Tag Archives: Zimbabwe

IIED presents SHARE-funded City-Wide Sanitation Project findings

May 6, 2014 – IIED presents SHARE-funded City-Wide Sanitation Project findings at the 11th International Conference on Urban Health at the University of Manchester | Source: SHARE website

SHARE partner IIED presented its findings on the challenges and opportunities of different models for improving sanitation in deprived communities at the 11th International Conference on Urban Health at the University of Manchester. iied

The work presented was published last year in a paper entitled “Overcoming obstacles to community-driven sanitary improvement in deprived urban neighbourhoods: lessons from practice”. Sanitary improvement has historically been central to urban health improvement efforts. Low cost sanitation systems almost inevitably require some level of community management, and in deprived urban settlements there are good reasons for favouring community-led sanitary improvement.

It has been argued that community-led sanitary improvement also faces serious challenges, including those of getting local residents to act collectively, getting the appropriate public agencies to co-produce the improvements, finding improvements that are acceptable and affordable at scale, and preventing institutional problems outside of the water and sanitation sector (such as tenure or landlord-tenant problems) from undermining improvement efforts. This paper examines these sanitary challenges in selected cities where organizations of the urban poor are actively trying to step up their work on sanitary issues, and considers they can best be addressed. 

AMCOW training consultancy on sanitation & hygiene policy development

The African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) needs the services of a training service provider to carry out a sanitation and hygiene policy training.  Focal persons in Burundi, Chad, Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe need to be brought up to speed on drawing up plans and strategies .

The aim of this small (20 days) but interesting assignment is to:

train the focal countries on the process of developing a policy document and costed implementation plans and strategies for ending open defecation in those countries, and how to operationalise them.

The assignment supports a US$ 2 million Gates Foundation funded policy and advocacy project being implemented by AMCOW .

Closing date for receipt of applications is March 7, 2014.

Read the full Terms of Reference.

Please do not submit applications or requests for information to Sanitation Updates.

Zimbabwean sanitation and human rights advocate Nomathemba Neseni dies

Nomathemba Neseni in June 2011 at a SuSanA side event. Photo: Flickr/SuSanA

“Sanitation is a passion, not a job,” said Noma Neseni last year at the Global Forum on Sanitation and Hygiene in Mumbai, India. “I became a human rights commissioner because of toilets. What is gender equality or poverty alleviation when we are forced to defecate in the open?”

Ms. Nomathemba (Noma) Neseni, the Director of the Institute of Water and Sanitation Development (IWSD) and Human Rights Commissioner in Zimbabwe passed away on 30 August after a short illness.

She took over the leadership of IWSD in mid-2007, after working for a number of years as Deputy Director. Ms. Neseni had extensive experience in the water and sanitation (WASH) sector, ranging from project planning to gender mainstreaming. She wrote a book [1] on WASH financing, which was published in May this year.

At IWSD, Deputy Director Mr. Lovemore Mujuru has taken up the post of Acting Executive Director.

Ms. Neseni served for many years as the National Coordinator for Zimbabwe for the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), and more recently she was elected as a member of the WSSCC Steering Committee.

IWSD has been an IRC partner for many years, most recently in the ZimWASH project [2]. In 2009 Noma Neseni wrote an article [3] in IRC’s Source Bulletin about how the decline in Zimbabwe’s sanitation services eventually led to the 2008 cholera outbreak, the deadliest in Africa for 15 years.

[1] Neseni, N, 2012. Financing of WASH in a declining economic environment: financing of WASH for sustainability. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.  http://washurl.net/dou0ka>

[2] IRC - ZimWASH

[3] Noma Neseni, Sanitation perspectives in the new Zimbabwe. E-Source, May 2009

Source: WSSCC, 30 Aug 2012 ; The Herald / allAfrica.com, 01 Sep 2012 ; IWSD

Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza

Journal of Public Health in Africa, March 2012

Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza

Blessing Dube, James January

Although the world has progressed in the area of water and sanitation, more than 2.3 billion people still live without access to sanitation facilities and some are unable to practice basic hygiene. Access to water and basic sanitation has deteriorated in Chitungwiza and children are at risk of developing illness and missing school due to the deterioration.

We sought to investigate the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that are causally related to water- and sanitation- related hygiene practices among school going children. A random sample of 400 primary school children (196 males, 204 females) in four schools in Chitungwiza town, Zimbabwe was interviewed. Behavioural factors were assessed through cross examination of the PROCEED PRECEDE Model. The respondents had been stratified through the random sampling where strata were classes. A structured observation checklist was also administered to assess hygiene enabling facilities for each school.

Children’s knowledge and perceptions were inconsistent with hygienic behaviour. The family institution seemed to play a more important role in life skills training and positive reinforcement compared to the school (50% vs 27.3%). There was no association between a child’s sex, age and parents’ occupation with any of the factors assessed (P=0.646). Schools did not provide a hygiene enabling environment as there were no learning materials, policy and resources on hygiene and health. The challenges lay in the provision of hygiene enabling facilities, particularly, the lack of access to sanitation for the maturing girl child and a school curriculum that provides positive reinforcement and practical life skills training approach.

Brisbane WASH Conference 2011 presentations on hygiene and sanitation

Dr Val Curtis

“The most cost-effectiveness intervention for improving public health [is] improving hygiene promotion [and] without change in hygiene behaviour, we get none of the benefits of water, none of the benefits of sanitation”. This was one of the messages that Dr Val Curtis conveyed in her introduction to the session on “Behavioral change and social sustainability” at the WASH Conference 2011 (download audio of her presentation).

Some 224 conference delegates from over 100 organisations in 40 countries came to Brisbane, Australia for the WASH Conference 2011. Below is a selection of the presentations on sanitation – powerpoints + audio files – given on 16-17 May. (If you have never heard him speak before, don’t miss the presentation by CLTS-guru Kamal Kar). The presentation streams dealt with institutional, environmental, social and financial sustainability respectively.

Most of the presentations were about Asia, the focus area of conference co-organiser/sponsor AusAid. There were also a few presentations from Africa, a region where AusAid is looking to expand its WASH activities (see AusAid focus regions/countries).

WASH Conference 2011 presentations on sanitation


Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), Origin, Spread and Scaling up
Presented by Kamal Kar
Slideshare presentation | Download audio

Planning Behaviour Change: Chances and Challenges
Presented by Dr. Christine Sijbesma, IRC
Slideshare presentationDownload audio

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Half Of Zimbabwe’s Rural People Use Bush As Toilet – UN

Harare, October 04, 2010 – The United Nations says 50 percent of the Zimbabwe’s rural population have no toilets and use the bush.

Speaking at the launch of the National Action Committee (NAC) on Water, a programme aimed at revitalising water, sanitation and hygiene in the country, United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) representative Dr Peter Salama said a lot still needs to be done to avoid the recurrence of the cholera epidemic of 2008.

“More than 60 percent of hand pumps in rural areas require repairs and more than 50 percent of rural population practises open defecation as their only form of sanitation,” said Salama.

He, however, acknowledged the progress that had been made in this sector so far which ensured that 73 percent of Zimbabweans now had access to improved water while 60 percent could now access improved sanitary facilities.

Zimbabwe witnessed the worst cholera outbreak in the country’s history in 2008, which recorded more than 100 000 cases and 4 000 deaths. At the time most suburbs around the country went without water and in most cases depended on water supplies from UNICEF and other donor agencies.

But since the inauguration of the inclusive government the cases of cholera have dramatically dropped down to about 1000 while only 25 deaths were reported so far this year.

“In Zimbabwe poor water and sanitation is increasingly a problem concentrated in and borne by the poorest, while the richest one fifth of the population have virtually universal coverage of safe water and sanitation services.”

The UNICEF official added that children in Zimbabwe died from simple diarrhoeal diseases although the deaths – like those caused by cholera – did not make international headlines.

Turning onto the country’s response to the UN set targets of achieving the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG)s, one of which refers to the universal access to clean water and sanitation, Salama said, “One of the off track goals for Zimbabwe is sanitation .”

Speaking at the same occasion the Minister of Water Resources and Development Samuel Sipepa Nkomo said his ministry was facing problems in getting many water projects on stream due to financial problems.

“The programme to resuscitate water infrastructure will need US$400 million a year but we only have $ 100 million. The challenges are really on the financing side,” said Nkomo.

Several water projects have been on the cards before and after independence in 1980. Among some of the most outstanding are the Matebeleland Zambezi Water Project, Gwayi-Shangani Dam, Mundi-Mataga and Kunzvi Dam.

The NAC was first established in the early 1990s for the rural water and sanitation programme but has not been functional during the last decades due to lack of resources.

UNICEF says a combination of aging equipment, lack of regular power to operate water pumps and a shortage of skilled technicians to manage repairs has meant that that taps in urban areas often go dry while about 2, 1 million rural dwellers go without water due to broken water pumps.


Zimbabwe: did the United Nations ignore the 2008 cholera outbreak to please Harare?

A U.N. official claims his warnings of a catastrophic cholera outbreak were stifled by a U.N. bureaucracy intent on keeping good relations with Zimbabwe’s dictator, Robert Mugabe.

Georges Tadonki, the former head of the Zimbabwe branch of the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), was fired at the height of the cholera crisis in early January 2009 — in part, he says, because of the warnings he raised. He has appealed his termination, and his case opened before a U.N. dispute tribunal in Nairobi, Kenya, on 23 February 2010. International lawyer Robert Amsterdam, famous for defending the Russian political prisoner Mikhail Khodorkovsky, is Mr. Tadonki’s pro-bono legal counsel.

Between August 2008 and July 2009, about 98,600 people contracted cholera and more than 4,000 died. In April 2008, months before the initial outbreak exploded into a full-blown epidemic, Tadonki says he warned his superiors of the severe risk. But U.N. country director Agostinho Zacarias stifled that warning, Tadonki claims.

Tadonki claims that Zacarias forced him to significantly lower the initial prediction of cholera cases from 30,000 to 2,000 in the UN funding appeal launched in November 2008. “Because the government did not accept that there was cholera, the United Nations was forced to align with that position.” Both a high-level official from the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) who worked on the humanitarian response and Ed Schenkenberg van Mierop of the International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA), confirmed that Tadonki had warned of a catastrophic outbreak.

Although some facts are in dispute, Tadonki’s story highlights the perils of U.N. engagement in authoritarian states such as Zimbabwe.

In response to the claim that the figures in the November 2008 UN appeal document had been manipulated, OCHA’s Deputy Spokesman told Inner City Press that “the prediction of 2,000 was realistic when it was made”, comparing it to the previous cholera outbreak in 2002, when 3,125 people were infected and 192 died.

Some U.N. officials contested Tadonki’s allegations, including a former U.N. agency head who told Foreign Policy that “the actual size of the cholera outbreak was larger than anyone (including Tadonki) had forecasted.” And some claimed Tadonki’s clash with Zacarias was due to poor performance, which is cited in U.N. internal reports as the reason for his firing, not his efforts to sound the alarm.

There are also conflicting reports about the response of the World Health Organization (WHO), which lead the health response. WHO representative in Harare, Custodia Mandlhate, told Foreign Policy that she, Zacarias, and the country head of UNICEF had finally “decided to go and see the minister of health … and convinced him to declare cholera an emergency.”

Schenkenberg, however, said that WHO “didn’t have its first meeting [to begin coordinating operations] until the first week of December” — after the government had already declared the cholera emergency. Nor had Zacarias pushed the WHO to do so, according to Schenkenberg.

Commenting on the Tadonki case, Wall Street Journal columnist Marian L. Tupy reminds us that “the crisis started when the Mugabe government nationalized Zimbabwe’s water supply in 2005 but soon ran out of money to maintain the infrastructure and treat the water [...]. In 2008 the government shut down the water supply altogether, reducing the people in the urban areas to scavenge for water in ponds and sewers. Since the Zimbabwean health-care system collapsed along with the rest of the economy, the U.N. effectively became responsible for providing the necessary aid to tackle the emerging health crisis”.

Source: Elizabeth Dickinson, Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010 ; Matthew Russell Lee, Inner City Press, 25 Feb 2010 ; Marian L. Tupy, Wall Street Journal, 22 Feb 2010

Zimbabwe – Elephant Pump prevents water contamination

Zimbabwe – In 1999, when Ian Thorpe was teaching English in rural Zimbabwe, two pupils at his primary school died of dysentery after drinking water from a local well into which a snake had fallen and decomposed. The shocking incident drove Thorpe – with two former teacher colleagues, Tendai Mawunga and Amos Chiungo – to develop an inexpensive (US$400) contamination-proof pump.

Thorpe’s team adapted an ancient Chinese technology that used bamboo for pipes and sisal rope and discs of leather to bring buckets of water from hand-dug wells. The “Elephant Pump” has a concrete casing protecting water from contamination. It is simple enough for a five-year-old to use.

Winning a Development Marketplace grant of US$120,000 in 2006 allowed Thorp’s PumpAid – a U.K.-based international charity – to expand its nascent program beyond a few schools and villages and install 1,000 pumps that benefited 250,000 Zimbabweans.

Development Marketplace funds were also used to create the Elephant Toilet, an innovative, low-cost, low-maintenance approach to sanitation.

Below are links to “Elephant Pump” and “Elephant Toilet” videos:

Zimbabwe – Chitungwiza’s ‘bucket system’

Jan 3, 2010

JAMES Muringani (23) of Chitungwiza’s Zengeza 4 area wakes up every morning with a bucketful of human waste for offloading at a communal blair toilet.

The human waste would have accumulated in the bucket over the night as the bucket is used by family members as their “toilet.”

This has been the norm for James as he has been conducting the chore every morning for the past five years. The Zengeza 4 section, popularly known as Pagomba, is diagonally opposite Chitungwiza Council’s head offices and has never had a sewer system since establishment in 2005.

This has prompted residents to use unorthodox means to relieve themselves, especially during the night. The “bucket system” which is now used by James’ family is common in the area, with some people resorting to using the bush to relieve themselves.

In addition, the area has never received any running water, resulting in residents depending on shallow wells for water. This is the water they drink and use for both cooking and laundry.

While residents elsewhere in Chitungwiza get into the New Year with plans to improve their yards, those from Zengeza 4 would be thinking about digging deep wells to save themselves from water problems. It seems a health time bomb is simmering at the surface and is waiting to explode in Zengeza.

Residents live in perpetual fear of contracting diseases such as cholera. They have no choice, but to stay put at their houses that have no sewer and running water because “this is where our only homes are.”

Like other residents, James has lost hope of living a normal life, as he is now accustomed to the situation in Zengeza.
“Since the time this area was built, we have not received water,” said James. “We do not even have any piping system nor sewer system.  “Promises by council to improve our way of living have for years been mere rhetoric.”

Shallow wells are conspicuous in front of a number of houses in the area. There are a number of blair toilets dotted in front of most houses and what is worrisome is that the toilets are constructed near the shallow wells. It is feared some underground water from the toilets will seep into the wells.

Other residents have resorted to using nightclubs at a nearby shopping centre for ablution facilities. Chakanetsa Panganai, from the same area, said he uses one of his bedrooms as a bathroom. 

“After putting water in a bucket, I then go ahead and bath in one of the rooms and then mop up the floor afterwards.”  But the residents seem unperturbed as they do their day-to-day business as if everything is normal.

Children are equally vulnerable to health diseases that are associated with consumption of unclean water. Those who fear contracting diseases, fetch drinking water from taps at the council head offices.

Even the city authorities do not dissuade the residents from fetching water from the council premises presumably because they know they are the ones to blame for the water problems.

“We are living by the grace of God,” said Panganai. So united are the residents that they share the use of the wells among themselves. “No hard feelings,” said Panganai. “We have to share, after all we are in the same predicament.” 

It is difficult for one to imagine that the suburb faces such a problem judging by the posh houses in the area. The towering houses give the impression that all is well. Ironically, the Chitungwiza Municipality has been billing the residents of the area despite the fact that there is no running water.

One of the residents, whose water bill recently topped more than US$150 said it was a mockery for council to bill them for water that they are not supplying. “We have been receiving bills since we started living in this area,” said the resident, who refused to be named.

But what really went wrong from the time the suburb as established? Chitungwiza Municipality unveiled the housing stands for the suburb in 2003 and sold them to home seekers who were on the housing waiting list. Council promised to develop the stands to pave way for the home seekers to construct their houses.

The council entered into an agreement with a construction company, FORIT, to develop the stands, but ended up failing to pay the required amount of money for the completion of the job. Only some roads covered with gravel were created, while the contractor moved off site before lining sewer and water pipes.

The impatient residents, seeing that their concerns were not being addressed, went ahead and constructed their houses. Most of the home seekers started building structures in 2004, while waiting for council to provide sanitation facilities.

But five years on, the local authority is still to provide sanitation facilities. Some of the residents with financial means have since started drawing water from surrounding areas.

When contacted for comment, Chitungwiza spokesperson Mr Zeph Mandirahwe referred all the questions to the town clerk, Mr Godfrey Tanyanyiwa, who was not available to comment by the time of going to print. But an official in the council health department who refused to be named said: “Council made a very big mistake by creating these neighbourhoods where there are no proper sanitation facilities.”

Zengeza 4 is not the only residential area in Chitungwiza that has no water supplies. Unit O in Seke has a perennial problem for lack of water supplies and was apparently the epicentre of the cholera outbreak that ravaged the country.

Source – http://www1.sundaymail.co.zw/inside.aspx?sectid=4406&cat=17

Zimbabwe – Scaling up the Community Health Club Model

Click on title to view/download:

Zimbabwe – Scaling up the Community Health Club Model, 2009. (pdf, 645KB)

Juliet Waterkeyn & Andrew Muringaniza. Africa AHEAD Association.

It is clear that CHCs are not only a popular strategy but that they do in fact produce high levels of hygiene behaviour change. Zimbabwe is not the only country to report good case studies of the CHC approach. In West Africa, Community Health Clubs are being used to rebuild society after a devastating civil war. In Guinea Bissau CHCs in remote rural villages complement an intervention to improve infant mortality, and in Uganda, CHCs have been used to improve home hygiene and create a demand for sanitation in the war toen IDP camps of the north. Whilst in these examples the CHC approach is being done through NGOs on a fairly small scale, in Rwanda the Ministry of Health is planning to introduce health clubs into everyone of the 14,000 villages in the country. In Asia, Vietnam leads the way with training through the MoH which aims to start CHCs in all 25,000 villages. Countries where this can be scaled up may well be able to meet the MDG
targets, given the power of CHC to stimulate demand led safe sanitation.