5 lessons to manage fecal sludge better | Source: by Peter Hawkins & Isabell Blackett, World Bank Water Blog, July 19 2016 |
Our last blog outlined the neglect of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) and presented new tools for diagnosing FSM challenges and pointing the way to solutions.
A motorized tricycle fitted with a small tank provides desludging services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Photo credit: Kathy Eales / World Bank
In this blog, we’ll share some lessons learned from the city-specific case studies and analysis to highlight key areas which need to be addressed if the non-networked sanitation services on which so many citizens rely are to be effectively managed.
Lesson 1: Fecal sludge management must be included in national policy and legislation
On-site sanitation is often the only sanitation option for poor households, and may account for the majority of all sanitation, in many middle income and poor countries. However, the construction and servicing of on-site facilities is typically left to the unregulated informal sector.
There can even be legal barriers to developing on-site sanitation, although integrated urban water management may identify the provision of clean piped water, with systematic FSM, as a cheaper, more effective solution than city-wide sewerage access. The formal recognition and regulation of on-site sanitation and FSM is therefore critical.
Read the complete article.
SHARE started an exciting new phase of its work in 2015, that will run until 2018. Here, Dr Roma Chilengi reflects upon the Centre for Infectious Disease Research’s involvement in SHARE’s second phase, through an investigation of the effect of a behaviour change intervention on sanitation demand in urban Zambia.
Published on Jun 1, 2016
India ranks the lowest when it comes to sanitation. Sahil Shah tries to find out why people have to openly defecate and what are the solutions to make India clean again.
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Private sector engagement in sanitation and hygiene: Exploring roles across the sanitation chain, 2016.
The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries (WSSCC CoP) and the global Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) jointly convened a month-long thematic discussion on engaging the local private sector in sanitation and hygiene.
With each network having over 5,000 members working in WASH and related sectors, this thematic discussion provided an opportunity for sharing of learning and crossfertilisation of ideas. The thematic discussion took place concurrently on both platforms with a coordinator ensuring that content was shared across both communities.
Split into three inter-linked and sequenced sub-themes that explore links between research and practice, the discussion focused on how and under what circumstances local private sector engagement can ensure sustained health and WASH outcomes.
Read the complete report.
World Hepatitis Day, 28 July 2016
WHO encourages countries to act now to reduce deaths from viral hepatitis
WHO urges countries to take rapid action to improve knowledge about hepatitis, and to increase access to testing and treatment services. Today, only 1 in 20 people with hepatitis know they have it. And just 1 in 100 with the disease is being treated.
“The world has ignored hepatitis at its peril,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “It is time to mobilize a global response to hepatitis on the scale similar to that generated to fight other like HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.”
Trachoma Fact sheet, July 2016. WHO
- Trachoma is a disease of the eye caused by infection with the bacteriumChlamydia trachomatis.
- It is known to be a public health problem in 42 countries, and is responsible for the blindness or visual impairment of about 1.9 million people. Just over 200 million people live in trachoma endemic areas and are at risk of trachoma blindness.
- Blindness from trachoma is irreversible.
- Infection spreads through personal contact (via hands, clothes or bedding) and by flies that have been in contact with discharge from the eyes or nose of an infected person. With repeated episodes of infection over many years, the eyelashes may be drawn in so that they rub on the surface of the eye, with pain and discomfort and permanent damage to the cornea.
- Resolution WHA51.11 adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1998 targets the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem by 2020.
- The elimination strategy is encapsulated by the acronym “SAFE”: Surgery for advanced disease, Antibiotics to clear C. trachomatis infection, and Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement to reduce transmission.
- In 2015, more than 185 000 people received surgical treatment for advanced disease, and 56 million people were treated with antibiotics for trachoma.
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It is caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection is transmitted through contact with eye and nose discharge of infected people, particularly young children who harbour the principal reservoir of infection. It is also spread by flies which have been in contact with the eyes and noses of infected people.