Category Archives: Sanitary Facilities

WEDC – A Collection of Contemporary Toilet Designs

EOOS-WEDC-Toilet-Book

A Collection of Contemporary Toilet Designs, 2014.

Author: Rod Shaw, ed. WEDC-RGB-adapted4

This collection is the result of the findings of EOOS research which was supported by Sandec, the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). It covers a wide range of contemporary toilet designs along with a valuable list of website links where additional information about each design can be sought.

This volume is a synthesis of the initial research log, designed and produced by The Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) at Loughborough University. As conventional toilet designs are not included, it does not claim to be fully comprehensive but it nevertheless provides a useful overview of current research and development for fieldworkers and practitioners as well as engineers and researchers.

12 March – SuSanA​​–WASHtech webinar on Technology Applicability Framework (TAF)

SuSanA

12 March -16h00 : SuSanA​​–WASHtech webinar on Technology Applicability Framework (TAF)

SuSanA secretariat and WASHtech invites you to participate in a webinar that will present and discuss the Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) developed during the WASHtech project: www.washtechnologies.net

When: 16h00 CET on 12th March 2014 (Time converter: www.worldtimebuddy.com/)

Webinar outline:

15h30- Webinar room open
16h00- Welcome by Trevor Surridge (SuSanA secretariat)
16h05- Introduction to TAF by André Olschewski (Skat Foundation)
16h15- Questions on André’s presentation
16h20- Experiences using TAF in Ghana by Benedict Tuffuor (TREND)
16h30- Questions on Benedict’s presentation
16h35- WaterAid’s experience adapting and applying the TAF to a pour-flush toilet option in the Nicaraguan Caribbean by Joshua Briemberg (WaterAid)
16h45- Questions on Joshua presentation leading into an open Q&A session
16h59- Closing and wrap-up from Trevor
17h00- End of Webinar

Webinar Chair: Trevor Surridge (SuSanA secretariat)
Moderation Support: Sean Furey (Skat Foundation)

To participate you need to register:
To register send an email to ruralwater@skat.ch and clearly state “TAF webinar” in the subject and you will be sent an invitation link to the Webinar.

Technical requirements:
For the technical requirements for WebEx:

If you have any questions about the webinar post them in reply to this post or email them to info@susana.org.

Study examines sustainability of CLTS programmes in Africa

Plan-ODF-sustainability-coverDespite the widespread implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programs and many claims of success, there has been very little systematic investigation into their sustainability.  A new study, which aims to change that, is creating a stir in the WASH sector.

A study commissioned by Plan International on the sustainability of CLTS programs in Africa revealed that 87% of the households still had a functioning latrine. This would indicate a remarkably low rate of reversion (13%) to open defecation (OD) or “slippage”.

However, if the criteria used to originally award open defecation free (ODF) status to villages are used, then the overall slippage rate increased dramatically to  92%. These criteria are:

  • A functioning latrine with a superstructure
  • A means of keeping flies from the pit (either water seal or lid)
  • Absence of excreta in the vicinity of the house
  • Hand washing facilities with water and soap or soap-substitute such as ash
  • Evidence that the latrine and hand washing facilities were being used

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A gender-inclusive approach in practice: communal sanitation

WSUP believes that the issue of gender inclusion is fundamental to effective WASH service provision. To mark International Women’s Day and to recognise the importance of this issue, we have produced a new Practice Note which provides a contextual background on gender issues in WASH, before illustrating what a gender-inclusive approach looks like in practice. This Practice Note is based on direct experience of communal sanitation in Maputo (Mozambique) and Naivasha (Kenya), and demonstrates how the concerns of women and girls can be addressed at every step of programme planning and implementation.

Gender Inclusive Sanitation

This is a free resource and is available for download by clicking on the image above or visiting our online resource library.

Benin – Behaviour change, a must for improved sanitation

Benin – Behaviour change, a must for improved sanitation | Source/complete article:  Edmund Smith-Asante | Graphic.com – 21 February 2014

Excerpts - Benin’s Minister of Health, Professor Dorothéme Kinde Gazard, has called on African nations to lay emphasis on behaviour change communication, as it is the surest way to achieve improved sanitation.

Disclosing that 87 per cent of Africans were still engaged in open defecation, while only three out of 10 people washed their hands with soap, she stated, “So the challenge is also on behaviour change.”

Some of the participants at the Benin workshop.

Some of the participants at the Benin workshop.

The Health Minister therefore urged African countries to strike a balance between change in behaviour and the provision of sanitation facilities.

Governments’ Commitments to WASH

Professor Dorothéme Gazard made the statements when she addressed the opening of a three-day regional workshop on “Advocacy, Communications and Monitoring of [water, sanitation and hygiene] WASH Commitments” for selected journalists, in Cotonou on Tuesday.

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Cairo: Finding its own way in waste collection

Cairo: Finding its own way in waste collection – Danish Architecture Centre | Source/complete article: Sustainable Cities, Jan 2014

Excerpts – For decades, much of Cairo’s waste has been resourcefully collected and reused by a poor working class known as the Zabbaleen. After a failed attempt to modernise and sanitize this system by bringing in foreign waste-collecting companies, some major advantages to developing a sustainable, economically logical and uniquely Cairo waste-collecting system have become clear.

Skraldebyen Ezbet El Nakhl, Af Creap, 9. maj 2005, Flickr, Creative Commons, Foto # 13067241

Skraldebyen Ezbet El Nakhl, Af Creap, 9. maj 2005, Flickr, Creative Commons, Foto # 13067241

Since the 1950′s, a group of lower class garbage collectors known as the Zabbaleen have wandered the city of Cairo, Egypt, using donkey carts to pick up waste left on the streets. After bringing this waste to their homes that collectively make up Cairo’s “garbage city” the waste it is sorted and eventually turned into quilts, rugs, pots, paper, livestock food, compost, recycled plastic products such as clothes hangers, and much more. Reusing and recycling about 85% of all waste that they collect, the Zabbaleen have far surpassed the efficiencies of even the best Western recycling schemes, which, under optimal conditions, have only been able to reuse 70% of all material.

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Assessment of Beliefs and Practices Relating to Menstrual Hygiene of Adolescent Girls in Lebanon

Assessment of Beliefs and Practices Relating to Menstrual Hygiene of Adolescent Girls in Lebanon. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR), 2013; 3(12): 75-88.

Authors: Tania Santina, Nancy Wehbe, Fouad M. Ziade, Mona Nehme.

Abstract
Introduction: Poor menstrual hygiene prevents achieving the several Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to assess menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs of adolescent girls in Lebanon.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, in 2010, among 389 post-menarcheal adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years, at five high schools in Sidon city and suburbs, using a cluster randomized sampling and self-completed questionnaires. Collected data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: Of 389 participants, 89.5% did not follow all menstrual hygiene practices recommended, they adopted menstrual practices based on the dominant sociocultural beliefs found in the Lebanese society about these matters: 66.9% and 16.5%, respectively, did not shower in the first three days of menstruation or during all days of menstruation, and activity restrictions included physical (70.3%) and social (18.2%) activity and diet (35.5%).

A significant association was found between describe menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs and type of school, religion, both parents’ education levels, as well as family monthly income. Logistic regression analyses indicated that significant variables predicting describe menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs were mother level education (OR = 2.8; P < 0.001), and religion (OR = 0.7; P = 0.002).

Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for health school education programs during puberty; they also can help design appropriate intervention strategies.

Get your 2014 Toilet Calendar

Urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) with walls made of old beer cans (Botswana).  Photo: Stefanie Lorenz, Sept 2009

August 2014: Urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) with walls made of old beer cans (Botswana). Photo: Stefanie Lorenz, Sept 2009

A toilet made from  beer cans (August) and Mahatma Gandhi’s toilet (September) are both featured in defeatDD’s 2014 “Places We Go” toilet calender. You can download and print the calendar  for free.  All the entries submitted to the “Places We Go” contest are on Pinterest.

defeatDD.org was launched in 2009 alongside a Call to Action against diarrhoeal disease by international nonprofit PATH.

Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation

. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People

. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People

Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report [1], WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.

The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are:

  1. Think like a business
  2. Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs
  3. Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market
  4. Track progress and lessons

The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant.

Read the full report

[1]  Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation : a synthesis of Water For People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO,USA: Water For People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitation-microfinance.pdf>

Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013

New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good!

The Tiger Roars: New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good! | Complete article/source: USAID Development Innovation Ventures

Excerpts – DIV is delighted to announce a new Stage 1 award of over $170,000 to Bear Valley Ventures Ltd  to conduct a field trial of the Tiger Toilet in India, Uganda, and Burma. The Tiger Toilet is a latrine system that has the potential to be an affordable, compact, and superior alternative to pit latrines and septic tanks. It harnesses the capabilities of composting worms such as the Tiger Worm (Eisenia fetida), to digest the solids within the system, making it very compact and particularly suitable to high density urban environments.

The project aims to address the global challenge of providing access to adequate sanitation; worldwide, over 4 billion people currently use latrines that can be unpleasant and unhygienic or lack sanitation provisions entirely. Sewered systems will never be a reality for many around the world; therefore an on-site (i.e. a system that does not require piping the waste off-site for treatment) option is needed. Presently the best on-site option is a septic tank, which is often financially out of  reach. tiger-toilet

Walter Gibson, Director of Bear Valley Ventures, adds that “Vast numbers of people in the world have to put up with inadequate sanitation every day of their lives. It’s imperative that we develop better, more affordable solutions that address their needs and aspirations for a decent toilet. We believe the Tiger Toilet represents one such option. We are very grateful to USAID for this support which allows us to test its potential.”

The Tiger Toilet is linked to a normal pour flush system, so the user experience is therefore the same as using a septic tank or a pour flush latrine. The waste then enters a tank which contains the worms and a drainage layer. The solids are trapped at the top of the system where the worms consume it, and the liquid is filtered through the drainage layer.  Extensive laboratory scale trials found that the worms reduce the solids in the system by above 80%, and the effluent quality is higher than that from a septic tank. An initial prototype has been running at the Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales, UK for over a year.