Tag Archives: Water and Sanitation Program

India, Himachal Pradesh: benchmarking local government performance on rural sanitation

The Global Scaling Up Sanitation project of the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has developed a performance monitoring and benchmarking model to strengthen outcome-based management of the rural sanitation sector in India. This model has been adopted by the Government of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.

A WSP learning note [1], published in April 2010, draws some preliminary lessons from using the benchmarking model:

  • Performance benchmarking enables districts to understand their performance and motivates them to improve. It helps to flag areas of strength, areas that need improvement, and linkages between them
  • Through performance benchmarking, inputs, outputs and processes can be linked to outcomes in monitoring rural sanitation sector performance in India
  • The use of performance benchmarking weighted scoring is designed to put heavier emphasis on, and therefore encourage, achievement of outcomes
  • Benchmarking should enable policy makers and nodal agencies to monitor performance on a rational basis and thereby channel resources and efforts on the basis of identified strengths and weaknesses
  • The comparison of performance provides an incentive to be on the “top of the league table”
  • Periodic monitoring helps to flag gaps in data accuracy and timeliness of data reporting
  • Benchmarking needs to be linked to an incentive in order to drive performance improvement

[1] Kumar, C.A. and Singh, U. (2010). Benchmarking local government performance on rural sanitation : learning from Himachal Pradesh, India. (WSP learning note). Washington, DC, USA, Water and Sanitation Program. 5 p. : 3 fig., 2 tab. Read the full note

Related web site: WSP – Global Scaling Up Sanitation

New WSP/World Bank report shows catalytic potential of factoring political economy into sanitation investments

A better understanding of a county’s political and social processes and entities that determine the extent and nature of investments in sanitation could catalyze a sharp increase in numbers of people with access, especially for the poor, according to a new report released by the World Bank and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

Recent World Bank research shows that the current limited focus on sanitation is driven largely by political motivation in the context of competing demands for resources, and to a lesser extent by technical or economic considerations.

Based on an analysis of experiences in Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Senegal, The Political Economy of Sanitation, proposes an approach to address the political economy of sanitation in a given country in order to more effectively advocate with policy makers to invest more and to better target services for poor people.

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WSP – Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in India

Inadequate sanitation causes India considerable economic losses, equivalent to 6.4 percent of India’s GDP in 2006 at US$53.8 billion, according to The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in India, a new report from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), a global partnership administered by the World Bank.

The study analyzed the evidence on the adverse economic impacts of inadequate sanitation, which include costs associated with death and disease, accessing and treating water, and losses in education, productivity, time, and tourism. The findings are based on 2006 figures, although a similar magnitude of losses is likely in later years.

The report indicates that premature mortality and other health-relatedimpacts of inadequate sanitation, were the most costly at US$38.5 billion, 71.6 percent of total impacts, followed by productive time lost to access sanitation facilities or sites for defecation at US$10.7 billion, 20 percent, and drinking water-related impacts at US$4.2 billion, 7.8 percent.

India: inadequate sanitation costs the equivalent of 6.4 percent of GDP

Cover WSP report Economic Impacts Sanitation India

Inadequate sanitation costs India US$ 53.8 billion, which is equivalent to 6.4 percent of India’s GDP in 2006, according to a new report [1] from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

The study analyzed the evidence on the adverse economic impacts of inadequate sanitation, which include costs associated with death and disease, accessing and treating water, and losses in education, productivity, time, and tourism. The findings are based on 2006 figures, although a similar magnitude of losses is likely in later years.

The report indicates that premature mortality and other health-related impacts of inadequate sanitation, were the most costly at US$ 38.5 billion, 71.6 percent of total impacts, followed by productive time lost to access sanitation facilities or sites for defecation at US$ 10.7 billion, 20 percent, and drinking water-related impacts at US$ 4.2 billion, 7.8 percent.

“The cost is more than I expected,” UNICEF’s water, sanitation and hygiene chief Clarissa Brocklehurst said in an interview with news site Bloomberg. “Yet, if you know the scale of open defecation in India, it’s not all that surprising.”

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Cambodian “Easy Latrine” wins international design award

A low-cost pour-flush latrines, especially developed for a project in Cambodia, has won a prestigious international design award.

The ‘Easy Latrine’, designed by Jeff Chapin while on sabbatical from IDEO, was one of three winners named Best in Show by the jury of the 2010 IDEA awards. The International Design Excellence Award (IDEA) is an annual competition organised by IDSA, the Industrial Designers Society of America.

Chapin designed the ‘Easy Latrine’ at the request of International Development Enterprises (IDE) for the Sanitation Marketing Project that was launched in Cambodia in early October 2009, under funding from USAID and the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP).

Users and schematics for the award-winning IDE Easy Latrine. Photos: Jeff Chapin and IDE Cambodia.

Village masons can build ‘Easy Latrines’ themselves from locally available parts. It consists of a pan, a bucket of water with a ladle, and pipes to connect a hut to a latrine buried in the ground. The latrine itself has three receptacles made of rings of concrete bound by the ash of rice husks — material that’s readily at hand and much cheaper than cement. Once a receptacle is full, it can be capped, and after two years, the sediment can be used as compost.

One latrine costs about $25 and more than 2,500 have already been purchased and installed by villagers. The aim to install 10,000 latrines by April 2011, all without subsidy as prescribed by the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach that the project is following.

Local producers are receiving training in sanitation and hygiene education, latrine production, and basic business and sales management. They are asked to invest a minimum of US$500 and produce three latrines per day.  A local mason—having seen his monthly income jump from US$50 to nearly US$400 in a matter of weeks—decided to invest more by purchasing another trailer for his motorbike in order to deliver more latrines to villages. He has also begun to sell his latrines to supply shops in the region as a secondary means of distribution. One supply shop is even selling the latrine core without making a profit, as they expect to earn their profits from the above-ground components that they will sell in conjunction with the core.

The IDEA jurors loved the clear thinking behind every aspect of the design of the ‘Easy Latrine’. Chapin and his team “understood how to bring the idea to the community, how the product would be made, and how it would be sustained,” says jury head John Barratt. “It’s an integration of strategy, service design, and product design.”

Source: Fast Company, 1 Jul 2010 ;  Aaron Langton, IDE Blog, 24 Jun 2010 ; WSP, Sanitation Marketing Takes Off in Cambodia, WSP, 2009

Viet Nam: designing evidence-based communications programmes for handwashing with soap

Since 2006, the Viet Nam Ministry of Health and the Viet Nam Women’s Union, with support from the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), have been carrying out an evidence-based, comprehensive behaviour change communications programme to promote handwashing with soap (HWWS) among women aged 15-49 and schoolchildren aged 6-10 throughout Viet Nam. The ultimate objective is to reduce the incidence of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five.

The programme has reached more than 1.8 million people in the first phase, with a target of 30 million in phase II. Viet Nam is one of four countries (along with Tanzania, Senegal and Peru) involved in a large global Scaling Up HWWS Behaviour Change project by WSP. This tests whether innovative behaviour change approaches can generate widespread and sustained changes in handwashing with soap habits in target populations. To date, the programme has developed two communications campaigns, one aimed at caretakers of children under the age of five and the other targeting rural and semi-urban schoolchildren in Viet Nam.

Read more: Source Bulletin, May 2010

Peru: US$150,000 in microcredit provide sanitation access to thousands

The Creating Sanitation Markets or Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions (APSS) in Peru Initiative has reached a new milestone, allocating over US$150,000 in credit towards improved sanitation for people otherwise ineligible for commercial loans.

A recent Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) market research poll discovered many potential sanitation customers in Peru are ineligible for a sanitation credit since their income is above the limit to receive support from governmental programs, but below the expected salary to be eligible for a commercial loan (US$50 to US$170 per month). Recognizing the growing demand for sanitation products among these customers, small local businesses affiliated with the Initiative, such as hardware stores, have begun accepting payment in installments. This allows people who do not qualify for a loan, or who feel more confident dealing with their local storekeeper, to have a viable opportunity to invest in a new bathroom for their homes.

The local business owners assume the risk for the loan, which is provided to customers who have a working relationship with the business owner. Typically the loans do not bear interest or additional charges.

APSS is a public-private alliance headed by the Peruvian Government through the Vice Ministry of Construction and Sanitation of Peru (VMCS), Lima’s public water utility (SEDAPAL), the National Direction of Environmental Health (DIGESA) of the Ministry of Health, the World Bank, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Americas Fund (FONDAM), the Ensemble Foundation and the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) administrated by the World Bank (WSP). APSS is implementing in five pilot zones of Peru. These localities are representative of the diverse cultural, geographical and social conditions of the country: the urban marginal areas, rural areas, small towns; the coast, the highlands and the jungle regions.

Read a 2008 background paper on the APSS “Building inclusive sanitation markets for the poor” by Malva Rosa Baskovich.

Visit the Creating Sanitation Markets web site for more information.

Source: WSP Access, Dec 2009

Indonesia, East Java: monitoring total sanitation progress via SMS

In October 2009 the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) project piloted a short message service (SMS)-based sanitation monitoring system in East Java, Indonesia.

By using the system to improve the flow of information about the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) triggering process from the community- to the district level, Indonesians will also be able to improve monitoring results of the CLTS program.

Each designated health officer or sanitarian periodically sends text messages comprising the baseline and progress data – such as the number of households with newly constructed latrines – to an SMS gateway or server, which automatically updates the TSSM progress monitoring instrument.

So far the trial has been successful in that the conversion of SMSs into the digital monitoring format worked well without errors, updates have been in real-time without the need for data entry or editing, and the system has been stable and compatible with any computer system.

Outputs from the trial [were to] be shared with all sanitarians in the TSSM project at a meeting in November 2009. The system is expected to be replicated by the entire 29 districts in the province. TSSM aims to help 1.4 million additional people in all districts of East Java gain effective access to improved sanitation.

Contact: Jan-Willem Rosenboom, Water and Sanitation Program, East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office (WSP-EAP), Indonesia, e-mail: wspeap [at] worldbank.org

Source: WSP Access, Dec 2009

Introducing SaniFOAM : a framework to analyze sanitation behaviors

Devine, J. (2009). Introducing SaniFOAM : a framework to analyze sanitation behaviors to design effective sanitation programs. (Learning to scale up. Working paper). Washington, DC, USA, Water and Sanitation Program. 28 p.

Download paper

SaniFOAM is a conceptual behaviour change framework that can be used both in community-led and in sanitation marketing approaches. It is designed to help program managers and implementers to promote sanitation at all stages of their interventions, from program design through implementation to monitoring and evaluation.

The paper describes the four elements of the framework and provides examples from formative research findings and field-based experiences.

The elements of SaniFOAM are:

F for Focus: What are the desired sanitation behaviors, and who is the target population?
O for Opportunity: Does the individual have the chance to perform the behavior?
A for Ability: Is the individual capable of performing it?
M for Motivation: Does the individual want to perform it?


SaniFOAM is one of the tools being developed in the Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project, implemented by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). The project is currently applying SaniFOAM in three countries: Tanzania, Indonesia and India. Most notably, in East Java, Indonesia, the SaniFOAM framework has been used to design qualitative and quantitative surveys, develop communication materials supporting community-led efforts aimed at eradicating open defecation and design a strategy aimed at strengthening the supply of sanitation products and services.

Pakistan: moving beyond open defecation free sanitation


CLTS Picture book. Plan International Pakistan

Pakistan has taken an important step towards improved sanitation through a major sector assessment and setting up of a core group that seeks to move communities beyond open defecation free (ODF) status. The Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach has already enabled more than 1,500 villages in Pakistan to achieve ODF status and is expected to reach 15,000 villages by June 2011. This will mean that a third of the rural population of Pakistan would be covered.


To consolidate this progress and scale up learning, a Core Group was formed in August 2008 to advise the government in policy refinement and implementation of its nation-wide sanitation policy. The Core Group includes senior officials from the key national ministries of Environment and Health, as well as Provincial Planning and Development Departments and international agencies, including WSP.

The group commissioned an assessment of CLTS pilots in nine villages in the country. The evidence gathered revealed that CLTS had the potential to motivate communities to achieve ODF status. However, it did not create demand for “improved sanitation,” which, according to the Joint Monitoring Program, implies use of sanitation facilities “that ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact.

The surveyed communities were found using unimproved and unhygienic latrines without taking any substantial effort to upgrade or replace damaged latrines due to limited knowledge of different latrine options available at the household level.

A countrywide CLTS implementation strategy will be developed based on the recommendations of the review, and is likely to benefit all communities living in rural areas by 2015.

Source: WSP Access, Oct 2009

Reacting to this WSP news item, Prof. Duncan Mara noted in his blog:

‘So now we know what many of us had long suspected: the whole CLTS ‘process’ needs to be upgraded so as to ensure people get at least ‘improved’ sanitation. Actually what people need is ‘good’ sanitation and ‘improved’ does not necessarily mean ‘good’ (after all, ‘improved’ sanitation includes a “pit latrine with slab” − see here − and we’ve all seen hundreds of these that are far from satisfactory).’