Category Archives: Hygiene Promotion

Feb 18 Webinar – WASHing away diseases: two hands at a time

February 18, 2016 Webinar, 9:00 a.m EST- WASHing away diseases: two hands at a time

Please join the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing and the USAID/WASHplus project for a webinar discussing why water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) matter to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), and addressing the need for new approaches for multi-sector initiatives to promote equity, poverty alleviation, health, and well-being. webinar

Featuring speakers from WaterAid, Sightsavers, the FHI 360-led USAID/WASHplus project, and USAID, this webinar is an excellent opportunity for those working in both WASH and NTDs to learn about the global landscape of WASH/NTD strategy and glean practical insights from projects that are operating in this context.

This webinar will include brief presentations on:

  • The link between WASH and NTDs
  • How we can work together to achieve common goals through the World Health Organization’s Joint WASH-NTD strategy; and
  • Integration in practice.About the speakers:
  • Renuka Bery, MPH, Senior Program Manager for the USAID/WASHplus project, has an extensive background in WASH integration.
  • Sophie Boisson, PhD, Technical Officer for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization.
  • Edouard Tianhoun, RN, MSc, WASH-NTD Coordinator for the USAID/WASHplus Burkina Faso pilot project, has been in involved in WASH programs in his native Burkina Faso since 2011.
  • Yael Velleman, MSc, Senior Policy Analyst on Health and Sanitation, leads WaterAid’s strategy, advocacy, and research agenda on health.
  • Merri Weinger, MPH, Senior Environmental Health Advisor at USAID’s Bureau for Global Health, has over 30 years of experience in health programs at USAID, WHO, and PAHO.
  • Geordie Woods, MPH, Technical Adviser-NTDs at Sightsavers, specializes in health behavior and strategic communication with a technical focus that includes NTDs and WASH.

CARE/Bangladesh -Towards Total Sanitation

 

WSUP – Behavior change in Dhaka

 

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

Below are links to the abstracts of 3 interesting WASH studies that can be downloaded free of charge from the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia
Authors: Molly K. Miller-Petrie*, Lindsay Voigt, Lyn McLennan, Sandy Cairncross and Marion W. Jenkins

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/o252V9

In Cambodia, children’s feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation.

A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently.

Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages.

A Cluster Randomized Controlled Evaluation of the Health Impact of a Novel Antimicrobial Hand Towel on the Health of Children Under 2 Years Old in Rural Communities in Nyanza Province, Kenya
Authors: Rachel B. Slayton*, Jennifer L. Murphy, Jamae Morris, Sitnah Hamidah Faith, Jared Oremo, Aloyce Odhiambo, Tracy Ayers, Shawna J. Feinman, Allison C. Brown and Robert E. Quick

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/L76AEH

To assess the health impact of reusable, antimicrobial hand towels, we conducted a cluster randomized, yearlong field trial. At baseline, we surveyed mothers, and gave four towels plus hygiene education to intervention households and education alone to controls. At biweekly home visits, we asked about infections in children < 2 years old and tested post-handwashing hand rinse samples of 20% of mothers for Escherichia coli.

At study’s conclusion, we tested 50% of towels for E. coli. Baseline characteristics between 188 intervention and 181 control households were similar. Intervention and control children had similar rates of diarrhea (1.47 versus 1.48, P = 0.99), respiratory infections (1.38 versus 1.48, P = 0.92), skin infections (1.76 versus 1.79, P = 0.81), and subjective fever (2.62 versus 3.40, P = 0.04) per 100 person-visits.

Post-handwashing hand contamination was similar; 67% of towels exhibited E. coli contamination. Antimicrobial hand towels became contaminated over time, did not improve hand hygiene, or prevent diarrhea, respiratory infections, or skin infections.

Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia
Authors: Ghislaine Rosa*, Paul Kelly and Thomas Clasen

Abstract/order info: http://goo.gl/ocN3bH

Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness.

We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks.

Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings.

Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home.

Topic of the week: Community-Led Total Sanitation

Financing sanitation for low-income urban communities: Lessons from CCODE and the Federation in Malawi, 2016. Wonderful Hunga, IIED.

Like many other countries in the Global South, Malawi has failed to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets to improve access to sanitation. It has been estimated that only 25 per cent of the country’s population has gained access to improved sanitation since 1990 and access to it is a meagre 41 per cent, according to the latest Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Report (2015).

By utilising social capital and promoting ecological sanitation, CCODE (an SDI affiliate), has enabled thousands of urban poor households, who could not afford better toilets, to live a dignified life. This study shows that the CCODE model could do this for most of Malawi’s urban poor.

Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jan 19. Authors: Lawrence JJ, Yeboah-Antwi K, et al.

Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members’ and stakeholders’ sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia.

We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children’s opinions.

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Hygiene needs of incontinence sufferers

A desk-based review of how WASH actors can better address the hygiene needs of people living with urinary and/or faecal incontinence in developing countries was conducted with funding from WaterAid UK/SHARE in late 2015.

Incontinence products for men

Incontinence products for men. Illustration from the report

The report outlines what incontinence is and how people generally manage their incontinence, as well as relevant experiences and guidance from within the development and humanitarian spheres (related to incontinence as well as other areas such as menstrual hygiene managemant (MHM) and inclusive WASH). The report also provides recommendations on how to better support the hygiene and WASH needs of those people suffering from incontinence.

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Not just another day

Global Handwashing Day is there to remind us of how simple the solutions to serious issues can be.

Global Handwashing Day is on the 15 October. Photograph: Concern Universal

Global Handwashing Day is on the 15 October. Photograph: Concern Universal

I’ve always been a sceptic when it comes to world “Days”. However noble the cause, what difference can they really make? The International Day of Peace – as if the various factions in Syria or Nigeria’s Boko Haram extremists paused from their daily destruction to consider alternative approaches. How many acres of forest are cleared for extracting resources or planting cash-crops every World Environment Day? Aside from providing a hook for advocacy press releases, how could those involved possibly think that one day could positively affect the suffering on the front lines of poverty and insecurity? Well, having run behaviour change projects in West Africa over the last five years I am beginning to believe that it can.

Today is Global Handwashing Day, and together with its cousin World Toilet Day on 19 November, it brings attention to the most basic issues – hygiene and sanitation – that to our shame still account for two million child deaths a year.

A third of the world’s population – 2.4 billion people – live with poor sanitation and hygiene which, according to the World Bank, costs countries $260 billion annually. Every day 2,000 children die before reaching their fifth birthday due to diarrhoeal diseases, the vast majority caused by poor sanitation and hygiene.

Diarrhoea alone killed far more young children in Nigeria over the last 12 months – around 150,000 – than Boko Haram’s slaughtering and the wars in Syria combined. Whilst we continue the daily search for even a hint of a resolution to these two brutal and complex conflicts, we already know the simple solution to tackling hygiene and sanitation-related diseases.

We know that handwashing with soap is the most effective and inexpensive way to prevent diarrhoeal diseases – reducing incidence by up to 47% – and combined with improved sanitation, this is boosted to 68%. We know that in countries with the highest child mortality rates as few as 1% of people wash their hands effectively, and that the global average is only 19%. Most frustratingly, effective tools and participatory methods are readily available and it is estimated that interventions that promote handwashing could save close to a million lives. So why is hygiene promotion not a focus of most development projects?

Read the full article in the WSSCC partner zone on the Guardian.