Author Archives: WSSCC

Catalytic programming for scale and sustainability

The 2016 Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) Learning Event produced lessons on scale, sustainability, equality and monitoring for sanitation and hygiene programmes. The conversations, reflections and lessons emanating from the Learning Event are examined in a recently released reflection paper.

Download the complete paper or read the summary below.

catalytic-programming-for-scale-featured-photo-1024x608

Credit: WSSCC/Javier Acebal

Strategies and approaches for reaching scale

Planning for scale

GSF-supported programmes aim to operate at scale in order to demonstrate that ending open defecation or achieving improved sanitation at a national scale is not only possible, but also cost-effective, sustainable, and can ensure that nobody is left behind. As raised amongst participants, reaching scale with quality behaviour change interventions requires strategic planning from the beginning. The key consideration in planning for scale is demonstrating a model for achieving ODF within the specific context, often within a given state or region, to eventually reach nationwide replication.

Key lessons learned:

  • Aim to achieve ODF status for administrative units above the village level.
  • Build an implementation army.
  • Facilitate an enabling environment.
  • Align programming with existing structures and institutions.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Discussions revolved around ODF roadmaps and how they are critical for many GSF-supported programmes in planning for and achieving scale. Participants also discussed going beyond rural ODF at scale and planning for scale in urban areas and public spaces.

photo-2b-1024x624

Credit: Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement (FAA)

 

Decentralized delivery systems

As a key link between achieving scale and ensuring institutional sustainability, each GSF-supported programme is implemented through a variety of decentralized institutions, organizations, and actors. Participants discussed how they leverage and support locally-based structures to transform sanitation and hygiene behaviour at scale.

Key lessons learned:

  • Decentralization goes beyond local governments and NGOs – it involves informal or other non-state actors.
  • Decentralization is critical to strengthening local capacity.
  • Decentralization facilitates ownership at all levels.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Discussions explored the key challenge of ensuring adequate resourcing to ensure the sustainability of collective behaviour change. Participants also highlighted the need to unpack what decentralized delivery looks like in different contexts.

Capacity building and quality assurance of CLTS facilitators

As the principle implementers and coordinators of programme activities, building the capacity of Sub-grantees is essential for reaching scale with quality.

Key lessons learned:

  • Go beyond formal training.
  • Focus on those with the skills.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Participants noted that bringing Executing Agency staff closer to Sub-grantees greatly enhances the capacity to facilitate hands-on training, ensure quality control and link different levels of implementation. Another key discussion revolved around incorporating emerging local actors such as Natural Leaders and Community Consultants, who can greatly enhance both the scale and the quality of high-quality CLTS facilitation. Participants also highlighted the need to ensure the sustainability of built capacity among Sub-grantees and local actors during the transition phase of GSF-supported programmes.

Building the movement

GSF Executing Agencies and Sub-grantees do not act in a vacuum. Instead, dynamic movements involving diverse actors at all levels are critical for igniting collective behaviour change at scale, and for continuing the fight against open defecation beyond the life of the programme.

Key lessons learned:

  • Bring sector actors together.
  • Start where you will succeed by identifying areas where political support is highest.
  • Involve everyone.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Key themes explored in the discussions were: valuing local actors and initiatives; cataloguing Institutional Triggering approaches; following up on commitments made during Institutional Triggering sessions; and promoting local accountability.

photo-2-1024x628

Credit: UN-Habitat

Strategies for sustainability

Understanding ‘slippage’

As programmes mature and the challenge shifts from bringing communities to ODF to sustaining their ODF status, many are confronted with the issue of slippage. This concept refers to communities returning to previous unhygienic behaviours, or the inability of some or all community members to continue to meet the criteria for maintaining ODF status.

Key lessons learned:

  • Slippage factors vary across countries.
  • Behaviour change is the principle slippage determinant.
  • High-quality CLTS facilitation is the most effective strategy to address slippage.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Themes explored during the discussions included the definitions of slippage, criteria for sustainable infrastructure and how to ensure smarter monitoring and verification.

Download ‘Sanitation and Hygiene Behaviour Change at Scale: Understanding Slippage’.

Sanitation technology and supply-side approaches

As communities are triggered and take collective action to end open defecation, climbing the ‘sanitation ladder’ is a key aspect of sustainability. However, major challenges remain in ensuring that the promotion of sanitation and hygiene technologies is affordable, appropriate, and reinforces – rather than undermines – collective behaviour change.

Key lesson learned:

Supply-side development approaches are most effective when behaviour change is ingrained.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Discussion topics included: accelerating private sector engagement; understanding that sanitation marketing – like CLTS – is not a silver bullet; developing community-based supply chains; ensuring equality; and enhancing market access in rural areas.

Handwashing promotion

Despite being one the most effective ways to prevent some of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, the uptake of handwashing with soap (or ash) often falls behind other health indicators.

Key lesson learned:

Rather than trying to change behaviour through health sensitization, growing evidence suggests that social messaging, building on a set of common motivators or triggers, is often more effective in improving handwashing behaviour.

Conversations, reflections and questions:

Discussions reflected on the power of ‘nudging’ hygiene behaviour, school handwashing events, climbing the ‘hygiene ladder’, and the challenge of systematically measuring the uptake of handwashing.

Reaching the most vulnerable

Sustaining community-wide sanitation and hygiene behaviour change requires that everyone can access and use improved sanitation and hygiene. Even the most vulnerable must become active participants in their community’s collective behaviour change journey. Ensuring equality and non-discrimination is a priority for GSF-supported programmes.

Key lessons learned:

  • High-quality CLTS is key.
  • Promote local solidarity mechanisms – the most effective solutions to ensure that nobody is left behind usually come from the community itself.

Conversations, reflections, and questions:

Discussions focused on methodologies for monitoring and evaluating equality and non-discrimination, behavioural vulnerability, how vulnerability is defined, embedding inclusion into supply-side activities, triggering for equality, and embedding equality into CLTS activities.

photo-4-1024x618

Credit: WSSCC

Measuring and verifying at scale

There is a need to enhance and refine monitoring frameworks as GSF-supported programmes mature and transition to scale. This includes working with other sector partners and governments to harmonize national ODF verification systems and protocols, and capturing impact-level health and social indicators.

What are we measuring?

Definitions of ODF frequently vary across, and within, countries. This has critical implications for evaluating programme performance, benchmarking value for money, and communicating how GSF-supported programme’s contribute to the sustainable improvement of adequate sanitation and hygiene for everyone.

Key lesson learned:

ODF goes beyond just stopping defecation in the open. Instead, ODF commonly refers to completely breaking oral-faecal contamination by including criteria such as the overall hygiene of latrines and the presence of handwashing stations with soap or ash. Differences in definitions across GSF-supported programmes also reveal to what extent ODF goes beyond simply ending defecating in the open.

Conversations, reflections, and questions:

Discussions focused on the varied criteria for improved sanitation, adopting a standardized GSF ODF definition, capturing the nuances of the behaviour change journey, and shifting the focus from ODF to total sanitation.

Monitoring and verification at scale

Monitoring and verifying the ODF status of thousands of communities poses significant financial and capacity challenges.

Key lessons learned:

  • Leverage existing, locally-based monitoring and verification structures.
  • Promote government leadership.

Conversations, reflections, and questions:

Discussions focused on: community-driven monitoring; going beyond simply checking results and using the verification process to support other programming aspects; exploring what qualifies as a ‘third party’ verification actor; using sampling methodologies; and promoting best practice verification systems.

Reflections and next steps

A key aim of the Learning Event was to provide country teams with concrete ideas, approaches and innovations to adapt to their contexts, in order to improve the outcomes and impact of their programmes. While this aim was achieved, it is clear that many reflections and discussions from the event require more answers, and suitable follow-up. The GSF is committed to continuing and improving its learning journey, which includes the sharing of lessons learned, reflections and challenges. It is hoped that this report can inspire further learning and sharing, both within the GSF family and in the wider water, sanitation and hygiene sector.

Download the complete paper on the WSSCC website: bit.ly/2dAhoZO

Understanding ‘slippage’

As sanitation and hygiene programmes mature, the challenge shifts from helping communities achieve open defecation free (ODF) status to sustaining this status. In this context, many programmes are confronted with ‘slippage’ – the return to previous unhygienic behaviours, or the inability of some or all community members to continue to meet all ODF criteria. How should slippage be understood and addressed? A new report – primarily based on experiences from the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)-supported programme in Madagascar, provides comprehensive insights.

Download the complete paper or read the feature article below.

feature-photo-reflection-paper-understanging-slippage

Eugène de Ligori Rasamoelina, Executive Director of the Malagasy NGO Miarantsoa, triggers commune leaders. Miarantsoa pioneered Follow-up MANDONA, a proven approach for mitigating slippage. Photo: WSSCC/Carolien van der Voorden

Slippage is intricate because it is hinged on the philosophy and complexity of behaviour change. Moreover, the definition of slippage is linked to the definition of ODF in a given country. The more demanding the ODF criteria are, the more slippage one can potentially experience.

Continue reading

Linking WASH to other development sectors – Thematic discussion: 24th October – 12th November 2016

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries and the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation at Mzuzu University (Malawi) are holding a joint 3-week thematic discussion on linking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) to other development sectors. The LinkedIn hosted CoP has over 6,200 members each working in WASH and other related sectors; this thematic discussion will be an opportunity to bring together sector practitioners and researchers to share knowledge, learn from each other, identify best practice and explore how WASH and other development sectors can collaborate in this SDG era.

The thematic discussion will take place on the CoP; with a coordinator moderating the discussions. The discussion will be split into three inter-linked sub-themes and conversation leaders will frame and prompt debates each week on:

  • 24 – 30 October – Theme 1: WASH and Nutrition – At a grassroots level, WASH and nutrition are not often combined, what are some examples of successful merging of these themes? What about the health impact and the perceptions and views of communities? If you had one area of WASH and nutrition which makes the biggest impact to focus on, what would it be?

2016-10_thematic_discussions-week1_eflyer

  • 31 October – 6 November – Theme 2: WASH and Disability – What are the barriers to accessing WASH people with disabilities in developing countries? Is standard CLTS inclusive?  How can schools in developing countries be more accessible?  What are some examples of successful merging of these two themes?

2016-10_thematic_discussions-week2_eflyer

  • 7 – 12 November – Theme 3: Climate Change and WASH –What are some of the local strategies in place to strengthen climate change resiliency and WASH objectives? If an ODF community build a pit latrine by cutting down old growth trees, have we made a positive or negative impact at a community level? Are there more innovative ways looking at not only the environment and human dimensions of these problems? What are some examples of successful merging of these two themes by field practitioners?

2016-10_thematic_discussions-week3_eflyerJoin us for the discussion with some of the following thematic experts:

  • Megan Wilson-Jones, Policy Analyst: Health & Hygiene, WaterAid for WASH and Nutrition discussion
  • Adam Biran and Sian White, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
  • Mavuto Tembo, Mzuzu University, Malawi

Weekly summaries of discussions will be posted on CoP as well as a synthesis report of overarching findings at the end.

To participate in the discussion, please join here:

WSSCC Community of Practice: www.linkedin.com/grp/home?gid=1238187

We look forward to some constructive and in-depth discussions!

Join the thematic discussion on applied research in water, sanitation and hygiene

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries and the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation at Mzuzu University (Malawi) are holding a joint 3-week thematic discussion on applied research in water, sanitation and hygiene.

e-flyer-thematic-discussions-applied-research-on-water-sanitation-and-hygiene_07102016

The LinkedIn-hosted CoP has over 5,900 members each working in WASH and other related sectors; this thematic discussion will be an opportunity to bring together sector practitioners and researchers to share knowledge, learn from each other, identify best practice and explore links between research and practice in the sector.

The thematic discussion will take place on the CoP; with a coordinator moderating the discussions. The discussion will be split into three inter-linked sub-themes and conversation leaders will frame and prompt debates each week on:

  • 3 – 9 October – Theme 1: How to pull practitioners into research – What are some examples of successful research including WASH practitioners? How did these models address the issues of research to support grass roots implementation improvements? How were research findings shared? What ethical procedures were followed for study participants? In the cases of successful research partnership, were programs initiated and undertaken by academic, governmental or non-governmental actors?
  • 10 – 16 October – Theme 2: Low-cost WASH technologies – Is there still room to research and innovate WASH technologies? Who is leading this and how is technology development being conducted?  What are some of the most successful low-cost WASH technologies you have seen? What constitutes low-cost WASH technologies?
  • 17 – 22 October – Theme 3: Reducing sanitation-related psychosocial stress, and improving the safety and quality of life for women and girls – How is this defined? What are some of the local strategies in place to reduce sanitation-related psychosocial stress, and improving the safety and quality of life for women and girls? What are the patterns of this you have seen? Are there more innovative ways looking at this problem – what about the health impact and the perceptions and views of communities?

Join us for the discussion with some of the following thematic experts:

  • Rochelle Holm, Manager of the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation at Mzuzu University, Malawi
  • Abebe Beyene, Department of Environmental Health Science & Technology, Jimma University, Ethiopia

Weekly summaries of discussions will be posted on CoP as well as a synthesis report of overarching findings at the end.

To participate in the discussion, please join here:

WSSCC CoP: www.linkedin.com/grp/home?gid=1238187

We look forward to some constructive and in-depth discussions!

The Netherlands announces $50 million contribution to WSSCC for global sanitation coverage

The Government of the Netherlands today announced a renewed investment of $50 million for the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC).

The funding will enable WSSCC, the only part of the United Nations devoted solely to the sanitation and hygiene needs of the most vulnerable people around the world, to empower 5 million additional people to access improved sanitation by 2020.

“In 2015, the Netherlands pledged to achieve universal access to water for 30 million people and sanitation for 50 million people by 2030,” said Mark Rutte, Prime Minister of the Netherlands, in a video shown at Global Citizen’s World on Stage event held in New York City at the NYU Skirball Center. “And today I’m proud to announce that the Government of the Netherlands will be donating 50 million dollars to the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council to foster our joint efforts!”

The announcement was made during Global Citizen’s exclusive night of music, advocacy, and impact with Tom Morello, Kesha, and Paul Simon presenting the inaugural George Harrison Global Citizen Award.

The Netherlands’ special envoy for international water affairs Henk Ovink joined Nigerian Environment Minister and WSSCC Chair Amina J. Mohammed at the announcement on Friday night. Credit: Global Citizen

The Netherlands’ special envoy for international water affairs Henk Ovink joined Nigerian Environment Minister and WSSCC Chair Amina J. Mohammed at the announcement on Friday night. Credit: Global Citizen

Henk Ovink, the Netherlands’ special envoy for international water affairs, joined Amina J. Mohammed, the Chair of WSSCC and Minister of Environment for the Federal Republic of Nigeria, at the announcement.

“I can assure you that the commitment from the Netherlands will transform the lives of millions of women and girls, the elderly, the disabled, and the most vulnerable,” said Mohammed.

“The Netherlands stands firmly committed to a water-secure world, where every citizen of every nation can access clean drinking water, and where safe sanitation and hygiene is a reality for all,” added Ovink.

2.4 billion people – roughly 40 percent of the world’s population – lack what many take for granted: a toilet. Every day, an estimated 1,500 children die from diarrhoea largely caused by a lack of access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene — more than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined. Poor sanitation alone may also be responsible for as much as half of the world’s stunting problems, due to diarrhoea and related malnutrition.

Ms. Mohammed said it is important “to hold more global leaders accountable for making visionary commitments to global water and sanitation. This will improve health, grow economies and enhance human dignity.”

In addition to the Netherlands, WSSCC is supported by the Governments of Australia, Finland, Norway, Switzerland and Sweden.

Global Sanitation Fund reports advances in sanitation and hygiene for communities across 13 countries

People-centred, nationally-led programmes empower millions to end open defecation and enhance sanitation

Geneva, 14 June 2016 – A new report shows that the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) has supported governments and thousands of partners across 13 countries to enable close to 11 million people to end open defecation.

Nigeria - CLTS triggering

The Global Sanitation Fund supports Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), which ignites change in sanitation and hygiene behaviour within whole communities, rather than constructing toilets through subsidies. In this photo, local women are engaged in a CLTS triggering session facilitated by the GSF-supported programme in Obanliku, Nigeria. Photo: Concern Universal/Jason Florio

Strong results achieved by GSF-supported national programmes are enhancing the GSF’s goal of contributing to universal access to sustainable and equitable sanitation and hygiene across these countries.

The results are published in the GSF’s latest Progress Report, highlighting cumulative results achieved from the start of the Fund to the end of 2015, as well as results and activities during 2015. From the establishment of the GSF in 2008 up until December 2015, GSF-supported programmes have enabled:

  • 10.87 million people in more than 47,000 communities to live in open defecation free (ODF) environments, an increase of nearly 4 million since 2014
  • 6.62 million to access improved toilets, an increase of over 2 million since 2014
  • 15.69 million to access handwashing facilities, an increase of nearly 8 million since 2014

These results represent achievements within targeted communities in need. With these achievements, GSF-supported programmes aim to demonstrate to national governments and other stakeholders that it is possible to achieve large-scale, nationally-owned results in a sustainable and cost-effective manner. In addition, the GSF model can be replicated and scaled up to achieve nationwide coverage, as envisioned in national sanitation strategies and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Gallery5_web-optimized

Among the many dimensions of the GSF are: triggering leaders at the highest level of government; enabling the most vulnerable to improve their sanitation; addressing the needs of women and girls; igniting large-scale change in communities through CLTS; and promoting handwashing to prevent diseases and save lives. Credit: WSSCC

Boosting national efforts to achieve sustainable sanitation and hygiene for all

The report shows that in 2015, progress went beyond the numbers. Furthermore, the report presents the human aspect of the GSF – the diverse people and partners that are central to the Fund’s impact across Africa and Asia.

GSF-supported programmes in Benin, Madagascar, Nigeria, Togo and Uganda worked with in-country partners to accelerate the development of national sanitation and ODF strategies. In addition, significant progress was made in better addressing challenges related to sustaining ODF status and behaviour change, in-country innovations were developed and scaled up, and many programmes enhanced their implementation through national and international learning exchanges.

Following the devastating earthquake in Nepal, reprogramming of a portion of the GSF-supported programme’s funds enabled support to a coordinated national response. A ‘revive your toilet’ campaign in the three worst-affected GSF-supported districts mobilized volunteers to restore damaged latrines.

“The significant progress reported by the GSF shows that the Fund is strongly placed to contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals,” said Chris Williams, Executive Director of WSSCC. “The GSF is most strongly placed to help nations address the second target of Goal 6: achieving universal access to equitable sanitation and hygiene and ending open defecation, while focusing on the needs of women, girls and the most vulnerable. All of these aspects are central to the GSF’s work.”

Why sanitation and hygiene?

Adequate water and sanitation is both a human right and daily need for everyone. Despite this, improving sanitation and hygiene remains a challenge for 2.4 billion people, about a third of the world’s population. Poor sanitation and hygiene is linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea, the latter of which is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The World Bank has also estimated that poor sanitation costs countries approximately $260 billion annually. Improved sanitation can prevent a significant amount of diseases, improve dignity and safety, and boost school attendance, particularly among girls. Furthermore, a WHO study calculated that for every $1 invested in sanitation, there was a return of $5.50 in lower health costs, more productivity and fewer premature deaths.

The GSF was established in 2008 by the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) to help address the global sanitation and hygiene crisis. WSSCC is legally and administratively hosted by the United Nations Office for Project Services and chaired by Amina J. Mohammed, Nigeria’s Environment Minister and the former Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General on Post-2015 Development Planning.

The GSF’s impact

The GSF is the only global fund solely dedicated to sanitation and hygiene, supporting national sanitation programmes that are community-based and government-supported. Across these countries, diverse networks of stakeholders include households, communities, natural leaders, national coalitions, local governments, community organizations and champions, NGOs, academic institutions and local entrepreneurs. These stakeholders form vibrant movements, working together to create the conditions for millions of people in their countries, and tens of millions across the globe, to enhance their sanitation and hygiene.

Monitoring, verifying and reporting on sanitation improvement is central to GSF-supported programmes. The GSF continues to support the enhancement of national and global monitoring and verification systems, to ensure sustainable development objectives are achieved and no one is left behind. Credit: WSSCC/Javier Acebal

Monitoring, verifying and reporting on sanitation improvement is central to GSF-supported programmes. The GSF continues to support the enhancement of national and global monitoring and verification systems, to ensure sustainable development objectives are achieved and no one is left behind. Credit: WSSCC/Javier Acebal

The GSF‘s people-centered approach engages households in thousands of villages, enabling people to make informed decisions about their sanitation and hygiene behaviour that can positively impact their health, education, income, productivity and dignity.

“As highlighted in the report, the GSF is well positioned to play a central role in supporting global investment needs for sanitation and hygiene,” said David Shimkus, the GSF’s Programme Director. “As a multi-donor trust fund, the GSF over the next 15 years will build upon the knowledge and experience gained to further accelerate access to sanitation for tens of millions of people. Efforts will be made to boost the capacity, innovation and results of country programmes, as well as to further strengthen monitoring, evaluation and learning systems.”

The Governments of Australia, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have contributed to the GSF since its establishment in 2008. Over $112 million has been committed across 13 countries.

Download the 2015 Progress Report on the WSSCC website to read more about the GSF’s results, impact and activities.

Accelerating and sustaining behaviour change: New handbook launched at GSF learning event

This week, the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) and the GSF-funded ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA) in Madagascar launched a new handbook on accelerating and sustaining the end of open defecation.

The handbook was launched during the GSF Learning Event in Antananarivo, Madagascar, inaugurated by Madagascar’s Minister of Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Roland Ravatomanga.

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

The ‘Follow-up MANDONA’ (FUM) handbook is a field guide for practitioners of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) – an empowering approach for improving sanitation and hygiene through collective behaviour change, rather than external subsidies or prescription. FUM aims to systematically engage communities after they have been initially ‘triggered’ and committed to ending open defecation.

‘Mandona’ is a Malagasy word which means ‘to push’. FUM brings the entire community together for a self-analysis of their sanitation situation, which then helps them immediately create models that prevent the ingestion of faeces. The approach harnesses the power of Natural Leaders to replicate these models across the community, which includes helping those that are least able, in order to advance to ODF status. By focusing on sustainable behaviour change, FUM is also a useful tool for addressing issues surrounding ‘slippage’, which relates to returning to previous unhygienic behaviours.

FUM was developed and refined by MIARINTSOA NGO, a sub-grantee of the FAA programme. Given the success of FUM in Madagascar and elsewhere, the GSF and FAA created the FUM handbook to provide a practical guide for how CLTS practitioners can implement the approach in their own contexts.

Download ‘Follow-up MANDONA: A field guide for accelerating and sustaining open defecation free communities’ (English/French)

The weeklong global event where the handbook was launched brings together implementing partners, WASH experts, and high-level government representatives from GSF-supported programmes. These actors are exchanging ideas and sharing best practices for achieving improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour at scale.

During the launch, WSSCC Executive Director Chris Williams highlighted how FUM is engraining the sustainability of sanitation and hygiene behaviour change in Madagascar and beyond. “Once a village, or an entire commune, has reached ODF status, the story isn’t over. In fact, the work continues. This important publication documents the innovations that Madagascar has put together to systematically follow-up with villages. FUM aims to ensure that the change in attitudes and creation of convictions that my ‘sanitation problem is your sanitation problem’ – ‘or my shit is your shit’ – is dealt with as a collective community effort.”

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

FUM has become one of FAA’s most important tools for empowering over 1.6 million people to live in open defecation free environments on their own terms. Due to its success in Madagascar, FUM has recently become a core strategy for national sanitation and hygiene programmes in Uganda, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Kamal Kar, the Chairman of the CLTS Foundation, which has extensively supported the FAA programme to develop their CLTS approach, emphasized the importance of the handbook in sharing proven approaches to practitioners around the world: “I am glad that the Malagasy NGO, MIARINTSOA, with the help of the FAA programme, WSSCC and the GSF, has systematically documented their experience of post-triggering follow-up from their implementation of CLTS over the last 4-5 years. Publication of this Follow-up MANDONA handbook is indeed a step forward towards country-wide scaling up of good practice of CLTS in Madagascar and beyond.”

Eugène-De-Ligori-Rasamoelina,-Executive-Director-of-MIARINTSOA-NGO,-which-developed-and-refined-Follow-up-MANDONA---WSSCC

Eugène De Ligori Rasamoelina, Executive Director of MIARINTSOA NGO, which developed and refined Follow-up MANDONA. Credit: WSSCC

“I must say that the emergence of thousands of ODF villages in Madagascar, starting with my multiple support visits to the country since 2010 to strengthen the approach, is a brilliant example of quality CLTS implementation with its central philosophy of local empowerment. I believe that this handbook will be useful in understanding and ensuring post-triggering follow-up in CLTS for sustained behaviour change.”

Find out more about the Global Sanitation Fund on the WSSCC website.