Water and Sanitation Services: Rural or Urban Haiti First? Huffington Post, June 16, 2017.
Low coverage rates for clean water and sanitation leave Haiti exposed to significant health burdens. According to the latest estimates, 72% of Haiti’s population lack access to improved sanitation facilities and use either shared facilities, other improved facilities, or defecate in the open.
In urban areas, 66% of the population lacks access to improved facilities while in rural areas, 81% of the total population lacks access to improved facilities.
Between 2,000 and 4,500 people die each year from diarrheal disease. And the lack of basic water and sanitation services has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases, including the cholera outbreak introduced by U.N. peacekeeping troops in 2010.
Better water and sanitation services would make it harder for such diseases to spread. But here, as in every other policy area, Haiti faces options.
Examining competing policy options is the purpose of the Haiti Priorise research project. More than 50 economists have written new research papers studying the costs and benefits of different proposals to improve the nation’s environmental, economic, and social conditions.
Read the complete article.
USAID’s 40-Year Legacy in Water and Wastewater Meets the Needs of Egypt’s Growing Population. Global Waters, June 13, 2017.
Egypt today is a country in transition. With one of the fastest growing populations in the world — estimates suggest that the population will increase from 93 to 120 million people by 2030 — Egypt’s infrastructure needs to keep pace.
A man turns on the new faucet in his home in Upper Egypt. Photo Credit: Mohamed Abdelwahab for USAID
In both urban and rural areas, population growth has led to an expansion of settlements that strain current water and wastewater systems.
Often, settlements are built over the heavily polluted, unsanitary waterways, posing a public health threat by carrying the risk of waterborne disease.
Since 1978, USAID invested more than $3.5 billion to help bring potable water and sanitation services to more than 25 million Egyptians, directly improving their health and environmental conditions.
Read the complete article.
Plan International USA and The Water Institute at UNC have conducted the first study to present comprehensive, accurate, disaggregated costs of a WaSH behaviour-change programme. The study calculated programme costs, and local investments for four community-led total sanitation (CLTS) interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia.
Jonny Crocker, Darren Saywell, Katherine F. Shields, Pete Kolsky, Jamie Bartram, The true costs of participatory sanitation : evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia. Science of The Total Environment, vol. 601–602, 1 Dec 2017, pp: 1075-1083. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.279 [Open access]
Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behaviour-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34–$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15–$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93–$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35–$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behaviour-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behaviour-change programs.
Posted in Africa, Publications, Research, Sanitary Facilities
Tagged Community-Led Total Sanitation, direct support costs, Ethiopia, Ghana, local investment, Plan International, programme costs, UNC Water Institute
Microfinance for Sanitation Policy Brief, May 2017. SHARE.
This policy brief highlights the Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) Consortium’s contribution to the knowledge base on microfinance for sanitation.
The brief defines sanitation microfinance and summarises research conducted in India and Tanzania. It then discusses the research gaps that still exist and provides recommendations for improving policies and programmes on microfinance for sanitation globally.
Water Currents, June 5, 2017 – WASH & Neglected Tropical Diseases
Publications and Videos
Integrating Neglected Tropical Diseases in Global Health and Development: Fourth WHO Report on Neglected Tropical Diseases. WHO, April 2017. This report discusses the significant progress made in reducing the health burdens caused by NTDS. These achievements result from the implementation of five WHO-recommended interventions: preventive chemotherapy; innovative and intensified disease management; vector ecology and management; veterinary public health services; and the provision of safe water, sanitation, and hygiene. An Executive Summary of the report is also available.
Sanitation for All: The Global Opportunity to Increase Transgenerational Health Gains and Better Understand the Link between NCDs and NTDs. Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines, April 2017. This study takes a look at how the global “sanitation for all” goal will address the dual burden of NTDs and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This qualitative review of the literature is an attempt to document the health effects of inadequate sanitation and further understand the link between sanitation and NTDs and sanitation and NCDs.
Nearly 400 Million People Are at Higher Risk of Schistosomiasis Because Dams Block the Migration of Snail-Eating River Prawns. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, April 2017. This study estimates that one-third to one-half of the global population at risk of schistosomiasis could benefit from restoration of native prawns. Because dams block prawn migrations, results suggest that their removal contributes to the sharp increase of schistosomiasis after damming, and points to prawn restoration as an ecological solution for reducing human disease.
Global Urbanization and the Neglected Tropical Diseases. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, February 2017. Increasing urbanization in both developing and developed countries could promote the emergence of a new set of NTDs. While an important feature of NTDs is their disproportionate impact on populations living in rural poverty, selected diseases primarily affect the poor in urban settings. Poor urban planning, unchecked growth, and inadequate public health measures further complicate urban areas’ abilities to meet the Sustainable Development Goal targets.
World Health Organization NTD Fact Sheets. In April 2017, WHO published NTD Fact Sheets on Foodborne Trematodiases, Trachoma, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Leishmaniasis. Additional NTD fact sheets are available on the WHO NTD web page.
Request for Expressions of Interest for “Habit Formation Approaches and Gender Equity & Social Inclusion Innovations for Hygiene Behavior Change”
- Opportunity Number: WASHPaLS-EOI-001
- Issuance Date: June 2, 2017
- Questions Due Date: June 8, 2017; 12 noon ET
- EOI Submission Due Date: June 23, 2017; 5:00 pm ET
- Submit to: Opportunities@washpals.org
The WASHPaLS Grant program contributes to the project’s learning agenda by supporting grantees to investigate innovative ideas in programming for the adoption of key hygiene behaviors.
Over the life of the project and through several rounds of solicitations WASHPaLS expects to award at least 10 grants to investigate the effectiveness of innovative approaches to improving and sustaining hygiene behaviors.
The objective of this initial round of grants is to support learning related to the application of habit formation and Gender and Social Inclusion principles to hygiene behavior change (HBC). Applicants must specify which of the two areas their EOI addresses. EOIs may be for new stand-alone activities or for activities that build-on or complement on-going projects. For purposes of this REOI, HBC refers to those behaviors that link directly to diarrheal disease and mortality and morbidity of children under age five in the household, including:
(1) safe disposal of adult and child feces;
(2) handwashing with soap;
(3) safe drinking water management; and
(4) food hygiene.
WASHPaLS anticipates awarding up to four (4) grants from this solicitation. The number of awards is dependent upon the number of meritorious applications received and available funding. Depending on the applications received, WASHPaLS will determine how many awards will be issued to each focus area. WASHPaLS and USAID reserve the right to award none, one, or multiple grants as a result of this solicitation. Awards are anticipated to range from $50,000 to $300,000. In accordance with Automated Directives System (ADS) 302.3.4.13, U.S.-based organizations are limited to $100,000.
Additional information is available in this document.
Also, there is a helpful Questions and Answers document.