Category Archives: IYS Themes

Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya

Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya. Global Health: Science and Practice, June 2016.

Authors: Jaynie Whinnery, Gauthami Penakalapati, Rachel Steinacher, Noel Wilson, Clair Null, Amy J Pickering.

The new handwashing system, designed with end user input, features an economical foaming soap dispenser and a hygienic, water-efficient tap for use in household and institutional settings that lack reliable access to piped water.

Cost of the soap and water needed for use is less than US$0.10 per 100 handwash uses, compared with US$0.20–$0.44 for conventional handwashing stations used in Kenya.

KEY PRODUCT FEATURES OF THE POVU POA HANDWASHING SYSTEM

  • Soap security: The soap foamer is attached to the system, preventing theft
  • Affordability: Just 5 g of powdered or liquid soap mixed with 250 mL of water can provide 100 uses for US$0.10 (cost includes soap and water).
  • Hygienic: The innovative swing-tap design is bidirectional and can be used with the back of the hand or wrist, limiting recontamination of hands after handwashing.
  • Water-frugality: The water flow is sufficient for handwashing while providing a 30-77% reduction in water usage compared with conventional methods.
  • Scalability: Components are specifically designed for low-cost mass production and deployment, estimated at US$12 per unit.
  • Adaptable: The 2 handwashing station configurations can be adapted to meet different needs and preferences and can be used in households and institutional settings, such as schools and health centers.

Market-based Approaches to Sanitation

Market-based Approaches to Sanitation, 2016. PSI.

Market-based approaches can be applied to deliver a number of products (such as household, shared, or public toilets, using various designs and materials), services (like installation or waste removal and treatment) and forms of service delivery (free or pay-for-use).

This review focuses on models for household pit latrine construction and fecal sludge management.

Fecal Sludge Management Tools – World Bank

Fecal Sludge Management Tools – World Bank

In many cities, the emptying, conveyance, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge has largely been left to unregulated private, informal service providers. FSM_header

To address this neglected but crucial part of urban sanitation, the World Bank has developed some tools to diagnose fecal sludge management (FSM) status and to guide decision-making.

These tools don’t provide pre-defined solutions, as the many variables and stakeholders involved demand interventions specific in each city, and should be seen within the context of integrated urban water management.

Link to the FSM Tools website.

A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water

A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water: Study | Source: Huffington Post, June 23, 2016 |

Doctors often operate with dirty instruments because they have no other choice

At least a third of hospitals in developing nations do not have clean running water, a study has found, leading to unsanitary conditions and further spread of disease in drought-hit areas.

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YIDA REFUGEE CAMP, SOUTH SUDAN – JToto Kafi, 2 years, lays in a hospital bed suffering from painful skin infections and malnourishment at the MSF ( Medecins Sans Frontieres ) hospital inside the Yida refugee camp. (Photo by Paula Bronstein/Getty Images)

The study examined 430 hospitals in developing countries and found that one third of clinics did not have a reliable source of clean water to perform surgical operations.

Water availability ranged from 20 percent in Sierra Leone and Liberia to more than 90 percent in India, Malaysia and Guinea, according to the report, which used World Bank data and analysed previous studies between 2009 and 2015.

“Running water is something we take for granted and it doesn’t exist in a third of hospitals in these countries,” said Adam Kushner, lead author of the study, published in the Journal of Surgical Research.

“Instead of water just being there, some hospitals truck in water or collect it in rain barrels, with no guarantee of its cleanliness,” said Kushner, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University who is also a surgeon.

Every year, half a million babies die before they are one-month-old due to a lack of clean water and safe sanitation in hospitals, according to a 2015 report by sanitation charity WaterAid and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Read the complete article.

Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign

Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign | Source: Hindustan Times, June 23 2016 |

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has spotted a gap in his Swachh Bharat campaign: the grotesque but common sight of men urinating in public places.

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The PM’s point was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country. (HT file photo)

Modi has told the Union urban development (UD) ministry to ensure that the government’s outreach doesn’t just focus on open defecation in cities but target urination in public places as well. As the first step, the PM has asked the ministry to change the nomenclature of the campaign’s tagline. In line with the PM’s directive following a meeting on June 1 to review the progress of Swachh Bharat Mission, the ministry has set the ball rolling to call its campaign “Open Urination and Defecation Free Cities by 2019”.

The PM’s point, a senior government official who attended the meeting said, was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country.

Read the complete article.

Methane production for sanitation improvement in Haiti

Methane production for sanitation improvement in HaitiBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume 91, August 2016, Pages 288–295.

Authors: Stephanie Lansing, Holly Bowen,  et. al.

There is a great need for decentralized anaerobic digestion (AD) that utilizes wastewater for energy generation. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of Haitian latrine waste was determined and compared to other waste streams, such as grey water, septage, and dairy manure.

Average methane (CH4) production for the latrine waste (13.6 ml ml−1 substrate) was 23 times greater than septage (0.58 ml ml−1 substrate), and 151 times greater than grey water (0.09 ml ml−1 substrate), illustrating the larger potential when waste is source separated using the decentralized sanitation and reuse (DESAR) concept for more appropriate treatment of each waste stream.

Using the BMP results, methane production based on various AD configurations was calculated, and compared with the full-scale field AD design.

Methane potential from the BMP testing was calculated as 0.006–0.017 m3 person−1 day−1 using the lowest and highest latrine BMP results, which was similar to the values from the full-scale system (0.011 m3 person−1 day−1), illustrating the ability of BMPs to be used to predict biogas production from sanitation digesters in a smaller-scale setting.

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria, 2016. 

Co-authored by WaterAid and EDePo at IFS: Laura Abramovsky, Britta Augsburg, Erin Flynn, Francisco Oteiza.

CLTS works with an entire community to identify the negative effects of poor sanitation, especially the practice of open defecation, and empowers them to collectively find solutions. CLTS is understood to be more suitable for small, rural and homogeneous communities, however it is still considered an appropriate solution for more urbanised areas.

In this brief, we provide quantitative evidence to support this conjecture and bring forward a simple rule of thumb that allows more efficient programme targeting. We suggest that using this information can improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria, and possibly other countries, freeing up scarce resources to identify and test complementary sanitation approaches suitable for more urbanised communities.