Category Archives: Sanitary Facilities

Benin – Behaviour change, a must for improved sanitation

Benin – Behaviour change, a must for improved sanitation | Source/complete article:  Edmund Smith-Asante | Graphic.com – 21 February 2014

Excerpts - Benin’s Minister of Health, Professor Dorothéme Kinde Gazard, has called on African nations to lay emphasis on behaviour change communication, as it is the surest way to achieve improved sanitation.

Disclosing that 87 per cent of Africans were still engaged in open defecation, while only three out of 10 people washed their hands with soap, she stated, “So the challenge is also on behaviour change.”

Some of the participants at the Benin workshop.

Some of the participants at the Benin workshop.

The Health Minister therefore urged African countries to strike a balance between change in behaviour and the provision of sanitation facilities.

Governments’ Commitments to WASH

Professor Dorothéme Gazard made the statements when she addressed the opening of a three-day regional workshop on “Advocacy, Communications and Monitoring of [water, sanitation and hygiene] WASH Commitments” for selected journalists, in Cotonou on Tuesday.

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Cairo: Finding its own way in waste collection

Cairo: Finding its own way in waste collection – Danish Architecture Centre | Source/complete article: Sustainable Cities, Jan 2014

Excerpts – For decades, much of Cairo’s waste has been resourcefully collected and reused by a poor working class known as the Zabbaleen. After a failed attempt to modernise and sanitize this system by bringing in foreign waste-collecting companies, some major advantages to developing a sustainable, economically logical and uniquely Cairo waste-collecting system have become clear.

Skraldebyen Ezbet El Nakhl, Af Creap, 9. maj 2005, Flickr, Creative Commons, Foto # 13067241

Skraldebyen Ezbet El Nakhl, Af Creap, 9. maj 2005, Flickr, Creative Commons, Foto # 13067241

Since the 1950′s, a group of lower class garbage collectors known as the Zabbaleen have wandered the city of Cairo, Egypt, using donkey carts to pick up waste left on the streets. After bringing this waste to their homes that collectively make up Cairo’s “garbage city” the waste it is sorted and eventually turned into quilts, rugs, pots, paper, livestock food, compost, recycled plastic products such as clothes hangers, and much more. Reusing and recycling about 85% of all waste that they collect, the Zabbaleen have far surpassed the efficiencies of even the best Western recycling schemes, which, under optimal conditions, have only been able to reuse 70% of all material.

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Assessment of Beliefs and Practices Relating to Menstrual Hygiene of Adolescent Girls in Lebanon

Assessment of Beliefs and Practices Relating to Menstrual Hygiene of Adolescent Girls in Lebanon. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR), 2013; 3(12): 75-88.

Authors: Tania Santina, Nancy Wehbe, Fouad M. Ziade, Mona Nehme.

Abstract
Introduction: Poor menstrual hygiene prevents achieving the several Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to assess menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs of adolescent girls in Lebanon.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, in 2010, among 389 post-menarcheal adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years, at five high schools in Sidon city and suburbs, using a cluster randomized sampling and self-completed questionnaires. Collected data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: Of 389 participants, 89.5% did not follow all menstrual hygiene practices recommended, they adopted menstrual practices based on the dominant sociocultural beliefs found in the Lebanese society about these matters: 66.9% and 16.5%, respectively, did not shower in the first three days of menstruation or during all days of menstruation, and activity restrictions included physical (70.3%) and social (18.2%) activity and diet (35.5%).

A significant association was found between describe menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs and type of school, religion, both parents’ education levels, as well as family monthly income. Logistic regression analyses indicated that significant variables predicting describe menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs were mother level education (OR = 2.8; P < 0.001), and religion (OR = 0.7; P = 0.002).

Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for health school education programs during puberty; they also can help design appropriate intervention strategies.

Get your 2014 Toilet Calendar

Urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) with walls made of old beer cans (Botswana).  Photo: Stefanie Lorenz, Sept 2009

August 2014: Urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) with walls made of old beer cans (Botswana). Photo: Stefanie Lorenz, Sept 2009

A toilet made from  beer cans (August) and Mahatma Gandhi’s toilet (September) are both featured in defeatDD’s 2014 “Places We Go” toilet calender. You can download and print the calendar  for free.  All the entries submitted to the “Places We Go” contest are on Pinterest.

defeatDD.org was launched in 2009 alongside a Call to Action against diarrhoeal disease by international nonprofit PATH.

Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation

. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People

. Summary of sanitation lending and product delivery models. Water for People

Microfinance allows middle- and lower-income households to invest in desirable sanitation products, so that public funding can be freed up to reach the poorest, according to Water for People (WfP). In a new report [1], WfP reviews their experiences in piloting various lending models in seven countries: Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda and Uganda.

The report provides lessons and recommendations for donors wishing to engage in sanitation microfinancing. The four key recommendations are:

  1. Think like a business
  2. Support lending institutions based on the microfinance climate and capacity needs
  3. Build an autonomous sanitation microfinance market
  4. Track progress and lessons

The report is part of WfP’s Sanitation as a Business (SaaB) program, funded by a Gates Foundation grant.

Read the full report

[1]  Chatterley, C. et al, 2013. Microfinance as a potential catalyst for improved sanitation : a synthesis of Water For People’s sanitation lending experiences in seven countries. Denver, CO,USA: Water For People. Available at: <http://www.waterforpeople.org/assets/files/sanitation-microfinance.pdf>

Source: Christie Chatterley et al., Microfinance as a potential cataylst for improved sanitation, Water for People, 27 Dec 2013

New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good!

The Tiger Roars: New DIV Grantee will Test the “Tiger Toilet” that uses Worms for Good! | Complete article/source: USAID Development Innovation Ventures

Excerpts – DIV is delighted to announce a new Stage 1 award of over $170,000 to Bear Valley Ventures Ltd  to conduct a field trial of the Tiger Toilet in India, Uganda, and Burma. The Tiger Toilet is a latrine system that has the potential to be an affordable, compact, and superior alternative to pit latrines and septic tanks. It harnesses the capabilities of composting worms such as the Tiger Worm (Eisenia fetida), to digest the solids within the system, making it very compact and particularly suitable to high density urban environments.

The project aims to address the global challenge of providing access to adequate sanitation; worldwide, over 4 billion people currently use latrines that can be unpleasant and unhygienic or lack sanitation provisions entirely. Sewered systems will never be a reality for many around the world; therefore an on-site (i.e. a system that does not require piping the waste off-site for treatment) option is needed. Presently the best on-site option is a septic tank, which is often financially out of  reach. tiger-toilet

Walter Gibson, Director of Bear Valley Ventures, adds that “Vast numbers of people in the world have to put up with inadequate sanitation every day of their lives. It’s imperative that we develop better, more affordable solutions that address their needs and aspirations for a decent toilet. We believe the Tiger Toilet represents one such option. We are very grateful to USAID for this support which allows us to test its potential.”

The Tiger Toilet is linked to a normal pour flush system, so the user experience is therefore the same as using a septic tank or a pour flush latrine. The waste then enters a tank which contains the worms and a drainage layer. The solids are trapped at the top of the system where the worms consume it, and the liquid is filtered through the drainage layer.  Extensive laboratory scale trials found that the worms reduce the solids in the system by above 80%, and the effluent quality is higher than that from a septic tank. An initial prototype has been running at the Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales, UK for over a year.

WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation

Issue 126 December 13, 2013 | Focus on Community-Led Total Sanitation

This issue updates the May 2013 Weekly on CLTS with more recent reports and other resources. Included are presentations from a sanitation workshop in Benin, reviews of CLTS successes and shortcomings, a UNICEF overview of CLTS in Asia and the Pacific, a video on school-led total sanitation in Nepal, among others. weekly

REVIEWS

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability: Systematic Literature Review (Grey Literature), 2012. V Venkataramanan. (Full text)
This study presents findings from a systematic literature review on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. This document was prepared by The Water Institute at UNC for Plan International USA as part of the project Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Community-Led Total Sanitation in Africa: Helpdesk Report, 2013. Health & Education Advice & Resource Team (HEART). (Full text)
Decreases in diarrhea, cholera, and skin infections were the main health outcomes reported in this study. However, methodological weaknesses, including the lack of clarity around the proportions of the population exposed before and after implementation of CLTS to these conditions, made it challenging to determine the quality of the evidence presented.

The Cost of a Knowledge Silo: A Systematic Re-Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions, 2013. M Loevinsohn. (Full text)
The health impacts of CLTS have yet to be comprehensively assessed, although it is evident that people realize a range of benefits such as dignity, privacy, security—especially for women—and a clean environment, which they may value more than protection from infection.

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Diane Coffey – No shame in a simple pit latrine

No shame in a simple pit latrine - Complete article/source – Diane Coffey, RICE Institute, Dec 11 2013.

Excerpts - Today I just want to take a couple of minutes to share a short story about a modest pit latrine.  Amit and I were doing an interview for the quantitative survey with an older man in Rewari block.  He answered our questions kindly and patiently, but when we got to the section in which Amit was supposed to observe the man’s latrine, the man said it not at the house (it is common in Rewari for people to built latrines on the plot of land where they keep their animals).  I told Amit to finish the interview and that we’d fill in that section later.  When we finished the interview, we again asked to see the latrine, asking whether there was a child from the house who could take us to the plot.

The man looked uncomfortable and said that that would not work.  We suggested we could find our way ourselves, and he said no, so we gave up.Why would the older man be ashamed of his latrine in a place where so many people practice open defecation?  SONY DSC

Well, in Haryana, people tend to build extremely fancy latrines, or none at all.  The fancy latrines have water seals that prevent bad smells and in many cases flush tanks – we even saw latrines equipped with both a western toilet seat and an Indian one.

Complete article/source - Diane Coffey, RICE Institute, Dec 11 2013.

Bringing Design Thinking To Social Problems, Ideo.org Focuses On The People In Need

Bringing Design Thinking To Social Problems, Ideo.org Focuses On The People In Need | Complete article: FastCoexist, Dec 2013 |

The nonprofit spin-off of the huge design firm takes on issues like sanitation and clean cook stoves from the unique perspective of the design world.

Excerpts – Jocelyn Wyatt and Patrice Martin are the co-leads and executive directors of Ideo.org, the unique nonprofit wing of innovative design firm Ideo. Their mission: apply human-centered design to poverty-related challenges … and in the process, change the way that a for-profit business can use their resources to create social good.

Patrice Martin

Exactly what is human-centered design? Whether working with low income parents in the U.S. on how to engage in their children’s education, or creating a sanitation business in Ghana, Wyatt and Martin say their goal is to focus first on the people being served, enabling them to find a solution that’s better. “Instead of just looking at the problem from a technical perspective, we always make sure to integrate what’s desirable to people,” says Martin. “Almost all of our work begins with the actual end user, or the target market, or the person that we ultimately want to impact. We’ve found that that lens was in many cases missing from work in the social sector. We want to make something and find out if it works–and if it doesn’t, how we can change it?”

One example is the Uniloo/Clean Team toilet developed by Ideo.org alongside Unilever and Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor, using Kumasi, the second-largest city in Ghana, as a test market. “Public pay toilets were prevalent in Kumasi, and they were used quite a bit of the time,” reports Wyatt. “They were dirty, and sometimes inconvenient, but, you know, it was still kind of the best option.” And yet there continued to be open defecation in the city. In talking to Kumasi residents, Wyatt says, they soon learned about the problem of, um, emergencies. “People would say, ‘Yes, I use the public toilet,’” Wyatt says. “And we would say ‘Always?’ And they would say ‘Yes.’ Finally they would admit that, ‘Well, yes, sometimes in the middle of the night there’s an emergency, and I dump the bucket outside my home in the gutter.’”

That led the team to realize that instead of bringing the people to the toilets, they needed to bring the toilets to the people. Clean Team now has 330 Ideo.org-designed Uniloo toilets in operation on a rental service model–waste is picked up three times a week and delivered to a treatment facility–and they’re hoping to scale that to 10,000 by the end of next year.

IRC launches reference guide on non-sewered sanitation

Photo: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Photo: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Sanitation experts at IRC have compiled the first version of a reference guide on low-cost sanitation for non-sewered service models, SanPack for short.  Dr Christine Sijbesma and Joep Verhagen have collected materials that cover services for all stages of the sanitation life cycle, from preparation activities to the emptying, recycling and productive use of toilet contents. Per stage you can find a short intro text and links that lead you to relevant documents on a specific topic.

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