Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

An Emergency WASH Google Group Update – July 18, 2018

There are currently 164 members in the Emergency WASH Google Group and below is a brief intro from George Yap. We have added a new Emergency WASH In the News feature so please let us know if you find this useful and if you have other suggestions for the biweekly updates.

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Association between Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures and Cholera in Case–Control Studies. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, July 2018.
Although the magnitude of associations was similar among risk factors and among protective factors, improved hygiene demonstrated the greatest reduction in the odds of cholera (OR = 0.34 for observed good hygiene), whereas open defecation most increased the odds of cholera (OR = 5.6). Among the predicted protective factors, neither improved water source nor improved sanitation was associated with cholera.

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WASH and the Systems Approach – Water Currents, July 10, 2018

Water Currents: WASH and the Systems Approach – Water Currents, July 10, 2018.

The USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS) prepared this special issue of Water Currents focusing on systems approaches, which seek to understand the complexity, interactions, and interdependencies between actors and factors involved in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). systems

Actions are implemented based on this understanding and have the flexibility to adapt to feedback and changing conditions.

The purpose of SWS is to test new ideas, approaches, and tools to overcome barriers for improving WASH service sustainability via systems approaches. Additional information about SWS activities can be found on the SWS website.

Reports and webinars featured in this issue are from SWS and its consortium members, as well as the World Bank, USAID, and others.

2018 and 2017 Publications and Webinars 
Using Network Analysis to Understand and Strengthen WASH SystemsSWS, February 2018.

This webinar provides an introduction to network analysis and early lessons learned from analyses conducted in Ethiopia, Uganda, and Cambodia. SWS is using such analyses to better understand the complex interactions of actors in a local WASH system, with the ultimate goal of increasing the sustainability of WASH services.

Read the complete issue.

July 2018 WASH BENEFITS studies, recent WASH research on cholera, sludge reuse

JULY 2018 WASH BENEFITS STUDIES

Achieving optimal technology and behavioral uptake of single and combined interventions of water, sanitation hygiene and nutrition, in an efficacy trial (WASH benefits) in rural Bangladesh. BMC Trials, July 2018. Rigorous implementation of interventions deployed at large scale in the context of an efficacy trial achieved high levels of technology and behavioral uptake in individual and combined WASH and nutrition intervention households.

WASH Benefits Bangladesh trial: management structure for achieving high coverage in an efficacy trial. BMC Trials, July 2018. The intensive intervention delivery system required for an efficacy trial differs in many respects from the system for a routine program. To implement a routine program at scale requires further research on how to optimize the supervisor-to-CHW-to-intervention household ratios, as well as other program costs without compromising program effectiveness.

WASH Benefits Bangladesh trial: system for monitoring coverage and quality in an efficacy trial. BMC Trials, July 2018. An intensive implementation fidelity monitoring and rapid response system proved beneficial for this efficacy trial. To implement a routine program at scale requires further research into an adaptation of fidelity monitoring that supports program effectiveness.

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Association between Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures and Cholera in Case–Control Studies. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, Early view. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions should address multiple transmission routes and be well implemented, according to international guidance, to ensure that field effectiveness matches theoretical efficacy. In addition, future case–control studies should detail WASH characteristics to contextualize results.

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Urban sanitation coverage and environmental fecal contamination: Links between the household and public environments of Accra, Ghana

Urban sanitation coverage and environmental fecal contamination: Links between the household and public environments of Accra, Ghana. PLoS One, July 2018.

Exposure to fecal contamination in public areas, especially in dense, urban environments, may significantly contribute to enteric infection risk. This study examined associations between sanitation and fecal contamination in public environments in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

Soil (n = 72) and open drain (n = 90) samples were tested for Ecoli, adenovirus, and norovirus. Sanitation facilities in surveyed households (n = 793) were categorized by onsite fecal sludge containment (“contained” vs. “uncontained”) using previous Joint Monitoring Program infrastructure guidelines. Most sanitation facilities were shared by multiple households.

Associations between spatial clustering of household sanitation coverage and fecal contamination were examined, controlling for neighborhood and population density (measured as enumeration areas in the 2010 census and spatially matched to sample locations). Ecoli concentrations in drains within 50m of clusters of contained household sanitation were more than 3 log-units lower than those outside of clusters.

Further, although results were not always statistically significant, Ecoli concentrations in drains showed consistent trends with household sanitation coverage clusters: concentrations were lower in or near clusters of high coverage of household sanitation facilities—especially contained facilities—and vice versa.

Virus detection in drains and Ecoli concentrations in soil were not significantly associated with clustering of any type of household sanitation and did not exhibit consistent trends. Population density alone was not significantly associated with any of the fecal contamination outcomes by itself and was a significant, yet inconsistent, effect modifier of the association between sanitation clusters and Ecoli concentrations.

These findings suggest clustering of contained household sanitation, even when shared, may be associated with lower levels of fecal contamination within drains in the immediate public domain. Further research is needed to better quantify these relationships and examine impacts on health.

Innovations for Urban Sanitation: Adapting Community-led Approaches

Innovations for Urban Sanitation: Adapting Community-led Approaches. Practical Action, June 2018. innovations

Authors – Jamie Myers, Sue Cavill, Samuel Musyoki, Katherine Pasteur and Lucy Stevens

Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement. But how can the community mobilization techniques of CLTS be adapted to the more complex situations and transient populations in urban areas? How can landlords as well as tenants be motivated to provide and use safely managed sanitation?

Innovations for Urban Sanitation has been developed in response to calls from practitioners for practical guidance on how to mobilize communities and improve different parts of the sanitation chain in urban areas. Urban Community-Led Total Sanitation is potentially an important piece of a bigger puzzle. It offers a set of approaches, tools and tactics for practitioners to move towards safely managed sanitation services. The book provides examples of towns and cities in Africa, South Asia and South-East Asia which have used these approaches.

The approach has the potential to contribute not only to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 on water, sanitation and hygiene and SDG 11 on cities but also those concerning the reduction of inequalities and the promotion of inclusive societies. As a pro-poor development strategy, U-CLTS can mobilize the urban poor to take their own collective action and demand a response from others to provide safely managed sanitation, hygiene and water services which leave no one behind.

July 9th webinar – The Clean Clinic Approach: Strengthening WASH in Health Care Facilities to Improve Health Outcome for Mothers and Newborns

The Clean Clinic Approach: Strengthening WASH in Health Care Facilities to Improve Health Outcome for Mothers and Newborns

    • Monday July 09, 2018
    • 8:00 a.m.- 9:30 a.m. EST

Dear Colleagues,

We cordially invite you to join us for a webinar presentation by Stephen Sara, the WASH Team Lead on USAID’s Flagship Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP) on implementing the Clean Clinic Approach, MCSP’s approach for improving WASH in health care facilities. usaidmcsp

The approach focuses on facilitating incremental, low-cost WASH improvements to support maternal and newborn health outcomes. The webinar will review existing standards and tools, discuss the relationship between WASH and infection prevention & control (IPC) and share experiences and lessons learned from implementing the Clean Clinic Approach as part of an integrated health program.

Kindly note that we will plan to hold webinar again later in July (in the evening US time) for participants who are not able to attend this session due to being on a different time zone.  The webinar will also be recorded and available for playback as well.

Join Skype Meeting

https://meet.lync.com/savechildrenusa/ssara/MRN9W892

Webinar on the Sustainability of USAID/Indonesia’s Urban Water Utility Services Activities

Webinar on the Sustainability of USAID/Indonesia’s Urban Water Utility Services Activities

How sustainable are outcomes several years after water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) projects have closed? ESP-Indonesia-pdam-1024x512

In this webinar, Leslie Greene Hodel (Senior Advisor, Water CKM Project) presents findings from the second in a series of USAID Water Communications and Knowledge Management (CKM) Project ex-post evaluations on the Indonesia Environmental Services Program (ESP), implemented by DAI between 2004 and 2010.

Seven years after the close of the project, the evaluation team used a mixed-methods design, including utility service level and performance data as well as qualitative interviews, to examine the enduring influence of selected ESP achievements in improving urban water utilities’ service levels as well as utilities’ management capacity and financial stability.

The evaluation also verified the present status of a microcredit program designed to improve access to the poor. Lessons from this evaluation are intended to inform improvements to ongoing USAID urban WASH activity design in Indonesia and beyond.

Link to the webinar and the evaluation.