Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

Exploring “The Remote” and “The Rural”: Open Defecation and Latrine Use in Uttarakhand, India

Exploring “The Remote” and “The Rural”: Open Defecation and Latrine Use in Uttarakhand, India. World Development, January 2017. Authors: Kathleen O’Reilly, Richa Dhanju, Abhineety Goel.

Highlights

  • Remote places are different than rural places due to physical and social distance.
  • Remoteness significantly contributes to practices of open defecation.
  • Structural inequalities produce conditions that impede sanitation uptake.
  • Addressing infrastructural causes of remoteness is key to reducing open defecation.
  • Reducing multi-scalar, socio-spatial inequalities can lead to latrine adoption.

Open defecation is a major global health problem. The number of open defecators in India dwarfs that of other states, and most live in rural places. Open defecation is often approached as a problem scaled at the site of the individual, who makes a choice not to build and/or use a toilet.

Attempts to end rural open defecation by targeting individuals, like social marketing or behavior change approaches, often ignore the structural inequalities that shape rural residents’ everyday lives. Our study explores the question, “What is the role of remoteness in sustaining open defecation in rural India?” We deploy the concept of remoteness as an analytical tool that can capture everyday practices of open defecation as a function of physical and social distance.

Using ethnographic methods, we interviewed and observed 70 participants in four villages in Uttarakhand, India over a three-month period in 2013. We find that remoteness in general, and its lived nuances, form a context for prevalent open defecation. Structural inequalities across space will need to be addressed to make latrine building and usage viable in remote places.

 

WWi – Top 25 leaders in the water sector

Top 25 Leaders. Water and Wastewater International.

After three years, WWi magazine’s Top 25 Water Leaders series has gone from strength to strength. The Top 25 showcases leadership talent – whether it’s founding and growing a company from scratch or adapting a well established corporation to weather economic and market changes. This year many new entries have made the final 25. Here we take a look at the top 24 leaders before an interview with the winner.

25 – Dr Andrew Benedek, CEO, Anaergia, Hungary
A leading authority on global water issues, Dr Benedek founded Zenon Environmental in 1980, growing the business to become a leader in membrane treatment before being sold to GE. wwi1With over 30 years experience in wastewater treatment, he won the Stockholm Water Industry award in 2003 and the Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize in 2008. Chairman and CEO for Anaergia, Dr Benedek graduated from McGill University with a Bachelor of Chemical Engineering and PhD from the University of Washington.

24 – James Sano, CEO of Water & Sanitation Corporation (WASAC), Rwanda
Providing services to Kigali, WASAC underwent a transformation in non-revenue water, energy usage, management and customer service in 2015, under leadership from James Sano. wwi2Following a turnaround programme by 2ML, the utility’s billing efficiency had reached 100% with NRW improving by 3.4%, with cash operating margins going from being in deficit to a surplus in the hundreds of millions of Rwandan Francs. The former water and sanitation sector coordinator at the Rwanda Ministry of Infrastructure, Sano got a masters in environmental science from Wageningen University.

Read the complete article.

Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Early Proofs, January 2017

Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Early Proofs, January 2017

Sustained use in a relief-to-recovery household water chlorination program in Haiti: comparing external evaluation findings with internal supervisor and community health worker monitoring data

Towards sustained sanitation services: a review of existing frameworks and an alternative framework combining ecological and sanitation life stage approaches

Assessing ambient and internal environmental conditions of pit latrines in urban slums of Kampala, Uganda: effect on performance

Take it away: the need for designing fecal sludge disposal services for single-pit latrines

Urine diversion dry toilets in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa: acceptance, use and maintenance through users’ eyes

Isotherm models and kinetics of copper adsorption by using hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonization of faecal sludge

Aditi Gupta Is Breaking Menstrual Taboos Through Her Comic Book Guide, Menstrupedia

Aditi Gupta Is Breaking Menstrual Taboos Through Her Comic Book Guide, Menstrupedia. India Times, January 18, 2017.

“Chumming” is one of the most natural biological processes that half of the world’s population experiences every month, yet most of us in India can’t gather enough courage to put away the euphemism and say the word, period. menstrupedia_1484728044

For many women in India and South Asia, being on their periods is a nightmare. Some are shunned from the kitchen, others are shunned from their home altogether. Other than the social stigma attached to menstruation, there is also a lack of awareness and sanitation, which then paves way for period myths and misconceptions.

According to Dasra, an organisation documenting the rights and welfare of women, 88% of India’s 355 million menstruating women do not have access to sanitary pads. Also, an estimated 23% of girls in the country drop out of school when they begin menstruating.

Read the complete article.

UNESCO funds Dunedin shadow puppet film in Indonesia about hygiene

Published on Jan 16, 2017
UNESCO along with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade are financially backing a trans-Tasman project to improve hygiene in Indonesia.

An educational film is being made in Dunedin featuring Javanese shadow puppets who tell the tale of evil bacteria.

Today some top musicians began adding the soundtrack.

 

USAID’s Global Waters – January 2017

USAID’s Global Waters, January 2017 issue. 

Contents

  • A Decade of Improving Lives and Conserving Ecosystems – One of USAID’s longest running public-private partnerships, the Water and Development Alliance with the Coca-Cola Company and its Foundations, successfully addresses global water challenges. globalwaters
  • The Impact of Strategic Water Programming – USAID Global Water Coordinator Christian Holmes reflects on six years of Agency water accomplishments, approaches, and learning.
  • Improving Water Supplies and Sanitation Services in East Africa – PREPARED works with Uganda’s main water utility to increase the resiliency of the country’s water and sanitation services, making it a model for its water-stressed neighbors
  • And more

USAID’s Safeguarding the World’s Water Report, 2017

Safeguarding the World’s Water Report, 2017. USAID.

USAID proudly announces the release of its Safeguarding the World’s Water report for Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, documenting the Agency’s water sector activities and sharing progress made during the second year of implementing its Water and Development Strategysafeguarding_world_water_fy2015_cover_0

Highlights of some programs featured in this year’s report:

USAID reached 3.2 million children under 5 with nutrition-specific interventions in Ethiopia, where 30 percent of the people live on less than $1.25 a day and 40 percent of the children suffer from stunting, as of FY 2015.

By the end of FY 2015, working in 50 cities across Indonesia, USAID helped to facilitate improved access to safe piped water for more than 2.5 million people and continues to help more than 300,000 obtain access to improved sanitation facilities.

By FY 2015, in the West Bank and Gaza, Agency support for the construction and maintenance of vital water and sanitation infrastructure included the installation of 900 kilometers of water pipelines connecting 130,000 Palestinians to running water for the first time and improving access to clean water for more than a million people