3ie Systematic reviews & Scoping papers
Promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low- and middle-income countries A mixed-method systematic review, June 2017. This systematic review shows which promotional approaches are effective in changing handwashing and sanitation behaviour and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such interventions.
Promoting latrine use in India, August 2017. The major barriers to use appear to be poor latrine quality and certain inhibiting knowledge, attitudes and practices (e.g. perceived convenience and pleasure of open defecation, despite knowing the health consequences). The importance of the design and location of the latrine appear to carry significant implications for use.
Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach. AJTMH, August 21, 2017. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (108–1016 CFU/day for Escherichia coli) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food. Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion.
Clean and Green: a new implementation framework for sustainable rural sanitation. SEI, 2017. Clean and Green is the first rural sanitation implementation framework that explicitly addresses efficient local resource management, including waste reuse, in parallel with sanitation and hygiene promotion. The framework centres on certifications to reward progress along parallel Clean (risk management) and Green (resource management) tracks.
Black Soldier Fly Biowaste Processing. EAWAG, 2017. The grown larvae make an excellent protein source in animal feed and their sale can, thus, contribute to lower treatment cost and to a lucrative business with organic waste.
Beyond Scarcity: Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank, August 2017. This report shows that achieving water security means much more than coping with water scarcity. It means managing water resources in a sustainable, efficient, and equitable way.
Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. Environmental Research, October 2017. Thus, the ZeroWater® pitcher filter is a cost effective and short-term solution to remove arsenic from drinking water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water.