India, urban sanitation, and the toilet challenge, 2013.
Elledge, M.F., McClatchey, M. RTI International.
This research brief builds upon a literature review and stakeholder interviews in India on urban sanitation to examine the public policy landscape for sanitation innovation in the country. India ranks low in terms of sanitation coverage; the country experiences very high rates of open defecation and significant use of unimproved toilets. The majority of fecal sludge goes untreated into waterways in urban areas. India’s demographic trends show rapid urban growth, both geographically and in terms of population, which is also expanding the gap in access to improved sanitation in urban areas. Adequate government funding and policy implementation is lacking.
The past focus on centralized sewerage systems and simple on-site sanitation is not an acceptable default option, nor is it technically feasible or financially viable given growth patterns. Groundbreaking new technology, management, and operational models are required to solve the sanitation challenge at scale. Recent attention from the donor community, the private sector, and others brings focus to using innovation to solve the sanitation challenge. This review highlights that urban sanitation is under-researched. More work is required to spur funding, inform technology development, and support the policy-enabling environment for bringing in new approaches to improved urban sanitation.
Infographic: ADB and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have set up a joint trust fund to expand non-sewered sanitation and septage management solutions across Asia.
The Gates Foundation will invest US$ 15 million into the new Sanitation Financing Partnership Trust Fund, which will leverage more than US$ 28 million in investments from ADB by 2017.
The Trust Fund will pilot innovations in sanitation and septage management, provide grant funds for innovations in ADB’s sanitation projects, and support polices on septage management and sludge treatment for low-income urban communities who lack access to piped networks or safe wastewater disposal systems.
The Trust Fund will be part of ADB’s Water Financing Partnership Facility (WFPF), which has invested US$ 2.5 billion (out of a total of US$ 8.8 billion) in water supply, sanitation, and wastewater management projects since 2006.
So far the Gates Foundation has funded 85 sanitation research & development projects as part of their grant schemes such as the “Reinvent the Toilet Challenge” and “Grand Challenges Exploration“. An overview of these projects and background information is available on the SuSanA website.
The BRAC WASH II programme in Bangladesh, which is co-funded by the Gates Foundation, includes a component for innovative action research on sanitation and water supply.
Source: ADB, 02 Sep 2013
Posted in East Asia & Pacific, Funding, Research, Sanitary Facilities, South Asia, Wastewater Management
Tagged Asian Development Bank, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, faecal sludge management, finance, Sanitation Financing Partnership Trust Fund, urban sanitation
The Local Development Programme of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) announces the next session of the e-learning course Governance in Urban Sanitation, to be conducted from 23 September to 29 November 2013.
The course aims to enhance the capacity of local decision-makers and sanitation professionals to make the most enlightened decisions and investments in the area of urban sanitation. Furthermore, it provides analytical tools to understand the financial and institutional framework of the sanitation sector, taking into account the needs of urban poor communities.
The course is composed of four modules:
Module 1: Introduction to Sanitation
Module 2: Economics, Pricing and Financing of the Sanitation Sector
Module 3: Institutional Aspects of the Sanitation Sector
Module 4: Sanitation and Poverty
This online course has been awarded with the International ECBCheck Quality Label for e-learning.
The course fee is USD 600 and UNITAR stresses that it does not provide any financial assistance.
Full information about the course is available at:
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the UK Department for International Development (DfID) have initiated a partnership to focus on solutions for the sustainable provision of sanitation to the urban poor. They are jointly seeking proposals to test how cities can use binding service-level agreements and performance-based contracts with private sector partners as way to ensure the city-scale delivery of sustainable sanitation services.
The selection of the cities will be a two-step process. In Phase 1, up to ten cities will be selected to develop an informed plan and full proposal to solicit a grant. Out of these proposals, 2-3 cities will be selected for a larger Phase 2 grant to support implementation of their proposed plan. The duration of the Phase 2 grant is expected to be 2-3 years. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are priority geographies for consideration.
Phase 1 budgets have a maximum of US$ 150,000, but no budget limits have been set yet for Phase 2.
The application deadline for proposals is 13 September 2013.
In 2012, the Gates Foundation published a study on fecal sludge management in 30 cities across 10 countries in Africa and Asia.
For more information on the “City Partnerships for Urban Sanitation Service Delivery” request for proposals (RFP) go here.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is organising an “Action Planning Workshop on Promoting Innovations in Wastewater Management in Bangladesh” in Khulna from 1-3 July 2013.
This is the follow-up of a conference held in January 2013 when the ADB launched its Promoting Innovations in Wastewater Management in Asia and the Pacific project.
This in-country workshop will bring together key stakeholders, including donors, to finalise an action plan to bring wastewater and fecal sludge/septage management in the city of Khulna and coastal towns in Bangladesh.
ADB is organising the workshop in collaboration with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) , JICA, DANIDA, KfW, Cities Development Initiative Asia, and SNV Netherlands Development Organisation.
One of the presentations will be on the ADB-BMGF Pilot
Partnership in the Coastal Cities Project. See the full programme here.
Community-driven sanitation improvement in deprived urban neighbourhoods: Meeting the challenges of local collective action, co-production, affordability and a trans-sectoral approach, 2013.
There is an international consensus that urban sanitary conditions are in great need of improvement, but sharp disagreement over how this improvement should be pursued. Both market-driven and state-led efforts to improve sanitation in deprived communities tend to be severely compromised, as there is a lack of effective market demand (due to collective action problems) and severe barriers to the centralized provision of low-cost sanitation facilities. In principle, community-driven initiatives have a number of advantages.
But community-driven sanitary improvement also faces serious challenges, including:
1) The collective action challenge of getting local residents to coordinate and combine their demands for sanitary improvement;
2) The co-production challenge of getting the state to accept community-driven approaches to sanitary improvement, and where necessary to coinvest and take responsibility for the final waste disposal;
3) The affordability challenge of finding improvements that are affordable and acceptable to both the state and the community – and to other funders if relevant;
4) The trans-sectoral challenge of ensuring that other poverty-related problems, such as insecure tenure, do not undermine efforts to improve sanitation.
Scale-up of urban sanitation remains an elusive goal in most low-income cities. Donor interventions are often macro-investments without adequate attention to low-income communities, or small pilots that do not address the challenges of scale.
Taking urban sanitation to scale requires ‘scaling out’ models that work for poorer communities, and at the same time ‘scaling up’ sustainable management processes.
This Practice Note reports scale-out and scale-up experience from WSUP‘s programmes in Maputo and Antananarivo.
For a more in-depth look at lessons for scale-up deriving from these programmes, see our accompanying Topic Brief on Getting to scale in urban sanitation.