The social dynamics around shared sanitation in an informal settlement of Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, March 2019.
This study explored the social dynamics affecting collective management of shared sanitation in the Bauleni compound of Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth interviews were conducted with landlords (n = 33) and tenants (n = 33). Elinor Ostrom’s eight design principles for the management of common-pool resources was used as a framework to analyse the data.
Social capital within plots was also assessed. Pit latrines were predominantly shared by landlords and tenants on residential plots. However, unwelcome non-plot members also used the latrines due to a lack of physical boundaries. Not all plot members fulfilled their cleaning responsibilities equally, thereby compromising the intended benefits for those conforming. Landlords typically decided on latrine improvements independent of tenants.
Latrines were not systematically monitored or maintained, but punishment for non-conformers was proportionate to the level of infraction. There was no system in place for conflict resolution, nor local organizations to regulate the management of sanitation. Lastly, there were few enterprises associated with peri-urban sanitation.
Social capital was moderately high, and tenants were willing to invest money into improving sanitation. The social dynamics illuminated here provide an important basis for the development of a behavioural intervention targeted towards improving urban sanitation.
Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation. World Bank, February 2019.
In the face of urbanization, alternative approaches are needed to deliver adequate and inclusive sanitation services across the full sanitation service chain. Container-based sanitation (CBS) consists of an end-to-end service—that is, one provided along the whole sanitation service chain—that collects excreta hygienically from toilets designed with sealable, removable containers and strives to ensure that the excreta is safely treated, disposed of, and reused.
This report builds on four case studies (SOIL – Haiti, x-runner – Peru, Clean Team – Ghana, Sanergy – Kenya) to assess the role CBS can play in a portfolio of solutions for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS) services.
The authors conclude that CBS approaches should be part of the CWIS portfolio of solutions, especially for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate.
Customer satisfaction with existing services is high and services provided by existing CBS providers are considered safe but have some areas for improvement. While the proportion of total CBS service costs covered by revenues is still small, CBS services are considered to be priced similarly to the main sanitation alternatives in their service areas.
Recommendations include adopting a conducive policy and regulatory environment and exploring ways to ensure that CBS services are sustainably financed. The report also identifies areas for further analysis.
Frontiers 12: Rural Sanitation in Africa: Challenges, Good Practices and Ways Forward In order to achieve universal safely managed sanitation across Africa by 2030 the scale and pace will need to increase drastically.
This edition of Frontiers of CLTS draws on the discussions held across two regional Africa events in 2018, highlighting the challenges faced by programme implementers (both government and non-government staff) at different levels in relation to the Ngor Commitments and the achievement of universal access to safely managed sanitation.
A range of initiatives are presented that show promise in addressing these challenges, along with recommended priority actions.
Water and Sanitation in Uganda. World Bank, December 2018.
This World Bank Study provides a basic diagnostic of access to safe water and sanitation in Uganda and their relationship with poverty. The analysis relies on a series of nationally representative household surveys for the period 2002–13, as well as on qualitative data collection.
The study first relies on household surveys to analyze trends in access to safe water and some of the constraints faced by households for access. The issue of the cost of water for households without a connection to the piped water network is discussed. This includes a discussion of public stand pipes.
Next, qualitative data are presented on the obstacles faced by households in accessing safe water. The next two chapters are devoted to sanitation. The focus is again first on analyzing household survey data about sanitation, including with respect to toilets, bathrooms, waste disposal, and hand washing, and next on an analysis of qualitative data from focus groups and key informants.
Finally, the study reviews some of the policies and programs that have been implemented in order to improve access to safe water and sanitation for the poor as well as options going forward.
Smart Sanitation City: The Sanitation Economy at City Scale. Toilet Board Coalition, November 2018.
Smart Cities are reinventing how we design cities of the future. By 2050 68% of the world’s population will live in cities. Rapid urbanisation is leading to smarter cities that improve the lives of citizens through technology. Yet sanitation is rarely considered as a priority in smart city strategies.
In India, the Government’s Smart Cities Mission launched in 2016 seeks to develop 100 cities across the country making them citizen friendly and sustainable.
There is a focus on efficiency, improved public services, goods, spaces, and modernisation of pubic services.
At the same time, in 2014 the Government of India launched its Swachh Bharat Mission with the objectives of eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets, while establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.
Linking the two national priorities presents a unique opportunity to make the sum greater than the whole of its parts.
Cities of tomorrow: improving sanitation and hygiene services in Babati, Tanzania. WASHmatters, December 19, 2018.
One of the initial outcomes from the research is an agreement by town planners to include sanitation and hygiene in future Babati city planning.
In the town’s ‘spatial master plan’ the chapter on sanitation now reflects some of the research findings, which will help to ensure that the appropriate sanitation services are considered when it comes to planning the growing town.
The next step for the town is to put together an action plan for sanitation and hygiene services based on the agreed scenarios, and then mobilise resources to implement the plan. We will continue to support Babati as they move forward with their action plan.
Whilst urbanisation can present a lot of opportunities, it also throws up many challenges. This research demonstrates the importance of embedding sanitation and hygiene systems in town planning, and will hopefully be used to encourage and influence other growing towns in Tanzania.
It also illustrates that effective planning and stakeholder collaboration can help to ensure Tanzania’s cities of tomorrow have sustainable access to sanitation and hygiene.
Water Utilities – Water Currents, December 13, 2018
Today, more than half the world’s population is living in cities; by 2050, two-thirds of the world’s projected population will be urban. The U.S. Government Global Water Strategy states that this rapid pace of urbanization requires increased attention to urban services and water utilities.
Even as utilities strive to serve growing populations, water availability in cities is projected to shrink by as much as two-thirds by 2050. The ability of utilities to provide a safely managed water service—and to reach the unserved—will be underpinned by their investment in efficiency improvement, policy and institutional capacity development, access to financing, and ability to respond to climate change—even more than infrastructure investments.
Studies and reports in this issue address the management and operational issues of water utilities as well as their operating environment. A special thanks to the staff of DAI, the World Bank, and Asian Development Bank for suggesting water utilities as a topic for this issue and contributing content.
Read the complete issue.
Water Currents: Citywide Inclusive Sanitation – October 23, 2018.
USAID is committed to exploring new ideas to achieving increased access to urban sanitation services. The agency believes that sustainable sanitation requires that all stakeholders—from policymakers, the private sector, and utilities, to local NGOs, communities, and households—work together to achieve long-term solutions.
This issue of Water Currents includes articles, tools, and other resources related to Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS), an approach to urban sanitation that involves collaboration among many actors to ensure that everyone benefits from adequate sanitation service delivery outcomes.
CWIS aims to help cities develop comprehensive approaches to sanitation improvement that encompass long-term planning, technical innovation, institutional reforms, and financial mobilization.
The concept of CWIS has been gaining traction among development practitioners. At World Water Week 2018 in Stockholm, the World Bank and other partners released an official Call to Action for all stakeholders to “embrace a radical shift in urban sanitation practices deemed necessary to achieve citywide inclusive sanitation.” This issue of Currents was compiled with help from the World Bank and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Read the complete issue.