Category Archives: IYS Themes

Eight ideas to fund access to water and toilets for all by 2030

Eight ideas to fund access to water and toilets for all by 2030 | Source: The Guardian, September 19 2016 |

Some $114bn is needed each year to reach the SDG on water and sanitation. Our panel of experts share their ideas on how to raise the money 

financing

How do we raise the funds needed to improve access to water and sanitation for millions? Photograph: Spencer Platt/Getty Images

1 | Crack down on illicit financial flows and tax evasion
An estimated $1tn [£0.8tn] flows illegally out of developing countries and emerging economies each year – more than they receive in foreign direct investment and aid combined. Beyond bleeding the world’s poorest economies, this propels crime, corruption and tax evasion. Most of the money is lost through trade mis-invoicing – where trade invoices are manipulated to change the value to secretly move money across borders. Folks in the water and sanitation sector could help promote the importance of raising more domestic revenue by combating tax evasion and avoidance, and push for some of that money to go towards water and sanitation projects. Christine Clough, programme manager, Global Financial Integrity

2 | Increase public investment
The most important route towards financing sanitation and water is increased domestic government investment. For example, a recent estimate of the annual sanitation financing gap in Ghana is $93m [£71m]. Ghana’s GDP is around $38bn [£28bn] and its total tax revenues amount to about 21% of GDP – a pretty good percentage for a low- to middle-income country. But the Ghanaian government currently invests only $7m [£5m] yearly in sanitation: a tiny, trivial amount. If it were instead to invest 0.5% of GDP in sanitation, we’d be looking at about $190m [£145m] – more than enough to cover the country’s financing gap. The bottom line is that countries need to use equitable taxation to support the provision of basic services for poorer citizens. Guy Norman, director of research & evaluation, WSUP

Read the complete article.

Recent WASH related research

Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative AnalysisInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , September 2016. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are potential determinants of handwashing behavior.

Behaviour Centered Design (BCD): Towards an Applied Science of Behaviour ChangeHealth Psychology Review , August 2016. This paper positions BCD as the foundation of an applied science of behavior change and outlines a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviors. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition, and exercise-related behaviors and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service, or institutional design.

The Water Report 2016. Stockholm International Water Institute , August 2016. Published prior to World Water Week, this annual report was meant to inspire discussions at the meeting and bring topical issues to the fore. None is more prominent this year than the issue of migration and its link to water issues. Other topics covered include the 2030 Agenda and sustainable growth.

Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) 2016: Strengthening Water Security in Asia and the PacificAsian Development Bank (ADB) , September 2016. The result of rigorous analysis, AWDO 2016 provides a snapshot of the region’s water security status, enabling policymakers, financing institutions, and planners to make informed decisions on how to improve their performance in the water sector. The six-part report describes the water challenges the region is facing, presents the AWDO approach, and provides information on how water security can be increased.

Water and Sanitation Interlinkages Across the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentUnited Nations , August 2016. This brief analyzes the central role of water and sanitation and describes the interlinkages between the targets of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 and those of other goals. The document emphasizes the mutually reinforcing nature of the interlinkages and the necessity for an integrated implementation approach, and also highlights the importance of mainstreaming water and sanitation in the policies and plans of other sectors.

Measuring Domestic Water Use: A Systematic Review of Methodologies that Measure Unmetered Water Use in Low-Income SettingsTropical Medicine and International Health , August 2016. More than 20 studies were included in this literature review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. The review found no standardized methods for measuring unmetered water use and recommended that further research begin with pre-study observations during water collection periods to determine optimal methods for obtaining water use information in a survey.

Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene InterventionsAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , September 2016. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Through a literature review and modeling, researchers have established that WASH interventions are likely to provide some level of herd protection.

Enteric Pathogens and Factors Associated with Acute Bloody Diarrhoea, KenyaBMC Infectious Diseases , September 2016. This study found that good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands after defecation and storing drinking water separate from water for other uses were key protective factors, while presence of coliform in the main water source was found to be a risk factor for bloody diarrhea. Implementation of WASH interventions is therefore key to prevention and control.

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance – Thematic Online Discussion: “Managing WASH in Schools – Is the Education Sector Ready?”

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is excited to announce the 10th Thematic Online Discussion on the topic of “Managing WASH in Schools – Is the Education Sector Ready?”

Starting on Monday, September 19, we invite you to join our discussion on the challenges of WASH in Schools (WinS) globally which is part of SuSanA’s Thematic Discussion Series (TDS).

The direct links of WinS to SDG2 (health), SDG6 (water and sanitation) and SDG4 (education) pose the chance for increased inter-sectoral cooperation. Thereby, the education sector’s leadership and management are critical to broad-scale implementation and success of WinS. Yet, how is the education sector taking WASH on board and how can the sector manage it? How does the reality look like in schools around the world? What does it take for better-managed WinS? What shifts/changes are necessary to see the situation change?

Building on the SuSanA Working Group 7 (Community, Rural & Schools) meeting during the Stockholm Water Week 2016, we would like to address these and other questions in order to get a better understanding of the challenges and needs of the education sector to successfully manage WASH in schools.

In particular, we will structure our discussion along two topics – (1) Policy Issues on the Regional and Global Level and (2) Implementation Level/Matters of Implementation.

For both topics, experts from both the WASH and the education sector will provide leadership, food for thought and a profound insight into the topic. Questions raised by Forum Users will also be addressed.

Discussing WASH in school and the education sector’s role and potential for leadership, we propose the following schedule:

Theme I – Policy Issues on the Regional and Global Level (September 19-30)
Theme II – Implementation Level (September 21-30)

We look forward to interested participants and an enriching discussion on WinS.

Kind regards,

Antonio S.D. on behalf of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance

Live Q&A: $114bn a year needed for water and toilets – where will it come from?

Live Q&A: $114bn a year needed for water and toilets – where will it come from? | Source: The Guardian, Sept 8, 2016 |

How do we raise funds needed to reach the millions without access to water and sanitation? Discuss with an expert panel on 15 September, 3–4.30pm BST

About $28.4bn (£21.2bn) is spent each year to provide access to water and sanitation around the world. If this investment is maintained, by 2030 everyone will have access to drinking water, an adequate toilet, and a suitable place to wash their hands.

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Access to clean and affordable water and a safe place to go to the toilet will cost $114bn a year. Photograph: Rupak de Chowdhuri/Reuters

But the sustainable development goals go beyond just basic access; they envision a world where everyone has access to clean and affordable drinking water and a safe place to go to the toilet. This level of access will cost $114bn a year, the World Bank estimates.

The water and finance communities need to find ways to triple current levels of investment, and they need to do it quickly. “We’re already one year into the SDGs,” says Bill Kingdom, global lead for water supply and sanitation at the World Bank’s Water Global Practice. “If we carry on with business as usual for the next year, that’s two years gone, and that $114bn a year becomes $127bn for the remaining 13 years.”

Which innovative ideas could realistically help raise the additional $85.6bn needed annually? What will make the water industry attractive to lenders? How do we address the privatisation of services and make sure water and sanitation is affordable for all?

Join an expert panel on Thursday 15 September, from 3pm to 4.30pm BST, to discuss these questions and more.

Read the complete article.

Broken glass and needles: the waste pickers scraping a living at Jordan’s landfills

Broken glass and needles: the waste pickers scraping a living at Jordan’s landfills | Source: The Guardian, August 27, 2016 |

At Al Huseyniyat landfill, Syrian refugees salvage recyclables illegally. Efforts to formalise their work offer hope 

waste

Muhammed Abu Najib Temeki, 48, a father of nine from Deraa in Syria, pushes a cart of recyclable waste towards an Oxfam recycling centre in Za’atari refugee camp in Jordan. Photograph: Sam Tarling/Oxfam

Without warning the bulldozer accelerates, cutting through mounds of waste at Al Huseyniyat landfill in northern Jordan. A lingering stench intensifies as the machine scoops up an armful of rubbish, discharging clouds of flies over a group of people rifling through bin bags nearby.

No one notices the disturbance. Their gazes are trained downwards as they sift through the morning’s waste. “We look for plastic, aluminium, metal, clothes – anything we can sell or keep, or sometimes eat,” says Mohammed Ali, an Egyptian who makes a living salvaging recyclables from the site.

Ali manages a team of 15 waste pickers – men, women and children – most Syrians from nearby Za’atari refugee camp. They earn around 10 Jordanian dinar (£10.90) a day. “It’s not a lot but I make enough to manage on,” says Nawras Sahasil, a 21-year-old Syrian refugee who supports his wife and two children on the 250 dinars a month he earns from the landfill.

Like most people here, Sahasil does not have a work permit. While the Jordanian government has gone some way towards easing restrictions on employment for Syrian refugees, the vast majority are still working illegally. Now, a number of organisations in Jordan are looking to formalise the work of waste pickers and harness their role as recyclers to address the country’s mounting rubbish crisis, while developing sustainable solutions for processing waste in the future.

Read the complete article.

How One Organization in Hyderabad Is Helping People Manage Waste in a Responsible & Scientific Way

How One Organization in Hyderabad Is Helping People Manage Waste in a Responsible & Scientific Way | Source: The Better India, September 13, 2016 |

Sixty million tons of garbage generated per year; 45 million tons of untreated waste disposed of in an unhygienic manner every day; and about 0.34 kg waste generated by every person daily – when it comes to statistics regarding waste generation and management in India, the numbers looks quite dismal. wvi2

“We have no organised waste management system in India. We just dump waste and leave it around to pollute the environment. And the main reason behind this is that we do not have the concept of waste segregation at all. At most places, waste is simply thrown in the easiest manner possible,” says Mathangi Swaminathan, the Associate Director of Waste Ventures India (WVI) – a social enterprise that is working in the field of waste management in Hyderabad.

Run by a group of environmentally-conscious individuals, WVI provides waste solutions for housing societies and corporate offices by recycling dry waste and composting organic waste. The company offers doorstep collection of waste in two ways:

  • Collection of recyclable waste only.
  • Complete waste solution with collection of dry as well as organic waste.

Read the complete article.

Facilitating Access to Finance for Household Investment in Sanitation in Bangladesh

Facilitating Access to Finance for Household Investment in Sanitation in Bangladesh, August 2016. World Bank.

Approach to Blended Finance: The provision of an output-based aid (OBA) subsidy to microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Bangladesh is used to help MFIs develop sanitation products and extend their reach to poorer households.

Microfinance (the provision of financial services to low-income people) is emerging as a viable avenue to facilitate increased access to finance for households to water and sanitation products, and for small-scale water service providers’ business development.

OBA is a form of results-based financing where subsidies are paid to service providers based on verification of pre-agreed water and sanitation project targets defined during project design, thereby offering a strong incentive for the delivery of results.

Combining an OBA subsidy with a microfinance loan helps reduce households’ cash constraints by spreading repayment over time, and makes investment in improved sanitation more affordable overall.