Category Archives: Progress on Sanitation

Accelerating and sustaining behaviour change: New handbook launched at GSF learning event

This week, the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) and the GSF-funded ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA) in Madagascar launched a new handbook on accelerating and sustaining the end of open defecation.

The handbook was launched during the GSF Learning Event in Antananarivo, Madagascar, inaugurated by Madagascar’s Minister of Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Roland Ravatomanga.

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

A community celebrating the creation of their ‘model latrine’ for others to replicate during a FUM session in Madagascar. Credit: WSSCC

The ‘Follow-up MANDONA’ (FUM) handbook is a field guide for practitioners of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) – an empowering approach for improving sanitation and hygiene through collective behaviour change, rather than external subsidies or prescription. FUM aims to systematically engage communities after they have been initially ‘triggered’ and committed to ending open defecation.

‘Mandona’ is a Malagasy word which means ‘to push’. FUM brings the entire community together for a self-analysis of their sanitation situation, which then helps them immediately create models that prevent the ingestion of faeces. The approach harnesses the power of Natural Leaders to replicate these models across the community, which includes helping those that are least able, in order to advance to ODF status. By focusing on sustainable behaviour change, FUM is also a useful tool for addressing issues surrounding ‘slippage’, which relates to returning to previous unhygienic behaviours.

FUM was developed and refined by MIARINTSOA NGO, a sub-grantee of the FAA programme. Given the success of FUM in Madagascar and elsewhere, the GSF and FAA created the FUM handbook to provide a practical guide for how CLTS practitioners can implement the approach in their own contexts.

Download ‘Follow-up MANDONA: A field guide for accelerating and sustaining open defecation free communities’ (English/French)

The weeklong global event where the handbook was launched brings together implementing partners, WASH experts, and high-level government representatives from GSF-supported programmes. These actors are exchanging ideas and sharing best practices for achieving improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour at scale.

During the launch, WSSCC Executive Director Chris Williams highlighted how FUM is engraining the sustainability of sanitation and hygiene behaviour change in Madagascar and beyond. “Once a village, or an entire commune, has reached ODF status, the story isn’t over. In fact, the work continues. This important publication documents the innovations that Madagascar has put together to systematically follow-up with villages. FUM aims to ensure that the change in attitudes and creation of convictions that my ‘sanitation problem is your sanitation problem’ – ‘or my shit is your shit’ – is dealt with as a collective community effort.”

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

WSSCC Executive Director holds up the Follow-up MANDONA handbook at GSF Learning Event opening ceremony. Credit: WSSCC/Okechukwu Umelo

FUM has become one of FAA’s most important tools for empowering over 1.6 million people to live in open defecation free environments on their own terms. Due to its success in Madagascar, FUM has recently become a core strategy for national sanitation and hygiene programmes in Uganda, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Community members in Nigeria agreeing to trigger their neighbours and help those who don’t have the means to build their own latrine. Credit: WSSCC

Kamal Kar, the Chairman of the CLTS Foundation, which has extensively supported the FAA programme to develop their CLTS approach, emphasized the importance of the handbook in sharing proven approaches to practitioners around the world: “I am glad that the Malagasy NGO, MIARINTSOA, with the help of the FAA programme, WSSCC and the GSF, has systematically documented their experience of post-triggering follow-up from their implementation of CLTS over the last 4-5 years. Publication of this Follow-up MANDONA handbook is indeed a step forward towards country-wide scaling up of good practice of CLTS in Madagascar and beyond.”

Eugène-De-Ligori-Rasamoelina,-Executive-Director-of-MIARINTSOA-NGO,-which-developed-and-refined-Follow-up-MANDONA---WSSCC

Eugène De Ligori Rasamoelina, Executive Director of MIARINTSOA NGO, which developed and refined Follow-up MANDONA. Credit: WSSCC

“I must say that the emergence of thousands of ODF villages in Madagascar, starting with my multiple support visits to the country since 2010 to strengthen the approach, is a brilliant example of quality CLTS implementation with its central philosophy of local empowerment. I believe that this handbook will be useful in understanding and ensuring post-triggering follow-up in CLTS for sustained behaviour change.”

Find out more about the Global Sanitation Fund on the WSSCC website.

Global Waters Radio: Darren Saywell on Community-Led Total Sanitation

Global Waters Radio: Darren Saywell on Community-Led Total Sanitation

Darren Saywell is Senior Director for the Water, Sanitation and Health Practice with Plan International USA, an international NGO with a presence in more than 70 countries around the world. darren_saywell

For the past four years, Plan International has teamed up with the Water Institute at the University of North Carolina on “Testing Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Approaches for Scalability,” an operational research initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

The project has conducted extensive analysis on the role and effectiveness of local actors in community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in 10 countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It has collected hard evidence that attests to the methodology’s effectiveness in enabling large-scale sanitation behavior change.

In this conversation with Global Waters Radio Saywell talks about the key findings of the project to date and discusses why it is critical for the sanitation sector to replace anecdotal evidence on CLTS’ effectiveness with rigorous evidence.

Introducing the new USAID Global Waters

After a brief hiatus, USAID’s “Global Waters” magazine is back to bring you water-related stories from around the world! globalwaters

The magazine continues to provide a visually captivating look at the experiences and views of top development professionals and beneficiaries through a new and improved online format. We hope you enjoy the latest articles. – The Water Team.

Features/articles in this issue include:

  • Global Waters Radio: Chris Holmes on Water, Jobs, and Gender Equity
  • Making Sanitation Services Affordable in Indonesia’s Cities
  • Celebrating Water Heroes
  • Breaking the Taboo: How School WASH Impacts Girls’ Education
  • Putting Local Wealth to Work for Safe Water Access
  • Changing the Landscape for Africa’s Urban Water Services
  • Incubating Innovation: Solutions for a Parched Earth

USAID Ethiopia Water Fact Sheet

USAID Ethiopia Water Fact Sheet, March 2016. USAID Ethiopia.

Water cuts across nearly every aspect of USAID programming. Used for drinking, hygiene, and health care, water is also needed to irrigate crops, feed livestock and develop renewable energy. Scarce water supplies can become potential sources of conflict.

USAID incorporates WASH activities within its governance, health, nutrition, resilience and emergency assistance activities with a focus on sustainability. USAID also helps strengthen the Ethiopian Government’s capacity to coordinate WASH and water resource management.

 

The SDGs at city level: Mumbai’s example

The SDGs at city level: Mumbai’s example, 2016. Authors: Paula Lucci and Alainna Lynch. Overseas Development Institute.

How countries manage urbanisation over the next 15 years will define governments’ ability to achieve most of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Our analysis of performance over time (1998–2006) for three SDG targets in Mumbai (at city and slum settlement levels) suggests the target on access to water will be easier to achieve than the sanitation and housing targets.
  • However, data limitations at subnational level make it difficult to reach definite conclusions on trends over time, let alone to project performance through 2030 for
    these and other targets.
  • The SDGs provide an opportunity to set up-to-date credible baselines for cities and slums and to make historical data (where they exist) more accessible, for instance through user-friendly online portals. Having such data would highlight areas where progress needs to be accelerated or trends reversed, motivating city governments and campaigners to act.

Studies on container-based sanitation

This bibliography on container-based sanitation will be updated as new reports and studies are published.

2015 Studies

User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, HaitiEnviron Urban. 2015 Oct;27(2):525-540. Authors: Russel K, Tilmans S, et al.

Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service.

The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services.

Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, HaitiEnviron Urban. 2015 Apr;27(1):89-104. Authors: Tilmans S, Russel K, et al.

Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time.

What is Sanitation Success?

What is Sanitation Success? | Source: Susan Davis, Improve International, April 11 2016 |

During a recent desk review, we found there is no one widely accepted definition of sanitation success, even for broadly used approaches like community-led total sanitation.

Some consider long-term success to be the movement of households up the “sanitation ladder,” the idea of incremental progression between service levels of different quality. improve

Success for sanitation marketing efforts can include an increase in local businesses who are investing in sanitation to expand their business, sales to target households, and number of households who are investing their own money into a toilet sold by these partner businesses.

We realize we haven’t captured all possible definitions of sanitation success, but wanted to share what we found.

Read the complete article.