Category Archives: Emergency Sanitation

From WEDC – 2013 updates of WHO technical notes for emergencies

WHO Technical Notes for Emergencies, 2013 

Please click the links below to view pdfs of the World Health Organization Technical Notes for EmergenciesWEDC

  1. Cleaning and disinfecting wells
  2. Cleaning and disinfecting boreholes
  3. Cleaning and disinfecting water storage tanks and tankers
  4. Rehabilitating small-scale piped water distribution systems
  5. Emergency treatment of drinking water at the point of use
  6. Rehabilitating water treatment works after an emergency
  7. Solid waste management in emergencies
  8. Disposal of dead bodies
  9. How much water is needed
  10. Hygiene promotion in emergencies
  11. Measuring chlorine levels in water supplies
  12. Delivering safe water by tanker
  13. Planning for excreta disposal in emergencies
  14. Technical options for excreta disposal
  15. Cleaning wells after seawater flooding
  16. Complete: all 15 notes in one file

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Will a “cottage industry” approach make emergency WASH more sustainable?

Al Madad hygiene and sanitation project in Aqbiyeh

Al Madad hygiene and sanitation project in Aqbiyeh, Bekaa Valley in Lebanon. Photo: Al Madad Foundation & AUB Association

An NGO is employing a self-help “cottage industry model” to introduce water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)  services in refugee camps. Instead of relying on handouts, refugees are offered a steady wage to participate in the improvement of their own living conditions.

The NGO promoting this approach, is the Al Madad Foundation, a UK registered charity since 2001, based in London. The Foundation is active in two main areas:

  • education and literacy programmes for refugee and disadvantaged children
  • sustainable relief in emergencies

The Foundation’s Director is Aya Haidar, a Lebanese multimedia artist/activist with an MSc in NGOs and Development.

In Lebanon, the Al Madad Foundation is partnering with the AUB Association’s Community Project Development Unit to improve water, sanitation and hygiene within the country’s Syrian refugee communities. Under the supervision of qualified architects and civil engineers from the AUB Association, refugees will be employed to help dig holes, build toilets, pipe laying, and installing septic tanks and drainage systems.

The Foundation thinks this “cottage industry model” could eventually be extended to other fields such as education, by employing refugee women, many of whom are qualified teachers.

The Foundation chose to focus on WASH services in the camps, not only to “minimise avoidable morbidity and mortality” but also to “minimise the resulting impact upon the local Lebanese environment, including fresh water, ecosystems and the impact upon agriculture”. Hygiene promotion and awareness raising will go hand-in-hand with the provisions of water and sanitation infrastructure.

The UK government is considering implementing cash-for-work (CFW) programmes for both Syrian refugees and vulnerable Lebanese as part of their new £50 million (US$ 77 million) humanitarian aid initiative [1].

Oxfam implements a CFW initiative, that includes latrine construction, in Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp, the world’s largest refugee complex housing more than 400,000 people. Men and women are paid between 250 and 500 Kenyan Shillings (about US$ 3 – 6) $ per day depending on their skill levels [2].

The most well-known CFW aid programme was implemented by Mercy Corps in post-tsunami Aceh, Indonesia.  At its peak the seven-month programme employed nearly 18,000 participants and disbursed over US$ 4.5 million in direct payments [3]. Based of their experience in Indonesia and other countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Sudan, Mercy Corps published a CfW manual in 2007 [4].

[1] DFID, £50m UK support to Lebanon as refugee numbers soar, Gov.UK, 18 Jul 2013

[2]  Cash-for-work in Kenya: Building latrines at Dadaab camp, Oxfam, 15 Aug 2011

[3] Doocy, S. et al., 2005. The Mercy Corps Cash for Work Program in post-tsunami Aceh. Available at: http://preventionweb.net/go/2171

[4]  Mercy Corps, 2007. Guide to cash-for-work programming. [online] Portland, OR, USA: Mercy Corps. Available at: <http://www.mercycorps.org/files/file1179375619.pdf>

Source: Al Madad Foundation – Lebanon Emergency Aid Report 2013

Design Contest on Public Urinal Systems for Emergency Situations

The Emergency Sanitation Project, a collaboration between IFRC, WASTE and Oxfam GB, has launched a design contest for public urinals.

The urinals should be attractive and safe to use, lightweight to transport by air to emergency situations and easy to install. The urinals need to be equipped with a urine management facility: a storage container that can be emptied or, in the worst case a soak pit for disposal.  The urinal should be suitable for children, adult men, adult women or the less abled

The Award

  • Twelve project will be selected for final review: 3 for children, 3 for adult men, 3 for adult women and 3 for less abled.
  • The finalist will present their design concept to the judging panel on world toilet day 2013, 19th November 2013.
  • The emergency sanitation project will approach producers to produce the designs of the overall top finalist.
  • The overall top finalist will receive a field visit of a week including travel and lodging to the country where the produced design will be field-tested or € 1000 cash.

Download the flyer

Download the Application Form

Application deadline: 12:00 pm GMT Friday, 18 October 2013

Web sitewww.emergencysanitationproject.org

100 issues of the WASHplus Weekly – March 2011 to May 4, 2013

Below are links to the past 100 issues of the WASHplus Weekly on various sanitation and other topics. We welcome suggestions on how to make the Weekly more useful.

2013

2012

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Raised latrines survive floods in Bangladesh

Low cost latrines constructed by the Chars Livelihoods Programme (CLP) in Bangladesh performed well in their first real flood test.

After the July 2012 floods, which also hit the CLP programme area in the districts of Jamalpur and Kurigram on the northern Jamuna, only 14% of the low cost latrines were destroyed or unusable. During the flooding, recipients continued to have access to sanitation.

Low cost latrines raised above flood levels

Low cost latrines raised above flood levels. Photo: CLP

Households in CLP districts are raised on earthen plinths 60 cm above the highest known flood level. The Programme ensures access to clean water and sanitation by also raising water points and installing latrines on plinths.

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Fifth Emergency Environmental Health Forum, London, UK, 17-19 December 2012

The focus of forum is the Public Health Promotion (PHP) aspect of water and sanitation programmes. Presentations on this theme address topics such as new technologies and hygiene promotion, menstrual hygiene management, metrics for assessing the impact of hygiene promotion activities and Community Led Total Sanitation in the emergency environment.

The forum is convened by the SHARE Research Consortium and sponsored by Oxfam, IFRC, ICRC, International Rescue Committee, ACF, MSF and UNICEF.

The forum, which is being held on 17-18 December will be followed by a separate one day event on 19 December organised by the Hygiene Promotion Forum on hand washing. Participants will share examples of hardware solutions used in the field for hand washing and best practices on promotion and social marketing.

To register for both events go to: 5eehforum.eventbrite.com/

Peepoo toilets in flood emergencies in Sindh, Pakistan and Kisumu, Kenya