Tag Archives: Viet Nam

International Women’s Day in Asia: celebrating women in sanitation

In a new video, Mayadevi and Kaman (Nepal),  Toan and Thinh (VietNam) and  Tshering, Drukda, Tashi and Deschen (Bhutan) share stories about women’s participation, leadership and their changing roles in promoting sanitation and hygiene in  Nepal, Bhutan and Viet Nam.

The video is from SNV’s Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All Programme (SSH4A), which has been implemented by local governments and partners in 17 districts across Nepal, Bhutan, Laos, Viet Nam and Cambodia since 2008. It aims to provide one million people with access to improved hygiene and sanitation facilities by the end of 2015. As the approach aims at addressing access to sanitation for all, addressing gender issues and inequalities is key.

SSH4A is a partnership between SNV, the Governments of the Netherlands, Nepal, Bhutan, Laos, Viet Nam and Cambodia in Asia and the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre with support from AusAID and DFID.

Learn more about SSH4A at www.snvworld.org/node/3779 and www.irc.nl/ssh4a

In Bangladesh, IRC is supporting BRAC  to measure behavioural change in the   BRAC  WASH II programme. Christine Sijbesma of IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and Mahjabeen Ahmed of the BRAC share their thoughts and experiences with monitoring sanitation and hygiene behaviour of women in the programme in a recent blog post [1].

The QIS monitoring system that is being used gives special attention to gender and sanitation. First because many of the indicators differentiate between women and men. Secondly because data collection for each sample is duplicated by a male and a female monitoring team.  Interestingly, preliminary results show that virtually all the male and female monitoring teams members gave the same scores for the gender indicators.

[1] Bangladeshi women catch up on sanitation, IRC, 08 March 2013

Viet Nam: world’s first Unilever-sponsored Toilet Academy opens in 2012

Unilever is partnering with the World Toilet Organization (WTO) to set up Domestos Toilet Academies around the world, starting with a pilot Academy in Viet Nam opening in 2012.

The Domestos Toilet Academy will run month-long training courses for local people interested in setting up their own businesses to source, sell and maintain toilets, and educate local communities on the importance of sanitation.

In Viet Nam, only half the population has ‘some sort’ of sanitation facility, and 82% do not have access to facilities that meet the hygiene standards of the country’s Ministry of Health. “Only 12% of schools actually have hygienic toilet access, with rural areas suffering the most”, said WTO founder Jack Sim.

Unilever will also be partnering with UNICEF to help promote health through improved hygiene and access to toilets, stated Keith Weed, Chief Marketing and Communications Officer, Unilever.

Domestos is the Unilever brand name for its bleach products (also sold as Domex, Glorix, Klinex).

Source: Unilever, 14 Nov 2011

Viet Nam: Integrating sanitation marketing into a national program

Nguyen, H.H. (2011). Integrating sanitation marketing into a national program : a case study in Vietnam. Brisbane, QLD, Australia, International Water Centre.
Read the full report

Supply-driven approaches to rural sanitation in Viet Nam, with associated toilet subsidies, have had little success over the last decade. Since 2003, International Development Enterprises (IDE) Vietnam has achieved better results in several pilots with an alternative approach involving rural sanitation marketing. As a result, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) has supported IDE in collaboration with the Health Environment Agency of the Ministry of Health (MOH) (HEMA) to implement a rural sanitation marketing pilot project within the National Target Program II (NTP II) program in Quang Tri province since 2010. This report  provides an analysis of the potential as well as the constraints for integrating sanitation marketing into NTP II.

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Brisbane WASH Conference 2011 presentations on hygiene and sanitation

Dr Val Curtis

“The most cost-effectiveness intervention for improving public health [is] improving hygiene promotion [and] without change in hygiene behaviour, we get none of the benefits of water, none of the benefits of sanitation”. This was one of the messages that Dr Val Curtis conveyed in her introduction to the session on “Behavioral change and social sustainability” at the WASH Conference 2011 (download audio of her presentation).

Some 224 conference delegates from over 100 organisations in 40 countries came to Brisbane, Australia for the WASH Conference 2011. Below is a selection of the presentations on sanitation – powerpoints + audio files – given on 16-17 May. (If you have never heard him speak before, don’t miss the presentation by CLTS-guru Kamal Kar). The presentation streams dealt with institutional, environmental, social and financial sustainability respectively.

Most of the presentations were about Asia, the focus area of conference co-organiser/sponsor AusAid. There were also a few presentations from Africa, a region where AusAid is looking to expand its WASH activities (see AusAid focus regions/countries).

WASH Conference 2011 presentations on sanitation


Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up
Presented by Kamal Kar
Slideshare presentation | Download audio

Planning Behaviour Change: Chances and Challenges
Presented by Dr. Christine Sijbesma, IRC
Slideshare presentationDownload audio

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Viet Nam: comedian teaches children about better hygiene

In one of his first appearances in his new role as Viet Nam’s Goodwill Ambassador for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), the 35-year-old actor and comedian Xuan Bac features in a series of 30-second television spots showing children how to boil clean drinking water, help senior citizens clean the village to prevent water-borne diseases, and clean school toilets. Broadcast on major national station VTV, the spots target children between 7 and 15 years of age across the country, particularly in rural areas where use of unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygienic habits are still widespread.

Actor Xuan Bac teaches hand-washing

Actor Xuan Bac teaches hand-washing with soap in one of the TV spots. Photo: © Minh Studio

Xuan Bac was appointed as a WASH Ambassador by the Government under a partnership between the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), UNICEF Viet Nam and Singaporean NGO Lien Aid. They are joined by four more organizations – Path, Plan International, World Vision, and Helevtas – in a collaborative WASH communication campaign for 2011.

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Sanitation costs and financing – presentations at IRC’s 2010 Symposium

The following papers on sanitation costs and financing were presented at the IRC Symposium 2010, ‘Pumps, Pipes and Promises: Costs, Finances and Accountability for Sustainable WASH Services’, held in The Hague from 16-18 November.

The economics of sanitation initiatives (ESI) for sanitation decision making in Southeast Asia. Author: Guy Hutton

This presentation discusses cost data from 5 Southeast Asian countries in various forms (by technology, by site/project, by hardware/software, by financing source, by timing, and under different infrastructure capacity use levels) to aid decision makers in intervention selection and to draw more general lessons about sanitation financing, efficiency and sustainability. Cost data were triangulated from household surveys, project or provider documents and local market surveys to estimate investment and annualized life cycle costs per household and per individual.

Full paper

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Viet Nam: hygiene promotion should build on community action

The path down to a stream where children defecate. Viet Nam, Lao Ca province. Photo: Danida

More affordable sanitation technologies and participatory community interventions will make future hygiene promotion more effective, say two PhD-fellows Xuan Le Thi Thanh and Thilde Rheinländer. They have spent 16 months in ethnic minority communities in the Northern Province Lao Cai to do research on hygiene and sanitation promotion in the Danida-funded research project SANIVAT (Water Supply Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion in Vietnam). SANIVAT supports research and capacity building on the impacts of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions and investigates how people perceive hygiene, health risks and hygiene promotion.

Sanivat banner

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Viet Nam: designing evidence-based communications programmes for handwashing with soap

Since 2006, the Viet Nam Ministry of Health and the Viet Nam Women’s Union, with support from the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), have been carrying out an evidence-based, comprehensive behaviour change communications programme to promote handwashing with soap (HWWS) among women aged 15-49 and schoolchildren aged 6-10 throughout Viet Nam. The ultimate objective is to reduce the incidence of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five.

The programme has reached more than 1.8 million people in the first phase, with a target of 30 million in phase II. Viet Nam is one of four countries (along with Tanzania, Senegal and Peru) involved in a large global Scaling Up HWWS Behaviour Change project by WSP. This tests whether innovative behaviour change approaches can generate widespread and sustained changes in handwashing with soap habits in target populations. To date, the programme has developed two communications campaigns, one aimed at caretakers of children under the age of five and the other targeting rural and semi-urban schoolchildren in Viet Nam.

Read more: Source Bulletin, May 2010

Viet Nam: sustainability of rural sanitation marketing

Access to sanitary toilets continues to rise in coastal communities in Viet Nam years after a successful pilot project ended.

ADCOM Vietnam, WSP [Water and Sanitation Program] and IRC [International Water and Sanitation Centre] wrote a case study [1] on the sustainability of the rural sanitation marketing (RSM) pilot project in Vietnam. This pilot project was very successful. Between January 2003 and June 2006, over a period of 34 months, households in the 30 pilot communes constructed or upgraded 15,149 toilets, an average of 3,787 toilets per year. This was four times more than during the conventional programme. Of the owners, an average of 16% was below the poverty line, against an average of 19% in the target population. Almost three years after the end of the pilot project, the case study team went back to eight communes to look at the sustainability of the approach and the results. In all study communes, all but one of the promoters had continued the promotion of sanitary toilets and the end of open defecation without incentives, be it at a lower intensity. The local private sector had meanwhile developed further. They now offered a larger range of products with varying prices and also gave various types of credit to customer.

Sanitation Leaflet. Photo: IDE/WSP (fig. 13 in WSP publication)

A number of lessons can be drawn from the case study both for Viet Nam and other countries.

“Long-term sustainability of the sanitation marketing approach in Vietnam—and elsewhere—seems to depend on several factors,” observes report co-author Jacqueline Devine, senior social marketing specialist at WSP. “These factors include providing ongoing budgeting for market research, production of promotional materials, and institutionalized promoter and provider training; adding Community-Led Total Sanitation to eradicate open defecation; and developing a more poor-specific marketing strategy.”

Read the summary of the findings of the RSM study

See also a diagram and two presentations on the RSM pilot project

[1] Read the full report: Sijbesma, C., Truong, T.X. and Devine, J. (2010). Case study on sustainability of rural sanitation marketing in Vietnam. (Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project. Technical paper). Washington, DC, USA, Water and Sanitation Program. xi, 78 p. : 8 boxes, 31 fig., 16 tab. 37 ref. Download full report [PDF, 4.72 MB]

A presentation discussing the case study’s findings and recommendations will be streamed LIVE via the Web on Thursday, May 6, 8 – 10 am (U.S. Eastern Standard Time). The streamed Webcast will be available to the public through the following URL (activated during event only): mms://wbmswebcast1.worldbank.org/live.

Source: IRC – Rural Sanitation Marketing in Vietnam, 03 May 2010 ; WSP, 30 Apr 2010

Cholera vaccine seen safe, effective in India-study

An India-made cholera vaccine that meets World Health Organization (WHO) standards has proven to be safe and effective in young children in a part of India where the disease is endemic, a new study says.

The researchers, who published their study results in The Lancet [1], hope the vaccine can soon be rolled out in developing countries where cholera remains endemic.

The trial involved 107,774 participants in Kolkata in eastern India, half of whom were given the vaccine and the other half a placebo. The vaccine was orally administered in two doses, at least 14 days apart [between July and September 2006] , and the researchers tracked the participants for two years.

On average, there were 20 episodes of cholera in the vaccine group and 68 episodes in the placebo group, which meant the vaccine had a protective efficacy rate of 67 percent, the researchers said. There were no adverse events linked to the vaccine.

“This … trial shows that the modified killed-whole-cell oral vaccine is safe and efficacious, providing nearly 70 percent protection against clinically significant cholera for at least 2 years after vaccination,” wrote the researchers, led by John Clemens at the International Vaccine Research Institute (IVI) in Seoul, South Korea. “Protection was seen in children vaccinated at ages under 5 years, as well as in older individuals.”

An earlier version of this vaccine has been used in Viet Nam. Though it is effective, it has never been approved for use elsewhere because the manufacturing process in Viet Nam did not reliably remove cholera toxin from the vaccine, the researchers said. Furthermore, Vietnam’s national regulatory authority is not WHO-approved.

IVI worked with Vietnamese manufacturer VaBiotech to improve the vaccine and production has since been transferred to vaccine maker Shantha Biotechnics in Hyderabad in India, where the national regulatory authority is WHO-approved.

Cholera causes 120,000 deaths every year worldwide, according to the WHO.

The study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Governments of South Korea, Sweden, and Kuwait.

[1] Dipika Sur, M. … [et al.] (2009). Efficacy and safety of a modified killed-whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in India: an interim analysis of a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 9 October 2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61297 [Free registration required].

See also: Sanitation vs. vaccination in cholera control, Sanitation Updates, 15 May 2009

Source: Tan Ee Lyn, Reuters, 08 Oct 2009