Category Archives: IYS Themes

WASHplus Small Doable Actions | Aug 2015 studies on handwashing, sanitation

Small Doable Actions: A Feasible Approach to Behavior Change Learning Brief, 2015. WASHplus.
Link: http://goo.gl/DATNYt

A small doable action is a behavior that, when practiced consistently and correctly, will lead to personal and public health improvement. It is considered feasible by the householder, from HIS/HER point of view, considering the current practice, the available resources, and the particular social context. Although the behavior may not be an “ideal practice,” more households likely will adopt it because it is considered feasible within the local context.

Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements.PLoS One, Aug 2015. Authors: Nadja Contzen , Sandra De Pasquale, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Link: http://goo.gl/IXqQUu

Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting.

Does building more toilets stop the spread of disease? Impact evidence from India, Aug 2015.
Link: http://goo.gl/XJ33gn

A 3ie-funded impact evaluation research team used a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the government’s Total Sanitation Campaign in Odisha, India to see if latrine coverage did indeed reduce exposure to disease. The intervention mobilised households in villages characterised by high levels of open defecation to build and use latrines. The study was conducted between May 2010 and December 2013, involving more than 50,000 individuals in 100 villages. The study results show that the assumption that more latrines will reduce exposure to faecal pathogens, and therefore disease, does not necessarily hold true.  During the study period, latrine coverage in the intervention villages increased from 9 per cent of households to 63 per cent, compared to an increase from 8 per cent to 12 per cent in the control villages. The increase in latrine coverage did not prevent diarrhoea or reduce soil-transmitted helminth infection in the intervention villages. The seven-day prevalence of reported diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years was 8.8 percent in the intervention group and 9.1 percent in the control group.

Can disgust and shame lead to cleaner water and more handwashing? Impact evidence from Bangladesh, Aug 2015.
Link: http://goo.gl/XS2ALX

3ie supported a research team to conduct a randomised impact evaluation between 2011 and 2014. The team tested whether behaviour change messages provoking disgust and shame amongst people within each compound are more effective than public health-related messages promoting safe water and handwashing. This brief distills the main findings and the lessons learned. The impact evaluation showed that the intervention did not change behaviours.  The messages aimed at creating disgust and shame did not increase demand for water treatment or improve handwashing behaviour compared to the standard health messages.  Use of the chlorine dispenser was low.  This study pointed up a number of implementation factors that may have affected the impact of the messages and use of the dispensers.

Sept 23, 2015 – Creativity in Behavior Change Symposium

Whether it be washing hands with soap, driving sanitation demand, or purifying water, almost every area of public health requires behaviour change. The field of behaviour change is transforming.

There is a growing evidence base to suggest that traditional health education messages are insufficient to achieve sustained change and that more might be achieved by being more creative, for example by learning from product marketing, psychology and behavioural economics. logo

The ‘Creativity in Behaviour Change Symposium‘ will bring together behaviour change practitioners from academia, government and the private sector with the ambition of sparking an ongoing network of collaborators.

In addition to creative case studies and provocative discussions the event will feature interactive activities throughout the day, a ‘behaviour change cinema’ which will screen materials from creative projects from around the globe and there will be a ‘soap box’ where anyone can share their big ideas for the future of behaviour change.

For those who are not in the UK, all the sessions will also be filmed and available on our website at ehg.lshtm.ac.uk

Now available on WSUP-website for free download: masters-level professional training module “Water and Sanitation for Urban Low-Income Communities”

WSUP/WEDC have developed a teaching resource on urban WASH that is now available online for free, It aims at helping the urban WASH sector to professionalize. We hope it will be helpful for academics and practitioners to use or adapt if they feel it can be of value to them.

In short: this is a masters-level professional training module called “Water and Sanitation for Urban Low-Income Communities”. It was primarily designed to give engineering masters students in low-income countries an overview of things they need to know in order to apply their technical skills in low-income communities, and that’s how WSUP and WEDC are currently using it, in partnership with universities in Africa and Asia. But of course it may be adaptable to other teaching contexts.

It’s designed for classroom delivery, over about 45 hours of contact time. It’s made up of 16 thematic units, and within each unit the materials essentially comprise a Powerpoint presentation plus Lecturer Notes outlining the unit’s aims and content, and providing guidance on how to deliver the class. Some units are flexible in content, to enable adaptation to local contexts.

It can be delivered as an off-the shelf package; or you might want to cut-and-paste parts of it into your own materials; or you might simply use it as guidance in developing other materials.

It’s absolutely free to download, but we do ask that you fill in a brief Use Request Form explaining who you are and how you might use it: evidently, it’s useful for us to be able to communicate this to the funder of the work (DFID).

See www.wsup.com/programme/resources/

For information, we expect to have a French-language version available within the next few months.

The module was developed by (alphabetical order): Louise Medland, Guy Norman, Brian Reed, Pippa Scott, Regine Skarubowiz, and Ian Smout; inputs also came from Richard Franceys and Valentina Zuin.

Introduction to the Treatment of Urban Sewage – free online course

TU Delft offers a free 7 week online introductory course on urban sewage treatment starting in April 2016.

The course consists of 6 modules:

  1. Sewage treatment plant overview
  2. Primary treatment
  3. Biological treatment
  4. Activated sludge process
  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal
  6. Sludge treatment

The instructors are Prof. Jules van Lier, Environmental Engineering and Wastewater Treatment, and wastewater Assistant Prof. Merle de Kreuk.

View the course introduction video

Introduction to the Treatment of Urban Sewage is part of TU Delft Water Management XSeries on edX.

For $50 participants can get a Verified Certificate for the course.

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

Issue 202 | August 14, 2015 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

This issue updates the March 6, 2015 Weekly on CLTS. Studies and resources in this issue include a webinar series on what constitutes success for CLTS, new reports from the UNC Water Institute and the Institute of Development Studies, a presentation by Kamal Kar on CLTS and scaling up, and a UNICEF report on CLTS in fragile and insecure contexts. Also included are recent studies on the health impacts of open defecation in India and Nepal and a Waterlines review on the safety of burial or disposal with garbage as forms of child feces disposal.

EVENTS

What Constitutes Success for CLTS? Measuring Community Outcomes and Behavior Changes, 2015.
The webinar had a chat show format where, following a panel interview, the audience will have the chance to interact with the panelists. This webinar was organized under the Knowledge Management initiative of the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) program of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Organizers included Euforic Services, the SuSanA secretariat and the Stockholm Environment Institute.

  • Introduction by Pippa Scott, Link to recording on YouTube
  • Chat show. Speakers: Ada Oko Williams, Technical Support Manager, Sanitation and Hygiene, WaterAid UK; Darren Saywell, Senior Director, Water, Sanitation and Health, Plan International USA and others, Link
  • Feedback from breakout rooms, Link
  • Closing panel, Link
  • More information and links to audio files are available on the SuSanA discussion forum

Seminar: CLTS at Stockholm World Water Week, August 23rd, 9:00 – 10:30, FH 202. Link
In this 90-minute event, speakers from Plan International and the Water Institute at UNC will discuss with the audience the results of an operational research program on the role and potential of local actors to sustain CLTS outcomes. Highlights will be shared from activities in 10 countries across Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean.

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Are burial or disposal with garbage safe forms of child faeces disposal?

Are burial or disposal with garbage safe forms of child faeces disposal? An expert consultation. Waterlines, July 2015.

Authors: Rob Bain, Rolf Luyendijk, et al. waterlines

The importance of safe handling and disposal of child faeces given its potential role in disease transmission are increasingly recognized. Household surveys demonstrate that the burying of child faeces (‘dig-and-bury’) is common in several countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia. Disposal with garbage is widely practised in middle- and high-income countries and is becoming increasingly common in urban areas of low-income countries.

The safety of these two approaches is difficult to assess given the limited evidence available and we therefore sought the opinion of experts in the field of sanitation to support advocacy around the topic. We report the findings of an anonymous expert (Delphi) consultation on the safety of these two child faeces disposal methods. There was almost unanimous agreement these should be considered neither safe nor improved.

A range of arguments was provided to support this position, including proximity of solid waste and burial sites to the home and children’s play areas and that neither practice would be acceptable for adults. The consultation also highlighted gaps in the current evidence base that should be addressed to gain a fuller insight into the risks involved in these two forms of sanitation with a view to providing both programmatic and normative guidance.

In particular further work is needed to assess the potential for exposure to faecal matter in solid waste in low- and middle-income countries and to elucidate the predominant practices of child faeces burial including proximity to the home or infant play areas as well as depth of burial.

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Animal Waste Management

Issue 201 | August 7, 2015 | Focus on Animal Waste Management

This issue focuses on the management of animal waste and includes recent studies and resources on the environmental and health impacts of waste from domestic animals such as cattle, pigs, and chickens. Specifically, reviews of animal waste management by the International Livestock Research Institute, and diarrheal infections associated with animal husbandry are included, as well as aWHO fact sheet on Taeniasis/Cysticercosis, and country studies from Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, and more.

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Global Assessment of Manure Management Policies and Practices, 2014. E Teenstra. Link
The study assessed livestock manure policies in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, then looked in depth at manure management practices in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Malawi, Argentina and Costa Rica. The authors found wide variations in practice, with particular challenges in the handling of liquid manure; they also found government policies and lack of coordination often hindered the implementation of improved practices.

Manure Management Practices in Urban and Peri-urban areas of Tanzania pose a Public Health Threat, n.d. University of Copenhagen. Link
Livestock are increasingly kept in urban and peri-urban areas as a consequence of the growing urban demand for fresh meat and livestock products. Manure is a valuable byproduct of livestock production, but if it is not treated according to good manure handling practices, it may cause a public health treat due to the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the dung. A recent international research project working with cattle farmers in urban areas of Tanzania has documented that good manure handling practices are not always followed, and that this lead to direct human contact and environmental contamination with cattle manure.

A One Health Perspective for Integrated Human and Animal Sanitation and Nutrient Recycling, 2015. H Nguyen-Viet. | Order from CABI | Free View/Download
This chapter discusses a conceptual framework for integrated health and environmental assessment that combines health status, and the physical, socioeconomic and cultural environments in order to improve human health and minimize environmental impact. This concept’s application in the management of human and animal excreta in Vietnam is then described.

Review of Evidence on Antimicrobial Resistance and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries, 2015. D Grace, International Livestock Research Institute. Link
This short paper identifies key evidence gaps in our knowledge of livestock- and fisheries-linked antimicrobial resistance in the developing world, and to document on-going or planned research initiatives on this topic by key stakeholders. The antimicrobial resistant (AMR) infections in animals that are of most potential risk to human health are likely to be zoonotic pathogens transmitted through food, especially Salmonella and Campylobacter. In addition, livestock associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA MRSA) and extended spectrum beta lactamase E. coli (ESBL E. coli) are emerging problems throughout the world.

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