Oct 2015 WASH studies on toilets and health and other topics

Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation as Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route. PLoS NTDs, Sept 30, 2015. Authors: Adriana Echazú , Daniela Bonanno, Marisa Juarez, Silvana P. Cajal, Viviana Heredia, Silvia Caropresi, Ruben O. Cimino, Nicolas Caro, Paola A. Vargas, Gladys Paredes, Alejandro J. Krolewiecki

Full text – http://goo.gl/DgAVMm

The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). The present study reports an association between poor sanitation and water access and STH infections selective to the parasite route of entry. This finding could contribute to the design of specific and rational recommendations to reduce soil-transmitted helminths transmission.

MIT-USAID program releases evaluation of water filters: Study of water filters used in Indian homes assesses suitability, scalability, and sustainability, Oct 2015. | Complete report | Summary |

CITE’s household water filter evaluation allowed us to study innovations with the potential to better the lives of India’s “water poor”—the 76 million people in the country who lack improved drinking water. CITE teams studied over 100 models of householder water filters from nine major brands available on the market in Ahmedabad, India. These models fell into three main categories: conventional particle filtration (cloth/jali mesh), gravity non-electric filters, and reverse osmosis filters.

Toilets Can Work: Short and Medium Run Health Impacts of Addressing Complementarities and Externalities in Water and Sanitation, 2015. Authors: ESTHER DUFLO, MICHAEL GREENSTONE, RAYMOND GUITERAS, AND THOMAS CLASEN

Full text: http://goo.gl/gafi0n

This paper estimates the impact of an integrated water and sanitation improvement program in rural India that provided household-level water connections, latrines, and bathing facilities to all households in approximately 100 villages. The estimates suggest that the intervention was effective, reducing treated diarrhea episodes by 30-50%. These results are evident in the short term and persist for 5 years or more. The annual cost is approximately US$60 per household.

Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia. Trop Med Intl Health, Oct 2015. Authors: Peter P. Moschovis, et al.

Abstract: http://goo.gl/4qAXXY

Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials.  Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings.

 

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