Recent WASH studies on NTDS, shared sanitation, detection of E. coli

The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS NTDs, Oct 2015. Authors: Meredith E. Stocks, Matthew C. Freeman, David G. Addiss.

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For people who already have lymphedema, WHO recommends simple hygiene-based measures that include skin care and limb movement. Yet only a small proportion of those with LF-related lymphedema have been trained in these measures. To determine the effectiveness of hygiene-based lymphedema management, we reviewed the scientific literature. Overall, use of hygiene-based measures was associated with 60% lower odds of inflammatory episodes, known as “acute attacks,” in the affected limb. Hygiene is also effective for managing LF-related lymphedema and reducing suffering caused by acute attacks. Training people with lymphedema in hygiene-based interventions should be a priority for LF programs everywhere.

Evaluation of an Inexpensive Growth Medium for Direct Detection of Escherichia coli in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Waters. PLoS One, Oct 2015. Authors: Robert E. S. Bain , Claire Woodall, John Elliott, Benjamin F. Arnold, Rosalind Tung, Robert Morley, Martella du Preez, Jamie K. Bartram, Anthony P. Davis, Stephen W. Gundry, Stephen Pedley

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We developed a new low-cost growth medium, aquatest (AT), and validated its use for the direct detection of E. coli in temperate and sub-tropical drinking waters using IDEXX Quanti-Tray®. AT is reliable and accurate for the detection of E. coli in temperate and subtropical drinking water. The composition of the new medium is reported herein and can be used freely.

Slum inhabitants’ perceptions and decision-making processes related to an innovative sanitation service: evaluating the Blue Diversion Toilet in Kampala (Uganda). International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Dec 2015. Authors: Mark O’Keefe, Ulrike Messmer, Christoph Lüthi & Robert Tobias.


In this paper, we gather perspectives from potential clients and investigate how slum inhabitants (1) perceive the current situation and whether they desire improvements of sanitation, (2) how they evaluate a new toilet that is still in development, and how (3) social processes and (4) constraints affect decisions. Data were collected through interviewing 1538 people within a general household survey. People using shared and public latrines desire an improvement of their sanitation facilities. The lack of water for washing is perceived by residents as a the biggest problem when accessing current latrines. The new toilet was mostly evaluated positively: people like it, expect large health benefits from it and it complies with cultural norms.

Neighbour-shared versus communal latrines in urban slums: a cross-sectional study in Orissa, India exploring household demographics, accessibility, privacy, use and cleanliness. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Nov. Authors: Heijnen M, Routray P, Torondel B, Clasen T.

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A growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities, despite their association with adverse health outcomes. We sought to explore differences between neighbour-shared and communal latrines in terms household demographics, accessibility, facilities and use. We found significant differences between neighbour-shared and communal facilities in terms of user demographics, access, facilities and cleanliness that could potentially explain differences in health. These findings highlight the need for a shared sanitation policy that focuses not just on the number of users, but also on maintenance, accessibility, cleanliness and provision of water and hand washing facilities.

Understanding the complex determinants of height and adiposity in disadvantaged daycare preschoolers in Salvador, NE Brazil through structural equation modelling. BMC Public Health, Oct 2015. Authors: Rebecca L. Lander, Sheila M. Williams, et al.


Earlier we reported on growth and adiposity in a cross-sectional study of disadvantaged Brazilian preschoolers. Here we extend the work on these children, using structural equation modelling (SEM) to gather information on the complex relationships between the variables influencing height and adiposity. We hope this information will help improve the design and effectiveness of future interventions for preschoolers. Of the multiple factors influencing preschoolers’ growth, helminth infection was a modifiable risk factor directly and indirectly affecting HAZ and BMIZ, respectively. Hence the WHO de-worming recommendation should include preschoolers living in at-risk environments as well as school-aged children.


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