Category Archives: Hygiene Promotion

Investigation of Rice as an Absorbent and Degradable Material for Personal Hygiene Applications

Investigation of Rice as an Absorbent and Degradable Material for Personal Hygiene Applications. SM Journal of Engineering Sciences, January 2016.

Authors: Jeffrey S Bates, Megan A Adams and Taylor D Sparks

This research explores the uses of natural materials in personal hygiene applications. In order to maximize the use of materials for personal hygiene, they must be absorbent, but should also be biodegradable to minimize their impact on the environment. Rice was prepared for testing by increase the porosity.

The material was ground into three size distributions and tested to determine its ability to absorb moisture under both ambient and body temperatures. Research goals address the percentage of moisture absorbed by weight, the absorption as a function of temperature, and the optimal particle size required for the selected application.

Results indicate that the amount of moisture absorbed by the material increases as the temperature approaches body temperature. Furthermore, the time required for the material to reach equilibrium, as also defined by the amount at which the material will no longer absorb moisture, varies by particle size.

How a Bunch of College Kids Made Two Delhi Slums Become Almost Completely Open Defecation Free

How a Bunch of College Kids Made Two Delhi Slums Become Almost Completely Open Defecation Free. The Better India, Jan 3, 2017.

india2

Enactus is a global non-profit organisation run by students at individual university and college levels committed to using the power of entrepreneurial action to transform lives and shape a better and more sustainable world. In India, Enactus is active in more than 150 colleges and universities involving more than 4,300 students working on nearly 122 projects across the country. The SSCBS Enactus team comprises of 70 students, of which 20 are directly involved in Project Raahat.

In a bid to prevent open defecation and usher in hygiene and cleanliness among slum-dwellers of New Delhi, a group of college students have initiated a unique campaign that has brought down the open defecation rates in some slums from 95% to 3%.

Had you visited or wandered close to the slums in Sultanpuri and Kirti Nagar in New Delhi a year ago, you would have witnessed a common and appalling sight of slum-dwellers walking into open fields with a tin can to relieve themselves. You might have walked past stinky toilet complexes lying vandalized with broken, leaky walls, and pipes. But not anymore!

Thanks to a group of enterprising college students from Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies (SSCBS), Delhi University, the open defecation rates in these slums have come down from 95% to a mere 3% in just one year.

Read the complete article.

Household survey: hygiene and sanitation behavior as well as willingness to pay in rural Senegal

Household survey: hygiene and sanitation behavior as well as willingness to pay in rural Senegal, 2015. 

Water and Sanitation Program.

The indicators for access to drinking water in Senegal suggest that 32% of the rural population have a piped connection on their premises while 35% cover their needs from other improved sources. This means that 33% of the population still satisfies their needs from unimproved sources, including 1% from surface water (WHO/UNICEF, JMP, 2015).

Access to water is also fundamental to good hygiene behavior, notably for washing hands. However, in rural areas, dedicated hand washing stations have been observed in 24.8% of all households. Among the members of these households, only 44.6% used water and soap for hand washing; 18.7% used water only and 35.2% had neither water nor soap or any other detergent to wash their hands (EDS, 2014).

With regard to sanitation, important efforts need to be made in Senegal as in the rural area, 34% of the population have access to improved sanitation; 42% use unimproved latrines (including 8% who share latrines) and 24% practice open defecation (OD; WHO/UNICEF, JMP, 2015). Hygiene and sanitation are thus priorities for the government of Senegal, as demonstrated by the inauguration of the Programme d’Eau Potable et d’Assainissement du Millénaire (PEPAM, Millennium Drinking Water and Sanitation Program).

 

Emergence of community toilets as a public good: The sanitation work of Mahila Milan, NSDF and SPARC in India

Emergence of community toilets as a public good: The sanitation work of Mahila Milan, NSDF and SPARC in India, 2016. SHARE.

This report summarises SHARE-supported sanitation work in India. It outlines how a sanitation strategy was developed, and the execution of multi-decadal projects that have resulted in a number of cities renewing their commitment to invest in city-wide sanitation.

 

Community-generated data crucial for implementing New Urban Agenda

Community-generated data crucial for implementing New Urban Agenda. CitiScope, Oct 20 2016.

Good urban planning can’t happen without a better understanding of informal settlements, advocates say.

Earlier this year, when the Liberian government wanted to demolish informal housing in the West Point section of Monrovia, local community members had a strong argument to dissuade them.

monrovia

West Point, Monrovia. (Nick Fraser/flickr/cc)

Thanks to a slum profiling initiative done the previous year through Shack/Slum Dwellers International, the community knew that many of West Point’s rudimentary, wooden toilets — so-called “hanging toilets” because of how they are built over the water — were located where the demolitions would take place. The toilets likely would get destroyed too.

Destroying the toilets, they argued, would pose a public health threat.

“That was where we came with our data and said ‘no’,” recalls Bill Jlateh Harris, of Shack/Slum Dwellers International, who lives in West Point. “If you take away [toilets] you expose us to open defecation and disease outbreaks. We appealed to them, using our documents, to stop the demolition exercise. It worked. Those structures are still there, in fact. They were not touched.”

The data community members collected in West Point includes information about the number of taps and toilets in the area, as well as population figures. It is available online through the “Know Your City” campaign, a data initiative from Shack/Slum Dwellers international that provides community-generated data from more than 7,700 communities in 224 cities.

Read the complete article.

Fed up with no sewers, Pakistan’s slum residents go DIY

Fed up with no sewers, Pakistan’s slum residents go DIY | Source: Reuters, Oct 13 2016 |

In Orangi Town, home to an estimated 2.4 million people, residents have given up waiting for the government to install public services – and built them by hand

KARACHI, Pakistan, Oct 13 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – For Sultana Javed, one of dozens of residents living without proper sanitation on her street in the Orangi Town slum, the final straw came when her toddler daughter fell into the soak pit where the family disposed of their waste.

orasngi3

An aerial view of informal settlements in Orangi Town, Karachi on October 4, 2016. Thomson Reuters Foundation/Aamir Saeed

Since moving to the Gulshan-e-Zia area of the slum in Karachi nine years earlier, Javed had poured waste into the soak pit, a porous chamber that lets sewage soak into the ground and is often used by communities that lack toilets.

Javed, whose son caught dengue fever from mosquitoes near the pit outside their home, began mobilising others among 22 families on her street to install their own sewerage system.

“We are fed up with stench of wastewater and frequent mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever. So, we have decided to lay a sewerage pipeline in our street on a self-help basis,” Javed, 45, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Read the complete article.

15 October was Global Handwashing Day: take the quiz!

handwashing-bangladesh

Photo: IRC

Are you a Handwashing Champion?

Each year on 15 October, over 200 million people in over 100 countries celebrate Global Handwashing Day. Their aim is to increase awareness and understanding about the importance of handwashing with soap. This simple intervention is an effective and affordable way to prevent diseases and save lives. Promoting handwashing with soap reduces the risk of diarrhoea by at least 23% according to a 2014 systematic review of research. Handwashing with soap impacts more than just health: it is also beneficial for nutrition, education, economics, and equity.

Global Handwashing Day was founded by the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, and is an opportunity to design, test, and replicate creative ways to encourage people to wash their hands with soap at critical times. This year’s theme is “Make Handwashing a Habit!” For handwashing to be effective it must be practised consistently at key times, such as after using the toilet or before contact with food. While habits must be developed over time, this theme emphasises the importance of handwashing as a ritual behaviour for long-term sustainability.

IRC is proud to be an affiliate member of the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing. Especially for Global Handwashing Day we created a fun quiz so that you can not only test your knowledge but also learn a bit about what we are doing to promote handwashing.

Don’t forget to visit the Global Handwashing Day website for resources and updates on  global handwashing promotion. For the latest research and developments, also check out the handwashing posts on Sanitation Updates.

Now take the quiz to see if you are a Handwashing Champion!

This blog was originally posted on the IRC website.