2018 studies, reports and news updates on cholera prevention and control

The latest biweekly update contains journal articles, reports, etc. that have been published so far in 2018. Please let us know if you have additional studies and resources that should be added to this list:

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

Setting priorities for humanitarian water, sanitation and hygiene research: a meeting report. Conflict and Health, June 15, 2018.
In June 2017, the Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme of Elrha, convened a meeting of representatives from international response agencies, research institutions and donor organisations active in the field of humanitarian WASH to identify research priorities, discuss challenges conducting research and to establish next steps. Topics including cholera transmission, menstrual hygiene management, and acute undernutrition were identified as research priorities.

Cholera epidemic in Yemen, 2016–18: an analysis of surveillance data. The Lancet Global Health, June 2018.
Our analysis suggests that the small first cholera epidemic wave seeded cholera across Yemen during the dry season. When the rains returned in April, 2017, they triggered widespread cholera transmission that led to the large second wave. These results suggest that cholera could resurge during the ongoing 2018 rainy season if transmission remains active.

Editorial: No end to cholera without basic water, sanitation and hygiene. WHO Bulletin, May 2018.
A shared vision and unanimous agreement among Member States, partners and donors to prioritize broader social and environmental determinants of health, including water, sanitation and hygiene, is needed to end cholera.

Mapping the burden of cholera in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for control: an analysis of data across geographical scales. The Lancet, May 2018.
Although cholera occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, its highest incidence is concentrated in a small proportion of the continent. Prioritising high-risk areas could substantially increase the efficiency of cholera control programmes.

Near real-time forecasting for cholera decision making in Haiti after Hurricane Matthew. PLoS Comput Biol., May 2018.
The experience gained by this modeling effort shows that state-of-the-art computational modeling and data-assimilation methods can produce informative near real-time projections of cholera incidence.

Dynamics of cholera epidemics from Benin to Mauritania. PLoS NTDS, April 2018.
We found that at least 54% of cases concerned populations living in the three urban areas of Accra, Freetown, and Conakry. Accra, Ghana represented the main cholera hotspot in the entire study region. Our findings indicate that the water network system in Accra may play a role in the rapid diffusion of cholera throughout the city.

Taking aim at cholera. The Lancet, March 2018.
In sub-Saharan Africa, home to 87·2 million people (95% CrI 60·3 million to 118·9 million), can be classified as high incidence (>1 case per 1000 people), and that targeting just 35·3 million people (95% CrI 26·3 million to 62·0 million) in the highest incidence districts with proven interventions—safe water, sanitation, and cholera vaccination—could reduce mean annual cholera incidence in the entire region by 50%.

Temporo-spatial dynamics and behavioural patterns of 2012 cholera epidemic in the African mega-city of Conakry, Guinea. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Feb 2018.
The epidemic dynamic and the sociological description of suspect cases before, during, and after the large-scale epidemic revealed that the Vibrio cholerae was already present before the epidemic. However, it appeared that infected individuals reacted differently in terms of disease severity as well as their access to treated water and travel habits.

Cholera Epidemics of the Past Offer New Insights into an Old Enemy. Jnl Infectious Diseases, Feb 2018.
Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (in 1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread.

Exploring Droughts and Floods and Their Association with Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Register-Based Ecological Study from 1990 to 2010. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Jan 2018.
Floods are more strongly associated with cholera outbreaks, yet the prevalence of cholera outbreaks is higher during droughts because of droughts’ long durations. The results suggest that droughts in addition to floods call for increased cholera preparedness.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in outbreak response: a synthesis of evidence. Waterlines, Jan 2018.
Research on commonly implemented but severely under-researched WASH interventions is recommended. It is also recommended that responders implement interventions that are: efficacious, simple, well-timed, community-driven, link relief and development, and address barriers and facilitators to use with communities.

REPORTS/FACT SHEETS/NEWS

Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Attending a Funeral — Chegutu District, Zimbabwe, 2018. MMWR, May 18, 2018.
In the setting of cholera epidemics, localized outbreaks have been associated with funeral gatherings, including transporting and washing or preparing a body for burial and contamination of shared meals at a funeral.

Cholera prevention and control. WHO, Seventy-first World Health Assembly, May 26, 2018.

Video: Using Precipitation Data to Assess Risk of Cholera Outbreaks. NASA, May 2018.
A new modeling approach using satellite data will likely to enhance our ability to develop cholera risk maps in several regions of the globe. The model (GCRM) is based on monthly air temperature, precipitation, availability of WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) infrastructure, population density and severity of natural disaster.

Cholera outbreak in Zambia: An institutional perspective. IGC Policy Brief, March 2018.
This brief looks at the recent history of cholera outbreaks in Zambia and how policymakers can develop policies and attract investment aimed at improving the infrastructure needed to reduce cases of this disease.

Sudan: Greater Kapoeta Cattle Migration and Cholera Transmission Brief. REACH, March 2018. Humanitarian access to cholera-affected pastoralist communities of the Greater Kapoeta area was impeded by poor road infrastructure compounded by the rainy season onset, insecurity, mistrust as well as lack of information regarding cattle migration routes and areas of large seasonal cattle concentration.

MIT engineers recruit microbes to help fight cholera. MIT News, June 2018.
Probiotic bacteria can diagnose, prevent, and treat infections.

Cholera Fact Sheet. WHO, Feb 2018.

Health in Humanitarian Emergencies. Cambridge University Press, May 31, 2018.
With contributing authors among some of the world’s leading health experts and policy influencers in the field, the content is based on best practices, peer reviewed evidence, and expert consensus.

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