The March 2014 literature update includes details on an upcoming USAID-sponsored WASH nutrition presentation on April 1, 2014, and the March 2014 issue of USAID’s Global Waters magazine with descriptions of USAID WASH and nutrition efforts in Liberia and other countries. Other resources include a 2014 WHO report on childhood stunting, an award winning poster on food hygiene, an enteropathy study in Zimbabwe, and other resources.
April 1, 2014 – Integrating WASH and Nutrition: Current Approaches, Lessons Learned, and Considerations for Future Programming, a presentation by Francis Ngure, Water and Sanitation Program. Date: Tuesday, April 1, 2014 | Time: 3-4:30 pm | Place: USAID, Room 4.08 E/F, Ronald Reagan Bldg. (RSVP/additional info)
You are invited to a presentation on current strategic and operational approaches linking WASH and nutrition programming based on an investigation conducted by the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. The session will include preliminary findings and lessons learned from field examples that will inform future programming.
WASH Benefits Study/Bangladesh & Kenya - (Website)
The WASH Benefits Study will provide rigorous evidence on the health and developmental benefits of water quality, sanitation, hand washing, and nutritional interventions during the first years of life. The study includes two cluster-randomized controlled trials to measure the impact of intervention among newborn infants in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. Both will be large in scope and measure primary outcomes after two years of intervention.
Stunting Is Characterized by Chronic Inflammation in Zimbabwean Infants. PLoS One, Feb 2014. A Prendergas. (Link)
Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy and that low-grade chronic inflammation may impair infant growth.
Could Poor Sanitation Begin Stunting Children in Utero? 2014. D Spears. (Blog post)
Evidence is building up that enteropathy may matter a great deal. Andrew Prendergast and nine coauthors published a new paper in PLoS One: “Stunting Is Characterized by Chronic Inflammation in Zimbabwean Infants.” They collected data on about 14,000 infants at periodic intervals in their first 18 months of life. They ended up with a sample of 101 stunted infants—meaning too short—and 101 non-stunted infants in order to have a healthy comparison group. The paper is important because it speaks to the hypothesis of enteropathy as a determinant of stunting among poor children who grow up exposed to intestinal disease.
Water, Sanitation, and the Prevention of Stunting: An Holistic View of Why Food Isn’t Enough, 2014. J Griffiths. (Presentation)
Poor populations will likely eat aflatoxins in foods; many will have environmental enteropathy and live without good water or sanitation. Lacking WASH and barriers to fecal contamination, they will have a different spectrum of gut bacteria than people with good WASH.