal. Water and Sanitation Program.

The handwashing project in Peru, implemented in 788 randomly selected districts located in 104 provinces, comprises a primary audience of mother/caregivers and children; the secondary targeted audience includes community-based agents such as schoolteachers, health promoters, and local leaders. In Peru, the project objective is to reach women (ages 14–49) and children (ages 5–12) in order to stimulate and sustain handwashing behavior change in a total of 1.3 million of those reached by project end.

The main components of the intervention include:

  • Mass media and promotional events at the provincial level that combine local radio and outreach activities in public spaces to promote behavior change among the primary target audience, and
  • School and community social mobilization activities at the district level, including educational sessions and promotional events, to reinforce messages among the primary target audience, and promote capacity building among the secondary target audience

WSP – Creating sanitation markets in Peru

Below is a link to a presentation by Malva Rosa Baskovich, Coordinator – Creating Sanitation Markets Initiative, Water and Sanitation Program Latin America.  Webpage of the initiative:  http://www.perusan.org

Presentation – WSP – Creating Sanitation Markets (pdf, 2.5MB)

Excerpts:

People’s choice depends on:

  • A private family decision that takes into account community perceptions and in which children have a great influence on it.
  • A complementary prior or parallel public investments in water & sewerage networks and / or on-site sanitation systems.
  • Prioritization of sanitation investment as a result of its link with quality housing , through their peers influence.
  • Access to affordable sanitation product that response to their needs and expectations

Scaling up challenges to face:

  • Self-construction and the service quality.
  • The development of financial mechanisms for the poorest that does not put at risk the market development.
  • Articulated information system. All partners should be able to provide right information or to refer people to the adequate provider.
  • Sustainable guarantee and post-sale system. Educational component in use and maintenance and credit cultural is a critical issue

Peru: new standards for effluents are insufficient while coverage remains low – expert

The Peruvian environment ministry’s (Minam) new standards for wastewater effluents will have little impact given the country’s low wastewater treatment coverage, Laureano del Castillo, lawyer and hydrological expert with the national center for social studies (Cepes), told BNamericas.

“It’s a step forward, but we still have many problems in this area, mainly the low wastewater treatment coverage. There’s very little wastewater treatment,” del Castillo said.

Currently, Peru only treats 15% of its domestic wastewater. President Alan García aims to reach 100% wastewater treatment coverage by 2015, as part of the national development plan. However, industry insiders are skeptical of the government’s ability to do so.

“Part of the problem is that the previous water quality standards were set out under the 1969 water law, which was made when cities were much smaller and the use of water was less intensive,” del Castillo said.

The new standards, approved by Minam in March, regulate the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the presence of chemicals in effluents produced by domestic and municipal wastewater treatment plants that end up in bodies of water. The new norms set a maximum BOD value of 100mg/l, chemical oxygen demand (COD) must be less than 200mg/l, total suspended solids (TSS) must be less than 150mg/l, and a maximum limit for fats and oils of 20mg/l.

Administrators of existing wastewater treatment plants without an environmental certificate will have a period of two years to present the housing and sanitation ministry with a plan to adjust the plants to comply with the new norms. Plants with environmental certificates will have three years to present their plans.
The new standards do not apply to plants that use advanced treatment or primary treatment with final disposal through a submarine outfall.

According to the new norms, wastewater treatment plant administrators are responsible for monitoring effluents and reporting levels to the housing and sanitation ministry in line with the latter’s monitoring program

Despite government efforts, most of the work to prevent the pollution of Peru’s water resources is carried out by large mining companies, according to del Castillo.

“There are a lot of complaints about contamination from mining, and I don’t deny that there is contamination, but we must recognize the mining industry is taking corrective action,” del Castillo said.

For Minam’s full decree outlining the new norms, in Spanish, go to this link.

Read the full interview with Laureano del Castillo [BNamericas.com subscribers only]

Source: Catherine Setterfield, BNamericas.com [subscription site], 01 Apr 2010 ; BNamericas.com, 22 Mar 2010

Peru: US$150,000 in microcredit provide sanitation access to thousands

The Creating Sanitation Markets or Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions (APSS) in Peru Initiative has reached a new milestone, allocating over US$150,000 in credit towards improved sanitation for people otherwise ineligible for commercial loans.

A recent Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) market research poll discovered many potential sanitation customers in Peru are ineligible for a sanitation credit since their income is above the limit to receive support from governmental programs, but below the expected salary to be eligible for a commercial loan (US$50 to US$170 per month). Recognizing the growing demand for sanitation products among these customers, small local businesses affiliated with the Initiative, such as hardware stores, have begun accepting payment in installments. This allows people who do not qualify for a loan, or who feel more confident dealing with their local storekeeper, to have a viable opportunity to invest in a new bathroom for their homes.

The local business owners assume the risk for the loan, which is provided to customers who have a working relationship with the business owner. Typically the loans do not bear interest or additional charges.

APSS is a public-private alliance headed by the Peruvian Government through the Vice Ministry of Construction and Sanitation of Peru (VMCS), Lima’s public water utility (SEDAPAL), the National Direction of Environmental Health (DIGESA) of the Ministry of Health, the World Bank, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Americas Fund (FONDAM), the Ensemble Foundation and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) administrated by the World Bank (WSP). APSS is implementing in five pilot zones of Peru. These localities are representative of the diverse cultural, geographical and social conditions of the country: the urban marginal areas, rural areas, small towns; the coast, the highlands and the jungle regions.

Read a 2008 background paper on the APSS “Building inclusive sanitation markets for the poor” by Malva Rosa Baskovich.

Visit the Creating Sanitation Markets web site for more information.

Source: WSP Access, Dec 2009

Peru: Sedapal to raise water rates on industries that pollute

Peru’s state-owned water and sewerage utility Sedapal, serving capital Lima and neighboring Callao, will raise water rates on companies that pollute beginning in January 2010. The rate hike will apply to companies that dump toxic waste into the sewerage system, which leads to greater deterioration in the network.

The announcement was made by the president of national sanitation authority Sunass, José Salazar. In 2008, Sunass said various industries were increasing the rate of deterioration in the sewerage system, but their rates were the same as domestic customers.

In conjunction with the national industries association (SNI), Sunass has completed the design of the new tariff system which includes rate increases for companies that do not invest in improving their wastewater treatment. In addition, firms that contaminate more will pay more.

Sedapal must now implement the software necessary to start using the new system.

Local development bank Cofide will provide small and medium-sized companies with up to 50% of the investment needed to improve wastewater treatment.

Source: BNamericas.com [subscription site], 30 Sep 2009