Last issue of the WASHplus Weekly

Issue 224 | July 8, 2016 | Focus on WASHplus Project Publications

Dear readers, this is the last issue of the WASHplus Weekly from the WASHplus project. We thank you for your continued support and interest in this resource. We know the Weekly has been highly valued and a new version of this product will make its debut in July, with support from USAID’s Water Team. Please stay tuned! 

These documents can be downloaded at:
By Country


Understanding Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2013. This study uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore consumer perceptions of five of the most promising improved cookstoves potentially available for distribution in Bangladesh.

A brief of the above study is also available: What Do Cooks Want? What Will They Pay? A Study of Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2014.

WASHplus Behavior Change Strategy: Hygiene Promotion Guidelines for Bangladesh, 2013. The WASHplus activity aims to increase the consistent and correct practice of a suite of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors in order to see related improvements in child growth and overall household resiliency and health.

WASHplus Baseline Assessment of WASH Situation in Southwestern Bangladesh,2013.

Bangladesh Controlled Cooking Tests (CCTs) of Seven Improved Cookstoves Plus Traditional Stove as Baseline, 2014.

Improving Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Southwest Bangladesh: An Overview, 2014. An overview of the three-year WASHplus program, implemented through WaterAid and local NGO partners, to improve WASH in southwestern Bangladesh.

Assessing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Southwestern Bangladesh: Project Completion Report, 2016. A comprehensive report on the success of the recently closed four-year project that aimed to address the underlying causes of inadequate WASH conditions in hard-to-reach areas of southwestern Bangladesh.


Peace Corps Benin WASH Tools and Training Resources, 2014. French language training materials on household water treatment, community-led total sanitation, and WASH in schools.

What is the USAID/WASHplus Benin Urban Hygiene Improvement Program? 2015. This brief provides an overview of the pilot hygiene improvement program in two of Cotonou’s most neglected peri-urban neighborhoods, Agbato and Enagnon. The program focuses primarily on handwashing with soap and safe household drinking water.

Baseline Survey of Peri-Urban Sanitation and Hygiene in Cotonou, Abomey-Calavi, and Porto-Novo, Benin, 2015. Survey of the WASHplus Basic Hygiene Peri Urban and Health Program In Benin, Cotonou, Abomey, and Porto-Novo. In English and French.

WASHplus Benin Peri-Urban Hygiene Improvement Program Final Report, 2016. WASHplus focused on improving hygiene practices related to handwashing and treatment of household drinking water in households with children under 5, and derived lessons from the experience on how to include effective hygiene improvement in Maternal and Child Health programming.

Burkina Faso

See also, WASH and NTD section below.

Integrating WASH into NTD Programs, Burkina Faso Country Assessment, 2014.

Burkina Faso Baseline, 2016. In French and English.


WASHplus Kenya Program: Project Brief, 2013. This brief describes the WASHplus project in Kenya and how it supports the Ministry of Health and its partners to integrate improved WASH practices into HIV policies and activities. The project works closely with communities, encouraging households to identify small doable actions they can take to improve health and prevent diarrhea.

Monitoring and Evaluation of the Jiko Poa Cookstove in Kenya, 2013. This study looked at performance assessment for the Jiko Poa in Kenyan homes by analyzing its effects on household air pollution and fuel use and collecting data on how the households valued and used it.

WASHplus in Kenya Baseline Findings, 2014. This report presents the findings of a baseline survey that WASHplus conducted in 2013 in households with targeted vulnerable populations in three strata: peri-urban, rural, and semi-nomadic. A total of 3,211 households meeting specific eligibility criteria were visited in Kenya.

Integrating WASH into HIV Interventions and Advancing Improved Sanitation Uptake: WASHplus Kenya End of Project Report, 2014. What started as an activity to integrate sanitation and hygiene practices into HIV/AIDS care and support programs has grown over the years into a holistic approach to prevent diarrhea among households at risk. WASHplus helped communities and households in Kenya make the connection between improved sanitation, healthy hygiene habits, and positive outcomes for people living with HIV and AIDS, their families, children, the elderly, and other vulnerable households.


Expanding Coverage and Promoting Sustainability of WASH Infrastructure and Hygiene Investments in Madagascar: Program brief, 2013. Discusses how the WASHplus/WSUP partnership in Madagascar increased access to safe water and sanitation services in ways that promoted environmental awareness, generated employment and income for communities, changed behavior, and built local management capacity.

Manuel de Formation Technique: Vidange Hygienique a Faible Cout, 2013. Sludge Removal Training Guide developed by Practica for WASHplus-supported fecal-sludge management pilot activity in Madagascar. (Only available in French.)

Summary Report: Field Review of WASH Approaches, 2012. Success factors and lessons learned from USAID-supported WASH activities in Madagascar.

Review of WASH Approaches in Madagascar – Data Collection Tools, 2012.

Low Cost Systems for the Management of Sludge from Toilets and Shower Units: Current Techniques and Improved Options in Ambositra and Mahanoro. Practica/WASHplus, 2011. Also available in French.

Downstream of the Toilet: Transforming Poo into Profit: Briefing Note, 2013. WASHplus engaged the NGO Practica to design and pilot a private-sector service delivery model to sustainably manage fecal sludge generated in Madagascar using low-cost decentralized technologies.


Mali Baseline, 2015. In French and English

Innovative Strategies for WASH in Mali, 2016. In French. WASHplus developed several innovative strategies to improve sanitation in the Mopti region of Mali. This document details the project’s contributions to latrine design, implementing CLTS, and improving sanitation uptake. It includes stories and lessons learned.

Innovative Strategies for Nutrition in Mali, 2016. In French. This document provides a detailed look at the WASHplus WASH and nutrition integration activity in Mali and provides results, lessons learned, challenges/perspectives, and next steps.

Mali End of Project Report, 2016. WASHplus’s core activity in Mali revolved around CLTS. The promise of project support for digging or rehabilitating water points was designed as an incentive for communities to become open defecation free. WASHplus also emphasized improving nutrition and hygiene practices through a range of behavior change approaches and identified undernourished children and referred them to community health/nutrition centers for treatment.

What’s the Recipe for a Healthy Child in Mali? 2016. Infographic.


Integrating Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene into Infant and Child Nutrition Programmes: A Training and Resource Pack for Uganda, 2014. The back of this resource pack contains a copy of WASHplus’s job aids that were developed to assist village health teams, peer educators, and their supervisors to integrate WASH into ongoing nutrition activities in Uganda. The resource pack is broken into three modules. Module I is designed for health workers. Module I combined with Module II is designed for community-level resources persons. Module III is designed for policy stakeholders and decision makers.

Integrating Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene into HIV Programmes A Training and Resource Pack for Uganda, 2014. It is the intent that this training helps to strengthen key competencies of a range of stakeholders to support and carry out initiatives integrating WASH into HIV and HIV/ nutrition programs at home, community, and clinic levels, with the overall goal of improving the quality of life of people living with HIV and their families.

Small Doable Actions for Improving Household WASH Practices and Assessment Card, 2014. In English and two local languages.

Improving WASH Behaviors to Reduce Diarrhea and Improve the Health and Resilience of Children, Families Affected by HIV/AIDS, and Other Vulnerable Populations: WASHplus Uganda End of Project Review, 2014. With funding from USAID/Uganda WASHplus worked for almost two years (January 2013–November 2014) to reduce diarrhea and improve the health and resilience of key populations in three districts— Kabale, Kisoro, and Kanungu.


Zambia Eastern Province WASH in Schools INDABA Whole System in the Room-Strategic Planning Workshop Report, 2012. This Indaba brought together key stakeholders from a range of sectors on board to work towards a common action plan in achieving WASH targets in schools and enhance cross-sector collaboration in Zambia.

Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools Training Session for School Officials and Teachers. SPLASH, 2014.

Menstrual Hygiene Management Toolkit. SPLASH, 2015. This toolkit was designed to help classroom and guidance teachers, school health and nutrition coordinators, and other school personnel in Zambian primary schools who are carrying out menstrual hygiene management programs or activities in their school.

SPLASH Baseline Survey: School WASH Facility Assessment, 2014

WASH-Friendly Schools: A Training Resource for SPLASH Use, 2014. This guide is intended to be useful to those working for the benefit of children in resource-poor environments who, like children everywhere, have the right to a safe, clean, and welcoming school environment. It is envisioned that this guide will support the creation of an enabling environment to establish WASH-Friendly Schools.

WASH Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey: Chadiza, Chipata, Lundazi, and Mambwe Districts, Eastern Province. SPLASH, 2014. SPLASH conducted this formative research to determine current levels of hygiene and behavior change knowledge, attitudes, and practices among teachers, pupils, and their families in four districts in Eastern Province, Zambia, and inform the design of in and out-of-classroom hygiene education activities.

Exploring the Potential of Schoolchildren as Change Agents in the Context of School WASH in Rural Zambia, 2014. The findings show that there is strong evidence to support schoolchildren’s ability to change their families’ WASH knowledge and practice in the context of a school-based WASH intervention. The study showed that pupils utilize techniques like altering their environment, reminding their family regularly, and communicating using their homework to influence change at the home level.

School WASH Facilities Operation and Maintenance Guidelines, 2015. This manual addresses the key O&M tasks necessary to ensure the smooth functioning of school WASH education services and the longevity of related hardware.

A Teacher’s Guide to Integrating WASH in School, 2015. This guide supports the teaching and learning about WASH in Zambian primary schools and provides technical content for the teacher to familiarize himself/herself with the subject of WASH, including suggestions on how WASH content can be integrated into the classroom.

SPLASH School Outcome Study: The Effect of WASH in Schools on Educational Outcomes: Absenteeism and Teacher-Pupil Contact Time, 2016. This study clearly establishes that improved WASH conditions and education in school had a positive effect on pupil and teacher absenteeism and teacher-pupil contact time.

Final Report of the SPLASH Project in Zambia, 2016. This final report presents the institutional and technical context within which SPLASH was conceived and executed, and reviews the implementation of each task area, including achievements, lessons learned, and assesses the cross-cutting areas that supported the main interventions.

SPLASH Spillover Effect: Unexpected Construction Resulting from SPLASH Project Interventions, 2016. This report shows how SPLASH’s comprehensive approach to WASH in Schools can drive development in areas outside of school WASH.

Menstrual Hygiene Management among Schoolgirls in Eastern Province of Zambia Qualitative Research Final Report, 2016. This study identifies the experiences and challenges schoolgirls faced in hygienically managing menstruation during school hours and explores its effects on school attendance and learning in Zambia’s Eastern Province.

Making a SPLASH at Scale in Zambia, 2016. Infographic.

By Topic

Household Air Pollution/Clean Cooking

Market Research in the Clean Cooking Sector: Tools and Tips, 2015. This guide introduces the basic concepts and tools of market research and provides readers with best practices and tips in the design and management of market research in the clean cooking sector. It was created by the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves in collaboration with WASHplus as a resource for cookstove and fuel manufacturers, distributors, entrepreneurs, donors, NGOs, and other organizations in the clean cooking sector.

WASHplus Consumer Research Toolkit, 2016. This toolkit provides guidance on how to undertake consumer preference research on improved cooking technologies through Trials of Improved Practices, including guidance in using associated data collection entry and analysis tools.

Understanding Consumer Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Nepal: Final Report, 2016. In this study the five improved cookstoves (ICS) tested were liked overall by the majority of cooks and households trying them; ICS were preferred by cooks over their traditional stoves, and the preference held over time.

WASH & Neglected Tropical Diseases Integration

Integrating WASH into NTD Programs: A Desk Review, 2013. This desk review found that the international community recognizes that drug administration alone is insufficient to break the cycle of disease transmission. The current renewed interest in securing WASH to any global NTD control or elimination strategy and adding WASH interventions to NTD treatment programs is essential to achieving sustained control and elimination.

Integrating WASH into NTD Programs, Bangladesh Country Assessment, 2013. Examines existing WASH policy and program context in Bangladesh and identifies potential points of intersection for WASH and soil-transmitted heminths, which, with investment, could improve the potential for reduced worm reinfection.

Integrating WASH into NTD Programs, Burkina Faso Country Assessment, 2014.

WASHing Away Worms and Other Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2015. Although mass drug administration is key to reducing NTDs, reinfection will remain a problem if WASH behaviors are not addressed. WASHplus is documenting the links between WASH and NTDs and exploring ways to integrate WASH into NTD programs.

Burkina Faso Baseline, 2016. In French and English.

WASH & Nutrition Integration

Improving Nutrition Outcomes with Better Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Practical Solutions for Policy and Programmes, 2015. This document, jointly prepared by WHO, UNICEF, and USAID, summarizes the current evidence on the benefits of WASH for improving nutrition outcomes. It describes how WASH interventions can be integrated into national nutrition policies and programs to add value.

Integrating Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene into Nutrition Programming, 2013.
If mothers and other caregivers used basic hygiene practices and had better access to safe water and adequate sanitation this could greatly reduce under 5 deaths and improve child nutrition. Also available in French.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Essential Components for Food Security. Technical Brief, 2013.


Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Considerations for Accelerated PMTCT Programming, 2012.
Simple WASH recommendations to incorporate into Prevention of Maternal to Child Transmission programs to improve the quality and effectiveness of these interventions by reducing diarrheal diseases.

Integrating Sanitation into Services for People Living with HIV/AIDS, 2012. C-Change/WASHplus. WASH activities can be integrated into PEPFAR integration frameworks and other activities for PLHIV. This document provides tools and guidelines as well examples of successful country program integration.

Behavior Change
The Science of Habit: Creating Disruptive and Sticky Behavior Change in Handwashing Behavior, 2015. Handwashing with soap is a highly effective method for reducing the risk of diarrheal disease, yet interventions to alter this behavior often fail or achieve only short-term success. This paper proposes that the science of habit can partly explain the challenge of handwashing behavior change.

Sanitation and Innovation

Developing and Testing Innovative WASH Approaches in Ethiopia: Final Report, 2016.
With support from WASHplus and the Vitol Foundation, iDE implemented a project to scale-up rural sanitation marketing in rural areas of four regions of Ethiopia to build on the success of its UNICEF-funded pilot.

Laying the Groundwork to Scale Up Sanitation Marketing in Ethiopia: A Learning Brief, 2016. Summarizes the results and findings from the more detailed report above.

WASHplus Innovations, 2016. Infographic.

Learning Briefs

CLTS-Plus: Value-Added Sanitation Programming, 2015. This Learning Brief describes the different components WASHplus uses when implementing CLTS activities and illustrates how and why they have been applied to CLTS in various country programs.

Small Doable Actions: A Feasible Approach to Behavior Change, 2015. Small doable actions are behaviors that are deemed feasible to perform in resource-constrained settings, from the householder point of view, and effective at personal and public health levels. This brief describes how WASHplus incorporates a small doable action approach to change WASH and household air pollution practices in its global- and country-level activities.

Integrating WASH and Nutrition Learning Brief, 2015. Since 2010, the WASHplus project has been engaged both at the global and country levels in stimulating the discussion and improving the evidence base around integrating WASH into nutrition programming, sharing experiences and approaches to integrating the two sectors. This Learning Brief describes WASHplus country activities in Bangladesh, Mali, and Uganda; global knowledge sharing efforts; and other WASHplus activities.

Good Governance: A Core Component of WASH Project Implementation, 2016. This brief describes how WASHplus supported district governments to improve basic service delivery, strengthen community-level institutions, advocate for pro-poor policy reforms, and enhance collaborations in its country programs.

Behavior-Centered Approaches to Improve Health Outcomes, 2016. This technical brief presents the WASHplus approach to behavior change applied in various country settings to imrove WASH practices and serve as the foundation of the project’s global guidance.

The Power of Integration to Multiply Development Impact, 2016. Under the WASHplus project integration was a strategic approach to attain desired health and development outcomes and combined WASH with nutrition, education, HIV, and neglected tropical diseases programs. The brief features accompanying slide decks focusing on sector-specific integration programming.

Partnerships: A Key Strategy to Increase Impact and Results, 2016. WASHplus supports USAID’s commitment to strategic and creative partnering in WASH and clean cooking to improve sector cooperation, harmonization, collaboration, and effectiveness. This brief reflects on WASHplus’s varied experiences creating and maintaining partnerships and consolidates our lessons learned.

WASHplus Country Snapshots and Results, 2016. This document provides a summary of country interventions and a snapshot of results as of 2015. Each WASHplus intervention is tailored to address the unique needs of a given country—whether it be improving school WASH, enhancing household sanitation options, or marketing improved cookstoves.

Journal Articles

The Usefulness of a Handwashing Proxy in Large Household Surveys, 2015. Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. Handwashing with soap is a cost-effective way of reducing diarrheal disease mortality in children under 5. Using data from the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey and the Demographic Health Survey from five countries, WASHplus conducted multivariate analyses to explore an association between the presence of functional handwashing stations (together with needed supplies) and the likelihood of lower reports of child diarrheal disease.

Understanding Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Bangladesh, 2015. Journal of Health Communication. The WASHplus project conducted a comprehensive assessment to understand consumer needs and preferences as they relate to increasing the uptake and consistent, exclusive, and correct use of improved cookstoves in Bangladesh.

Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial, 2016. PLOS One. This study investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in the hot and arid low-resource schools in Zambia’s Eastern Province.

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