Cash Rewards Spur Poor Communities to Pay for Sanitation Projects | Source: by Nicole Wallace, Philanthropy.com – Sept 11, 2012
An international aid charity is taking an unorthodox approach to helping people in Cambodia and Vietnam improve sanitation and hygiene: It asks beneficiaries to help pay for the construction of latrines and hand-washing stations, but then gives them cash rewards when they get results. The effort will now spread, thanks to a $10.9-million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Children try out a new hand-washing station. (Photograph by East Meets West Foundation)
The East Meets West Foundation, in Oakland, Calif., works with local groups to provide hygiene education, train masons to build high-quality latrines, and broker low-cost loans that families can use to install latrines and hand-washing devices. Families receive a $10 rebate to help offset construction costs after an independent group has verified that the latrine is in place.
Communities also get incentives: They receive cash awards to be put toward public-works projects, such as roads and sanitation facilities in schools, when the percentage of households that have latrines and hand-washing devices hits 30 percent, and the communities receive more money when those rates reach 95 percent.
Using data from formative research to focus messaging on mothers’ aspirations for their children and fine-tuning activities based on feedback from the field and household survey data have been key to developing and implementing a handwashing with soap behavior change program in Vietnam.
A new Learning Note, Vietnam: A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program published by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), describes the steps that were taken to design, implement, and monitor the program to aid program managers in developing other handwashing and hygiene promotion efforts.
Working closely with the Woman’s Union, the program’s activities in Vietnam reached 540 communes in 10 provinces. The project also trained more than 15,000 community motivators who reached more than 1.76 million women through interpersonal communications activities. As the Learning Note reports, these activities evolved over time based on information from the monitoring systems.
“As the target audiences move beyond knowledge to intention to handwash with soap, behavior change messages must also be modified,” the report found, adding that as the project progressed, opportunities arose to “fine-tune the interpersonal communications activities based on feedback from the field and from the household monitoring data.”
Insights from Designing a Handwashing Station for Rural Vietnamese Households: Learning Note. Water and Sanitation Program. February, 2010. (pdf, 5.3MB)
The Water and Sanitation Program’s (WSP) Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project (HWWS) is testing an array of interventions to promote handwashing with soap among mothers and children in rural Vietnam. These interventions include mass media and interpersonal communication through organizations such as the Vietnam Women’s Union. Of particular and growing interest is the role of handwashing stations. In a household setting, a handwashing station is a designated space bringing together water and soap to wash hands, ideally in close proximity to the latrine or the food preparation area. Handwashing stations influence individuals’ chance to perform a behavior, regardless of their ability and motivation to do so. While sinks in kitchens and bathrooms are the norm in developed nations, they are not in most resource-scarce countries.
Below is a link to a recent presentation at the National Sanitation Conference, 8 December 2009, in Jakarta Indonesia.
A. Success factors for sanitation development in Asia
B. National approaches to sanitation development
C. Financing Sanitation
- Urban Sanitation in Vietnam
- Rural Sanitation in India
D. Key lessons for sanitation progress
Ngo Doan Huan is very proud of the school he is managing in the remote northern province of Lai Chau’s Tam Duong District, but the toilet is another story. More than 150 students in his two-storey school campus in Bo Village have to share a narrow double-tank latrine in which the dung is kept for fertiliser, 200m from classrooms and the river. “The toilets are not enough for all students so many of them have to defecate and urinate outdoors,” principal Huan said.
It’s the same situation for 300 students in other campuses of Ban Bo Primary School as well as thousands of students in Lai Chau and other mountainous provinces. [...] Schools had upgraded classrooms and other infrastructure but hadn’t upgraded toilets. Many schools actually didn’t have toilets so students had to use toilets in local people’s houses. “That’s one reason many girl students quit schools,” said [vice chairwoman of the National Assembly Committee for Culture, Education, Youth and Children's Affairs, Ngo Thi Minh].
[A] Red Cross survey at 187 primary schools in four provinces in central Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, and two in the north named Dien Bien and Lai Chau showed 88 per cent of the schools needed help to build clean water tanks and toilets.
[...] Under the “Nutrition and Hygiene Education” project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and implemented by the Viet Nam Red Cross societies in remote regions of the country, financial aid will be provided to improved sanitation at 166 schools in poor provinces, including the construction or upgrading of 130 toilet blocks and 130 wells.
[...] But improving sanitation was only part of the problem [as] schools in mountainous regions also were short of classrooms, especially for pre-school kids, clean water supply systems and community based boarding systems. And many remote schools didn’t have access to the project because of transport difficulties.
Source: VNS, 11 Feb 2009
HANOI – The World Bank has appointed Grey to promote the first ever Global Handwashing Day in Vietnam. (…) The appointment followed work done by Grey in mid-2008 to launch a social awareness drive – which included a TVC and events – to encourage rural communities to adopt better hygiene practices in 50 communes in rural Vietnam. (…)
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HA NOI — The Ministry of Education and Training plans to introduce standard latrine designs in school across the country following the success of a pilot project in Thua Thien-Hue and Son La provinces.
The latrines were designed by architects from the ministry’s School Design and Research Institute.
The institute’s Le Thai Tuyen said the latrines would replace existing school toilets, which were often dilapidated. However, priority would be given to rural areas where the need was more urgent. “Our designs include latrines and septic tanks,” said Tuyen, adding that the addition of septic tanks made them suitable for use in remote areas that had no sewerage system.
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