Low-Cost Options for Sludge Management in Madagascar, 2011.
WASHplus partner, Practica Foundation, conducted a feasibility study of various technological options for hygienic sludge removal at two public-private toilet/shower sites in Madagascar. Both are currently emptied by informal sector workers under cover of dark, who face serious health hazards and engage in questionable disposal practices, with sludge dumped into waterways or buried nearby in shallow pits.
The assessment combines technical analysis and sociological observation and reporting, giving a vivid picture of the current state of sludge removal and potential for improvements and the impact on the environment and public health. It proposes innovative low-cost options for fecal management methods in three areas: sludge removal/transfer, transportation, and disposal/treatment.