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- World Menstrual Hygiene Day in Pakistan - by: F H Mughal July 23, 2017World Menstrual Hygiene Day in Pakistan [/b] The event, marking the World Menstrual Hygiene Day, was held on 19 July 2017. Various speakers addressed the participants. The following are the key points highlighted: • Silence around menstruation - The challenge is unfortunately, many times, when we really want to touch upon such subjects - especially public se […]
- Investigating the social determinants of open defecation in India - by: vishakhagoyal July 23, 2017Hi, I am Vishakha Goyal, working as Assistant Professor in economics.My key research area is sanitation behaviour in rural India. I want to associate with this project, please provide me more insight about this project. On this topic there are different NGO who are working to improve the condition of sanitation in India like Arghyam, WASH
- How many times per day do people wash their hands? - by: F H Mughal July 23, 2017Dear Mr. Tim, What those papers you have referred to say? Please have a look at this Pakistan paper: fuuast.edu.pk/biology%20journal/images/p...ACHI,%20PAKISTAN.pdf The abstract says: Survey has highlighted the significance of hand washing and also indicated the knowledge and practices among 250 mothers between the age group 22-35 in belong to Karachi, the c […]
- CALL FOR ABSTRACTS: 6th Annual Virtual Conference on Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools - by: dannyogwo July 22, 2017Dear Brooke, Apologies, I just submitted the abstract this very moment. Please find attached on the provided e-mail. Thanks Danny
- Re: SaniPath - Assessment of Fecal Exposure Pathways in Low-Income Urban Settings (Emory University, USA) - and appeal to SuSanA members for input - by: sjraj July 21, 2017Hello Henriette, I thought it may helpful to share some of the publications from our work in SaniPath Accra. You can find them below. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. Public toilets and their customers in low-income Accra, GhaAssessment of Fecal Exposure Pathways in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana: Rationale, Des […]
- World Menstrual Hygiene Day in Pakistan - by: F H Mughal July 23, 2017
Category Archives: Emergency Sanitation
WaterAid – How to sell toilets: a new approach to sanitation marketing in South East Asia | Source: WaterAid Blog, April 22, 2015.
In Cambodia, an organisation named WaterSHED has developed a successful approach to marketing sanitation to remote communities which has reached 40% of Cambodians and is spreading fast across the Mekong region.
Excerpts: Established in 2010, WaterSHED – Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Enterprise Development – is a business development services provider working to bring effective and affordable water and sanitation products to the market, focusing on Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. Only 28% of people in Cambodia are estimated to have access to sanitation – less in rural areas – and communities and businesses are not always interested in improving this or able to make change happen.
Although several organisations in the country were working on sanitation when WaterSHED was established, there was little coherence in their approaches, which Geoff Revell, Regional Programme Manager for WaterSHED, found frustrating. “While on one hand, there is space to try out new things, on the other, there are various approaches, some of which are subsidy driven, that are not very effective.”
A ‘hands-off’ approach
WaterSHED takes a ‘hands-off’ approach, using community leaders to generate demand for sanitation, working with the supply chain to offer appropriate and affordable products and identifying incentives to increase take-up. The organisation encourages businesses to consider adopting sanitation-related products that would complement other aspects of their wider business and thus enable them to diversify. It believes its role as a ‘market facilitator’ is finite, and that exit strategies need to be in place to enable private and public sector players to take over.
The sanitation marketing approach has six key components:
- Identify community leaders to make the pitch for sanitation.
Generate demand for toilets using a combination of pride and disgust messages.
- Link communities to supply chains and vice versa, focusing on home delivery, affordability and promotional models.
- Enable suppliers to be reliable and trustworthy, offering good-quality products, information and advice.
- Make links to micro-financing where appropriate.
- Help identify appropriate and adaptable incentives.
Read the complete article
We don’t want another catastrophe besides the one we already have. Fatma (43) mother of 9 children
Since the start of the Israeli assault on Gaza on 7 July 2014, codenamed “Protective Edge”, the water and wastewater infrastructure in Gaza has been heavily affected by Israeli airstrikes and shelling.
Main water supply and wastewater as well as electricity infrastructure has been hit. As a result services have been cut or severely disrupted, affecting the entire population in Gaza.
Up to 25 per cent of Gaza’s population were displaced. The 1.8 million people in Gaza, living in homes and shelters have extremely restricted access to water and sanitation.
Fatma, 45, was displaced with her family and sought shelter at a school in Ash Shuja’iyeh. She speaks in a Thirsting for Justice campaign video about the problems with water, sanitation and hygiene that her family faces amongst the many other displaced.
UNESCO-IHE – Smart eSOS toilet for emergencies | SOURCE: UNESCO-IHE, July 2014 |
The emergency Sanitation Operation System (eSOS) concept provides a sustainable, holistic and affordable sanitation solution during the aftermath of a disaster. The eSOS reinvents (emergency) toilet and treatment facilities, and uses ICT to bring cost savings to the entire sanitation management chain. The toilet will improve the quality of life of people in need during emergency situations – from natural to anthropological disasters – and minimizes the threat to public health of the most vulnerable members of society.
The eSOS concept was developed by UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. The experimental prototype of the smart toilet was developed in collaboration with FLEX/The INNOVATIONLAB and SYSTECH and is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded project SaniUP – Stimulating local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia.
The eSOS emergency toilets are easily deployable in disaster areas because of their robust and light-weight specifications. The smart eSOS toilet includes some unique features in the prototype that will shed new light on how the toilets are used in emergencies. This includes remote-sensing monitoring, an energy supply unit, GSM/GPS sensor/card, occupancy sensors, urine/faeces accumulation sensor, an S.O.S. button, and a communication system that allows for data collection by remote sensing and their transfer to an on or off-site emergency coordination center. The data resulting from the use of the toilets will allow the toilets as well as the entire sanitation management chain to be improved.
The eSOS toilet will be tested further in a refugee camp in the Philippines in September with support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Asian Development Bank. UNESCO-IHE PhD fellow Fiona Zakaria from Indonesia will carry out further experimental testing in cooperation with relief agencies on the ground. The eSOS smart toilet design prototype will be manufactured based on the results and feedback obtained from the experimental application.
Toilets, trash and social status: the top 10 emergency hygiene challenges | Source/Complete article: Kathy Migiro, Thomson Reuters Foundation | Feb 17 2014
Excerpts: NAIROBI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – More than 900 beneficiaries, field practitioners and donors named their most pressing gaps in emergency water, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH) services in a 2013 survey.
Here are the top 10 gaps HIF will tackle (in no particular order):
1) Latrine lighting – In many refugee camps, latrines are not lit at night making them dangerous for women to use.
Challenge: To light communal latrines at night in a cheap and sustainable manner.
2) Space saving jerrycan – In emergencies, agencies traditionally buy and distribute jerrycans, which can mean transporting 15 or 20 litres of air. Collapsible jerrycans only last a couple of months before they start leaking.
Challenge: To design a 15 litre jerrycan, costing less than $5, with limited volume when stored, lasting one year.
3) Excreta disposal in urban emergencies – Earthquakes and floods often cut off urban water supplies and damage toilets. When large numbers of displaced people gather in safe places like schools, sanitation facilities get overwhelmed. Many agencies build raised latrines. But they need to be emptied frequently, with waste being dumped in purpose-built pits or rivers, creating health risks.
Challenges: To develop new products to provide safe excreta disposal in urban environments after disasters. Solutions should consider not only containment, but also emptying and disposal mechanisms.
The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) has US$ 20,000 on offer for a proposal for an economical, sustainable lighting system for latrines in refugee or displaced persons camps.
Communal latrine facilities in camps are often underutilised at night when it is dark for fear of harassment and attacks especially for women and children. Existing lighting systems tend to be costly as most camps do not have a central electrical system as a power source. Also, battery systems tend to get stolen for valuable parts. This Challenge is to design a lighting system for communal latrine facilities that will promote safety and utilization. The system must be robust, economical and not easily vandalized or stolen.
This is a Theoretical Challenge that requires only a written proposal to be submitted. Award winners does not need to transfer their exclusive IP rights to the HIF, but instead grant HIF non-exclusive license to practice their solutions.
Deadline: 16 March 2014
For more information and to register for the Challenge, go to:
The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) is managed by ELRHA (Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance) and administered by Save the Children.
The HIF’s £3.3 million (US$ 5.5 million) WASH Innovation Fund is supported by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and will initially focus on two challenges:
- Lighting Latrines (see above)
- Managing Solid Waste, due to launch later in January 2014, which will award designs for a new incinerator, compactor or recycling method that is rapidly deployable, cost-effective and easy to use.
As well as these two open challenges, the WASH Innovation Fund will also support Accelerated Innovation events for more complex challenges. These will bring together aid agencies, businesses and academics already working in the sector to collaborate and create partnerships that can develop and test new ideas.
For full details go to:
Source: DFID, Could you help save lives in a disaster zone?, GOV.UK, 18 Jan 2014
To reduce the burden of disease, health care waste needs sound management. The unsafe disposal of health care waste (for example, contaminated syringes and needles) poses public health risks. If not managed, direct reuse of contaminated injection equipment results in occupational hazards to health workers, waste handlers, and scavengers. Resources in this issue include the just published World Health Organization (WHO) manual “Safe Management of Wastes from Health-Care Activities,” USAID’s 2013 health care waste guidelines, a United Nationals Environment Program (UNEP) policy brief, and country studies from Cameroon, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Malaysia, and Morocco.
Healthcare Waste Management: The Current Issues in Developing Countries.Waste Management Research, 30(6) 2012. E Titto. (Link, pdf)
Special attention should be paid to the fate of health care waste after it leaves a facility where it can expose an entire community to risk, particularly those who come in close contact with it, such as waste transporters, landfill workers, waste pickers, scavengers, recyclers, and children.
Safe Management of Wastes from Health-Care Activities, 2013. A Prüss-Ustun, WHO. (Link, pdf)
This is the second edition of the WHO handbook on the safe, sustainable, and affordable management of health care waste—commonly known as the Blue Book. The original Blue Book was a comprehensive publication used widely in health care centers and government agencies to assist in the adoption of national guidance. In many countries, knowledge about the potential for harm from health care waste has expanded among governments, medical practitioners, and civil society. Increasingly, managers and medical staff are expected to take more responsibility for the waste they produce from their medical care and related activities.
UNEP Policy Brief on Healthcare Waste: What, Why and How, 2013. International Environmental Technology Centre. (Link, pdf)
Management of health care waste is becoming an issue of growing concern in urban areas. In many developing countries it is still indiscriminately disposed of and often mixed with municipal waste, thus causing serious health and environmental hazards, particularly to the scavengers operating at dump sites. Because of the extreme health hazards, health care waste cannot be disposed of along with other municipal waste. The technologies for the treatment of health care waste are not well understood or widely available in developing countries. As a result, choices made on the basis of technology may not be well informed, resulting in poor or uneconomic performance.
USAID Health Sectoral Guidelines: Healthcare Waste, 2013. G Gulis. (Link, pdf)
Currently, little or no management of health care waste occurs in small-scale facilities in developing countries. Training and infrastructure are minimal. Common practice in urban areas is to dispose of health care waste along with the general solid waste or, in peri-urban and rural areas, to bury waste without treatment. Since money for health care waste management is scarce, the first priority is to adopt actions and procedures that maximize risk reduction and cost the least.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Health-Care Facilities in Emergencies, 2013. WHO. (Link, pdf)
Health care facilities play a vital role within the community by providing essential medical care at all times including during emergencies. Any incident that causes loss of infrastructure, energy supply, loss of equipment, loss of staff or staff attrition, interruption to supply chains, or patient surge—such as sudden communicable disease epidemics, natural disasters (e.g., floods, earthquakes), or conflict—requires a holistic health response and recovery effort that includes actions to assess and restore basic WASH services.