Author Archives: WASHplus

WASHplus Small Doable Actions | Aug 2015 studies on handwashing, sanitation

Small Doable Actions: A Feasible Approach to Behavior Change Learning Brief, 2015. WASHplus.
Link: http://goo.gl/DATNYt

A small doable action is a behavior that, when practiced consistently and correctly, will lead to personal and public health improvement. It is considered feasible by the householder, from HIS/HER point of view, considering the current practice, the available resources, and the particular social context. Although the behavior may not be an “ideal practice,” more households likely will adopt it because it is considered feasible within the local context.

Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements.PLoS One, Aug 2015. Authors: Nadja Contzen , Sandra De Pasquale, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Link: http://goo.gl/IXqQUu

Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting.

Does building more toilets stop the spread of disease? Impact evidence from India, Aug 2015.
Link: http://goo.gl/XJ33gn

A 3ie-funded impact evaluation research team used a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the government’s Total Sanitation Campaign in Odisha, India to see if latrine coverage did indeed reduce exposure to disease. The intervention mobilised households in villages characterised by high levels of open defecation to build and use latrines. The study was conducted between May 2010 and December 2013, involving more than 50,000 individuals in 100 villages. The study results show that the assumption that more latrines will reduce exposure to faecal pathogens, and therefore disease, does not necessarily hold true.  During the study period, latrine coverage in the intervention villages increased from 9 per cent of households to 63 per cent, compared to an increase from 8 per cent to 12 per cent in the control villages. The increase in latrine coverage did not prevent diarrhoea or reduce soil-transmitted helminth infection in the intervention villages. The seven-day prevalence of reported diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years was 8.8 percent in the intervention group and 9.1 percent in the control group.

Can disgust and shame lead to cleaner water and more handwashing? Impact evidence from Bangladesh, Aug 2015.
Link: http://goo.gl/XS2ALX

3ie supported a research team to conduct a randomised impact evaluation between 2011 and 2014. The team tested whether behaviour change messages provoking disgust and shame amongst people within each compound are more effective than public health-related messages promoting safe water and handwashing. This brief distills the main findings and the lessons learned. The impact evaluation showed that the intervention did not change behaviours.  The messages aimed at creating disgust and shame did not increase demand for water treatment or improve handwashing behaviour compared to the standard health messages.  Use of the chlorine dispenser was low.  This study pointed up a number of implementation factors that may have affected the impact of the messages and use of the dispensers.

WHO strengthens focus on water, sanitation and hygiene to accelerate elimination of neglected tropical diseases

August 27, 2015 –  WHO strengthens focus on water, sanitation and hygiene to accelerate elimination of neglected tropical diseases | Source: World Health Organization

27 August 2015 –– The World Health Organization (WHO) today unveiled a global plan to better integrate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services with four other public health interventions to accelerate progress in eliminating and eradicating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2020.

International Trachoma Initiative (ITI)

International Trachoma Initiative (ITI)

“Millions suffer from devastating WASH-related neglected tropical diseases – such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis, guinea-worm disease, trachoma and schistosomiasis – all of which affect mainly children” said Dr Maria Neira, WHO Director for Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health. “Solutions exist, such as access to safe water, managing human excreta, improving hygiene, and enhancing targeted environmental management. Such improvements not only lead to improved health, but also reduce poverty.”

Related links

Targeted water and sanitation interventions are expected to bolster ongoing efforts in tackling 16 out of the 17 NTDs, which affect more than 1 billion of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable populations.

Continue reading

Sept 23, 2015 – Creativity in Behavior Change Symposium

Whether it be washing hands with soap, driving sanitation demand, or purifying water, almost every area of public health requires behaviour change. The field of behaviour change is transforming.

There is a growing evidence base to suggest that traditional health education messages are insufficient to achieve sustained change and that more might be achieved by being more creative, for example by learning from product marketing, psychology and behavioural economics. logo

The ‘Creativity in Behaviour Change Symposium‘ will bring together behaviour change practitioners from academia, government and the private sector with the ambition of sparking an ongoing network of collaborators.

In addition to creative case studies and provocative discussions the event will feature interactive activities throughout the day, a ‘behaviour change cinema’ which will screen materials from creative projects from around the globe and there will be a ‘soap box’ where anyone can share their big ideas for the future of behaviour change.

For those who are not in the UK, all the sessions will also be filmed and available on our website at ehg.lshtm.ac.uk

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH & Innovation

Issue 204 | August 28, 2015 | Focus on WASH & Innovation

This issue features some of the many innovative water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs, products, and services that are currently underway. Please contact WASHplus if you have other innovative resources that we can include in a future issue on innovation. Included are resources from WASHplus, the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, USAID, DFID, and others. Also included are recent videos on sanitation in floating communities, information on Shit Flow Diagrams, the SlingShot water purification system, sanitation innovation through design, and innovative financing methods.

WASHPLUS | GLOBAL PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR HANDWASHING | USAID RESOURCES

Breaking the Cycle: Small Doable Actions in WASH to Improve Child Health. J Rosenbaum, WASHplus; FHI 360. Video
WASHplus’s Julia Rosenbaum discusses the power of small doable actions in WASH programs. This approach to behavior change encourages households to adopt feasible actions and enabling technologies to move them toward ideal hygiene and sanitation practices.

Handwashing and the Science of Habit Webinar, 2015. Webinar
USAID/WASHplus and the PPPHW co-hosted a webinar with David Neal, Ph.D., from Catalyst Behavior Sciences and the University of Miami. In this webinar, Dr. Neal emphasized ways to apply the basic science of habit and behavior change to real world health interventions and program delivery, with a focus on behavior change for handwashing with soap.

USAID Development Innovation Ventures (DIV). Website | Ensuring Access to Safe Water
DIV is an open competition supporting breakthrough solutions to the world’s most intractable development challenges—interventions that could change millions of lives at a fraction of the usual cost. The Ensuring Access to Safe Water section of the DIV website has summaries of three projects: Bringing Safe Water to Scale, Monitoring Clean Drinking Water through Technology and Open Data, and Making Water Filtration Affordable for Kenyan Households.

WORLD WATER WEEK 2015 RESOURCES

Financing for Development: Innovative Financial Mechanisms for the Post-2015 Agenda. World Water Week 2015. Video
This session discusses how to generate an enabling environment and targets questions such as: What innovative financing mechanisms must be developed to achieve the water-related Sustainable Development Goals? What are the existing strategies already addressing this issue? What can we learn from other sectors and regions?

Vote for Your Favorite Water Idea, 2015. Link
As part of World Water Week 2015, people can vote for one of ten innovative ways to conserve and manage water resources.

DFID RESOURCES

Can Innovation Prizes Help Address Water and Sanitation Challenges? 2015. S Trémolet. Link
This paper helps identify how innovation prizes can be used to address intractable issues in the WASH sector. It also presents a number of areas where innovation prizes could be used to either trigger genuine innovation or promote scaling up of existing innovations in the WASH sector.

Continue reading

The disgust box: a novel approach to illustrate water contamination with feces

Below are links to 5 Aug 2015 studies on digust, handwashing and maternal mortality, handwashing and NTDs, water quality awareness and breastfeeding and household characteristics and diarrhea.

The disgust box: a novel approach to illustrate water contamination with feces. Health & Science Bulletin, June 2015.

Link: http://goo.gl/3xDeen

Inadequate drinking water, sanitation and hand hygiene are responsible for approximately 800,000 deaths per year in low and middle-income countries. We evaluated the benefits of a behaviour change communication method to motivate water treatment practices in urban low income communities in Dhaka. We used a device called the ‘Disgust Box’ to provide a vivid demonstration of how piped water is contaminated with faeces to motivate people to chlorinate water. Most of the respondents were able to recall the demonstration at both four-month and one year qualitative assessments. At four months, the majority of participants stated that they still felt disgusted by the demonstration and mentioned it as a motivator for water chlorination. However, after one year, despite being able to recall the demonstration, disgust was no longer mentioned as a motivator to chlorinate water. The Disgust Box has the potential to be an effective communication method to motivate water treatment but additional research is necessary to establish a more sustainable approach to reinforce behaviour change.

Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal. PLoS One, Aug 2015. Authors: Nadine Seward, et al.

Link: http://goo.gl/02uiRi

Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and associated factors in a Buruli ulcer endemic district in Benin (West Africa). BMC Public Health, Aug 2015.

Link: http://goo.gl/CZvJPJ

BU is an important conditions in the district of Lalo with 917 new cases detected from 2006 to 2012. More than 49 % of the household surveyed used unimproved water sources for their daily needs. Only 8.7 % of the investigated household had improved sanitation facilities at home and 9.7 % had improved hygiene behavior. The type of housing as an indicator of the socioeconomic status, the permanent availability of soap and improved hygiene practices were identified as the main factors positively associated with improved sanitation status.

Continue reading

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

Issue 202 | August 14, 2015 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

This issue updates the March 6, 2015 Weekly on CLTS. Studies and resources in this issue include a webinar series on what constitutes success for CLTS, new reports from the UNC Water Institute and the Institute of Development Studies, a presentation by Kamal Kar on CLTS and scaling up, and a UNICEF report on CLTS in fragile and insecure contexts. Also included are recent studies on the health impacts of open defecation in India and Nepal and a Waterlines review on the safety of burial or disposal with garbage as forms of child feces disposal.

EVENTS

What Constitutes Success for CLTS? Measuring Community Outcomes and Behavior Changes, 2015.
The webinar had a chat show format where, following a panel interview, the audience will have the chance to interact with the panelists. This webinar was organized under the Knowledge Management initiative of the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) program of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Organizers included Euforic Services, the SuSanA secretariat and the Stockholm Environment Institute.

  • Introduction by Pippa Scott, Link to recording on YouTube
  • Chat show. Speakers: Ada Oko Williams, Technical Support Manager, Sanitation and Hygiene, WaterAid UK; Darren Saywell, Senior Director, Water, Sanitation and Health, Plan International USA and others, Link
  • Feedback from breakout rooms, Link
  • Closing panel, Link
  • More information and links to audio files are available on the SuSanA discussion forum

Seminar: CLTS at Stockholm World Water Week, August 23rd, 9:00 – 10:30, FH 202. Link
In this 90-minute event, speakers from Plan International and the Water Institute at UNC will discuss with the audience the results of an operational research program on the role and potential of local actors to sustain CLTS outcomes. Highlights will be shared from activities in 10 countries across Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean.

Continue reading

Are burial or disposal with garbage safe forms of child faeces disposal?

Are burial or disposal with garbage safe forms of child faeces disposal? An expert consultation. Waterlines, July 2015.

Authors: Rob Bain, Rolf Luyendijk, et al. waterlines

The importance of safe handling and disposal of child faeces given its potential role in disease transmission are increasingly recognized. Household surveys demonstrate that the burying of child faeces (‘dig-and-bury’) is common in several countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia. Disposal with garbage is widely practised in middle- and high-income countries and is becoming increasingly common in urban areas of low-income countries.

The safety of these two approaches is difficult to assess given the limited evidence available and we therefore sought the opinion of experts in the field of sanitation to support advocacy around the topic. We report the findings of an anonymous expert (Delphi) consultation on the safety of these two child faeces disposal methods. There was almost unanimous agreement these should be considered neither safe nor improved.

A range of arguments was provided to support this position, including proximity of solid waste and burial sites to the home and children’s play areas and that neither practice would be acceptable for adults. The consultation also highlighted gaps in the current evidence base that should be addressed to gain a fuller insight into the risks involved in these two forms of sanitation with a view to providing both programmatic and normative guidance.

In particular further work is needed to assess the potential for exposure to faecal matter in solid waste in low- and middle-income countries and to elucidate the predominant practices of child faeces burial including proximity to the home or infant play areas as well as depth of burial.