Category Archives: Sanitary Facilities

An Annotated Bibliography on Shared Sanitation Studies Published in 2015

An Annotated Bibliography on Shared Sanitation Studies Published in 2015

Below are links to the abstracts or full-text of 4 studies on shared sanitation that were published in 2015. We will continue to update this bibliography with 2016 reports and studies so please send us an email if you have studies to contribute.

1 – Soc Sci Med. 2015 Dec;147:72-9. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.059.

 Effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in Kampala, Uganda slums. Authors: Tumwebaze IK, Mosler HJ. (Abstract)

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Access to and use of hygienic shared sanitation facilities is fundamental in reducing the high risk of diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory infections. We evaluated the effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving the cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in three urban slums in Kampala, Uganda. The study follows the risk, attitudes, norms, abilities and self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change and some factors of the social dilemma theory.

METHODS: A pre-versus post-intervention survey was conducted in three slums of Kampala, Uganda, between December 2012 and September 2013. From the pre-intervention findings, users of dirty sanitation facilities were randomly assigned to discussions, discussions + commitment and control interventions. The interventions were implemented for 3 months with the aim of improving cleaning behaviour. This paper provides an analysis of 119 respondents who belonged to the intervention discussion-only (n = 38), discussions + commitment (n = 41) and the control (no intervention, n = 40) groups.

RESULTS: Compared to the control, discussions and discussions + commitment significantly improved shared toilet users’ cleaning behaviour. The rate of improvement was observed through behavioural determinants such as cleaning obligation, cleaning ease, cleaning approval and affective beliefs.

CONCLUSION: Our study findings show that group discussions and commitment interventions derived from RANAS model of behaviour change are effective in improving the shared sanitation users’ cleaning behaviour.

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Improving health in cities through systems approaches for urban water management

Improving health in cities through systems approaches for urban water management. Env Health, Mar. 2016.

Authors: L. C. Rietveld, J. G. Siri, et al.

As human populations become more and more urban, decision-makers at all levels face new challenges related to both the scale of service provision and the increasing complexity of cities and the networks that connect them. These challenges may take on unique aspects in cities with different cultures, political and institutional frameworks, and at different levels of development, but they frequently have in common an origin in the interaction of human and environmental systems and the feedback relationships that govern their dynamic evolution.

Accordingly, systems approaches are becoming recognized as critical to understanding and addressing such complex problems, including those related to human health and wellbeing. Management of water resources in and for cities is one area where such approaches hold real promise.

IRC – Lessons learnt from WASH action research with practitioners in four countries

Lessons learnt from WASH action research with practitioners in four countries, 2016. IRC. Authors: Snel, M., Verhoeven, J.

Having local researchers work with local stakeholders on the development of monitoring tools has been an important success of the Action Research for Learning programme.

This three-year initiative (2013–2015) was set up to improve the effectiveness of existing hygiene promotion and community empowerment programmes of selected local Dutch WASH Alliance partners in four countries: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana and Uganda.

Local NGOs in the four countries have been supported to develop a monitoring framework with indicators for their specific activity. Tools such as household questionnaires and key informant interview guides have been jointly developed to do data collection on the indicators. After the actual data collection, analyses have been done, sense has been made of the data and lessons have been drawn up out of the outcomes.

The monitoring activities have helped local NGOs to improve the programmes they are working in:

4_Building_the_LFA-400x296

Building a monitoring framework

In Ethiopia Amref Health Africa constructs public toilets and showers in places where many people gather as one way to increase access to sanitation, water and hygiene. It trained local youth to manage and operate the showers and toilets.

Because of Action Research for Learning, local partners started to meet with the washhouse youth management committee and health extension workers to reflect on progress and consider questions: ‘Is monthly revenue sufficient to cover the monthly operation costs? Are the showers being kept clean?

Are people in rural areas washing their hands after defecation and before handling food?’ It became clear in this process that extra training in managing the toilet and shower blocks was needed.

Read the complete article.

Chennai gets India’s first self-cleaning smart toilets

Chennai gets India’s first self-cleaning smart toilets | Source: Mashable.com, March 1 2016 |

In most Indian cities, public sanitation remains woefully inadequate, with rampant public urination and toilets being either dirty or too few. In a first of its kind project in India, over 180 self-cleaning public eToilets have been installed in the southern Indian city of Chennai.

toilets

IMAGE: ERAM SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS

What makes these toilets even more user-friendly is that they can be located through an Android app called eToilet. Through it, Chennai residents can find toilets on the map, rate them, offer feedback and even suggest new places where they should be installed. Officials from the Greater Chennai Corporation can use a second app to remotely monitor hygiene levels, usage figures and water availability at each toilet.

Spread over 35 square feet, each automatic unmanned toilet cleans itself before entry and after use. They come equipped with sensors for exhaust fan and light to ensure that they consume less water and power than conventional toilets.

Read the complete article.

Waste to Wealth: Helping to Close the Sanitation Financing Gap in Rural Communities and Small Towns

Waste to Wealth: Helping to Close the Sanitation Financing Gap in Rural Communities and Small Towns | Source: Solutions Journal, Feb 2016 |

Waste to Wealth is a Ugandan initiative created in partnership with the Ministry of Water and Environment, its water and wastewater utility (the National Water and Sewerage Corporation), and other government, NGO, and academic partners. The concept is simple—to use modern bioenergy technologies to convert human and other organic wastes into resources that will provide economic benefits and improved environment and human health.

wastetowealth

The results of using EcoSan fertilizer on maize in South Nyanza, Kenya. No fertilizer was used on the left, while fertilizer from EcoSan toilet systems was used on the right. Both sections of maize were planted at the same time.

The biogas and slurry left from energy conversion will be used as a resource with economic value to provide a return on the investment in AD technology. The concept is an innovative and transformative technology-based approach to managing human wastes and providing sanitation services in low income countries.

Key Concepts

  • Human waste contains significant amounts of organic material that can be digested by specific bacteria in oxygen-free environments.
  • The byproducts from this digestion process can be used as energy for cooking, lighting, and generating electricity.
  • Revenue or savings from the sale or use of these products provides financing to pay back up-front capital costs.

Read the complete article.

EAWAG – Course in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries, Feb 22 – Apr 4, 2016

Have you come across large piles of garbage in neighborhoods and streets, or smelly waste disposal sites polluting the environment of low and middle income countries? Are you also convinced that improvements are necessary and do you want to know what kind of sustainable solutions are appropriate to better manage waste and enhance recycling and recovery?  eawag

This course provides an overview of the municipal solid waste management situation in developing countries covering key elements of the waste management system, with its technical, environmental, social, financial and institutional aspects. Besides understanding the challenges you will learn about appropriate and already applied solutions through selected case studies.

The course also covers strategic planning and policy issues discussing future visions for waste management and the aspect of a circular and green economy. Considering the importance of the organic waste fraction, the course covers several organic waste treatment technology options such as composting, anaerobic digestion, and some other innovative approaches.

Water.org launches Water and Sanitation Challenge for India

Win US$ 250,000 for you idea on how to ensure that low-income households in India get water and sanitation services.

India-Water[dot]org

Photo: Water.org

How can market-based approaches expand water and sanitation solutions among low-income households in India? This is the question that the Water and Sanitation Challenge seeks to answer.

The Challenge is an initiative of Water.org and OpenIDEO. It focusses on accelerating efforts that meet some specific criteria – such as developing local partnerships and having operations on the ground in India.  Top Ideas will be considered for approximately US$ 250,000 and mentorship from Water.org.

For more information read the challenge brief at: www.water.org/challenge

The deadline for idea submission is March 7th, 2016.