Author Archives: WASHplus

April 28, 2015 – USAID Sanitation Webinar

Invitation to Sanitation Webinar, April 28, USAID Water and Development Strategy Webinar Series image001

Please join the USAID Water Office for this first in a series of webinars to better understand the USAID Water and Development Strategy and how its principles provide the foundation for Agency water programming.

The first webinar on April 28, 10:00-11:00 am EDT, will focus on Sanitation, with presentations by USAID’s Katy Sill and Jesse Shapiro to discuss: the impacts of sanitation, critical challenges to improving sanitation, the sanitation ladder and service chain, and programmatic interventions to improve sanitation

Register for the webinar at: http://irgltd.adobeconnect.com/e7sfvzo6b16/event/registration.html

USAID’s Water and Development Strategy seeks to improve health outcomes through the provision of sustainable water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and enhance food security through the sustainable and more productive management of water in agriculture. This webinar series will include sessions on Sanitation, WASH and Nutrition, Sustainability of WASH Services, Drinking Water Quality, and Agricultural Water Management.

For additional information and a full list of webinars in the series, see the attached flyer, or visit the Water Strategy Webinar Series webpage.

Sanitation and Drainage in Cities – Environment & Urbanization, April 2015

Sanitation and Drainage in CitiesEnvironment & Urbanization, April 2015

Editorial – Is it possible to reach low-income urban dwellers with good-quality sanitation? (Full text) by David Satterthwaite, Diana Mitlin, and Sheridan Bartlett.

Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti. (Full text) by Sebastien Tilmans, Kory Russel, Rachel Sklar, Leah Page, Sasha Kramer, and Jennifer Davis.
Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum,(1) the proportion safely removed via container-based public and household toilets, and the costs associated with these systems. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of planning and policy implications of incorporating CBS into the menu of sanitation options for rapidly growing cities.

Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: A cluster-randomized trial

Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: A cluster-randomized trial. Science, April 2015, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0491

Authors:  Raymond Guiteras1, James Levinsohn2, Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak2,*
+ Author Affiliations
1Deptartment of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

2School of Management, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
↵*Corresponding author. E-mail: ahmed.mobarak@yale.edu

Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments—community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control—in a cluster-randomized trial.

Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, p=0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, p=.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, p<.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, p=.001), which suggests investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (p<.001).

Orlando Hernandez – Behavioral Challenges and Potential Solutions to Reach Universal Sanitation Coverage

Behavioral Challenges and Potential Solutions to Reach Universal Sanitation Coverage by Orlando Hernandez, USAID/WASHplus Project and Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, Global Health, Population and Nutrition (GHPN), FHI 360.

The comments below are from Dr. Hernandez’s participation at the World Water Forum 2015 and then posted to the Sanitation and Water for All website.

Behavior change specialists rely on frameworks to dissect a problem and define a strategy to address it. The Water Improvement Framework (WIF), previously named the Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF) developed in connection to USAID WASH projects some 15 years ago, is one such framework. Given its openness and comprehensiveness, the WIF has stood the test of time. Other donors and implementation agencies are thinking along the same lines as there are other similar frameworks developed by WSP, SVN, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, among others.

The WIF is a three-legged stool which brings together: 1) supply, 2) demand, and 3) the enabling environment. It suggests that behavior change (BC) strategies are more than mere promotion, channels and messages. They bring a human dimension to the WASH sector, and when based on the WIF’s the three elements, it guides us to design, implement and evaluate WASH activities.  orlando2

Behavior change frameworks require us to segment our audiences as social groups involved in development are not monolithic. One obvious breakdown in sanitation is a split between urban, peri-urban and rural dwellers. The needs, preferences, sanitation practices and certainly resources of urban, peri-urban and rural populations may be different. With growing urbanization throughout the developing world, coverage in peri-urban areas represent a challenge, especially when we think of tenants living in crowded quarters with no services.

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SHARE – A New Training Guide on Menstrual Hygiene Management

SHARE – A New Training Guide on Menstrual Hygiene Management, 2015. | Source: SHARE website, April 13, 2015 |

An informative, new training guide which seeks to assist practitioners in integrating menstrual hygiene management (MHM) into their work and programmes has just been published by SHARE and WaterAidMHM-Training-Guide

SHARE and MHM
SHARE has long been endeavouring to address the research gaps relating to MHM. In 2012 we published the Menstrual Hygiene Matters manual which features examples of good MHM practice and offers guidance on building competence and confidence to break the silence surrounding the issue, and in 2013 we supported a systematic review exploring the health and social effects of MHM.

Developed by WaterAid, this new training guide is our latest contribution to building the knowledge base around MHM and raising awareness of the issue globally. It builds on the Menstrual Hygiene Matters manual and presents a range of plans, handouts, presentations and films that a facilitator could use when facilitating sessions or workshops on MHM amongst development practitioners. These interactive plans and accompanying resources explore the key issues and components of MHM programmes and can be adapted depending on the context, participants and time available.

The guide in action
The training guide and its various components were tested by WaterAid in its country programmes, with local staff and (I)NGOs, and at international training forums and conferences such as the 2014 Brisbane WASH Conference.

We hope that it will be an invaluable tool to those wishing to integrate MHM into their development programming.

If you use the training the guide or the resource book to complement your programming, we’d love to hear from you. Please get in touch to tell us what you thought: contactshare@lshtm.ac.uk

Next steps
Download the Training Guide
• View the Menstrual Hygiene Matters manual
• Check out the training tools in action at Brisbane
• Read the systematic review
• Find out more about our work on MHM

WaterAid – Healthy Start: the first month of life, 2015

WaterAid – Healthy Start: the first month of life

Bringing a new life into the world should be a time of love and hope for mother and baby, wherever they happen to live. healthy-start

But, around the world, one in every 50 births leads to heartbreak for parents, as their precious newborn son or daughter will die before they are a month old.

In 2013, over 2.7 million babies died in their first four weeks of life. This is overwhelmingly a problem of the developing world – with over 99% of neonatal deaths occurring in low and middle income countries.

In the year the world replaces the Millennium Development Goals with the Sustainable Development Goals, it is time to ensure that the next generation of children is given the best start in life – a healthy start.

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The role of water, sanitation, and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review

The role of water, sanitation, and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review. Parasites & Vectors, March 2015.

Authors: Jack ET Grimes, David Croll, et al

Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel to school-aged children and other high-risk groups), provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and snail control.

However, control measures focus almost exclusively on preventive chemotherapy, while only few studies made an attempt to determine the impact of upgraded access to safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene on schistosome transmission. We recently completed a systematic review and meta-analysis pertaining to WASH and schistosomiasis and found that people with safe water and adequate sanitation have significantly lower odds of a Schistosoma infection. Importantly though, the transmission of schistosomiasis is deeply entrenched in social-ecological systems, and hence is governed by setting-specific cultural and environmental factors that determine human behaviour and snail populations.

Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, which explores the transmission routes of schistosomes, particularly focussing on how these might be disrupted with WASH-related technologies and human behaviour. Additionally, future research directions in this area are highlighted.