Recent WASH research – January 22, 2018

Comparing Contingent Valuation and Averting Expenditure Estimates of the Costs of Irregular Water Supply. Ecological Economics, April 2018. We compare two methods—contingent valuation and averting expenditures—to measure the demand for improved water reliability in urban Jordan. Our study thus adds to previous evidence in the literature, which points to the importance of consumer perceptions in determining demand for environmental improvements.

Environmental conditions in health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries: Coverage and inequalities. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 11 January 2018. 50% of HCFs lack piped water, 33% lack improved toilets, 39% lack handwashing soap. 39% of HCFs lack adequate infectious waste disposal and 59% lack reliable electricity. 2% of HCFs provide all four water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management services.

Combined effectiveness of anthelmintic chemotherapy and WASH among HIV-infected adults. PLoS NTDs, Jan 18. Deworming is effective in reducing the probability of helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults. With the exception of safe flooring, WASH offers minimal additional benefit. However, WASH does appear to significantly reduce infection prevalence in adults who are not treated with chemotherapy.

Understanding sustained use of ecological sanitation in rural Burkina Faso. Science of the Total Environment, 1 February 2018. Only 7% of residents in rural Burkina Faso use improved sanitation. Ecological sanitation can meet sanitation needs while contributing to food security. Safe agricultural reuse of nutrients provided a strong motivation for toilet use.

The Global Risks Report 2018. WEF, 2018. In our annual Global Risks Perception Survey, environmental risks have grown in prominence in recent years. This trend has continued this year, with all five risks in the environmental category being ranked higher than average for both likelihood and impact over a 10-year horizon.

Echinococcosis: A parasitic tapeworm disease. GWPP, 2018. Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworms of the Echinococcus genus, in which humans act as accidental / aberrant intermediate hosts of these parasites.

Duncan Mara – ‘Top-down’ planning for scalable sustainable sanitation in high-density low-income urban areas: is it more appropriate than ‘bottom-up’ planning? JWSHDev, Jan 2018. We argue that, if the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals (universal access to ‘safely-managed’ sanitation by 2030) is to have any chance of success, then a community-sensitive top-down planning approach has to be adopted for sanitation provision in high-density low-income urban areas in developing countries, as ‘bottom-up’ planning is much more time-consuming and not yet successfully proven at scale.

A categorization of water system breakdowns: Evidence from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Science of the Total Environment, 1 April 2018. Aprons, pipes, taps, and lift mechanisms most frequent part breakdown. Poor quality implementation often cited as a reason for breakdown. Breakdowns significantly associated with system age, management, fee collection. Data can be used to improve post-construction support for rural water services.

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