Category Archives: Sanitation and Health

New call for researchers (WSUP – Urban Sanitation Research Initiative)

Analysis of citizen and decision-maker attitudes to freshwater pollution in Bangladesh cities as a basis for more effective regulation.

This research project is jointly commissioned by the REACH global research programme (led by Oxford University) and the Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, (a 2017-2020 research programme led by Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor, WSUP). The project will be managed by the Urban Sanitation Research Initiative team with single point-of-contact, but should aim to align with the broad vision and specific requirements of both research programmes.

The research will investigate citizen and decision-maker attitudes to pollution of watercourses in urban environments in Bangladesh, and attitudes towards regulation to reduce such pollution. We require detailed consideration of two specific types of pollution, and of their associated regulation, namely a) faecal contamination arising from widespread discharge from septic tanks, pit latrines, and hanging toilets to surface drains and water bodies and to subsurface water bodies, and b) industrial discharge to surface and subsurface water bodies. However, we would expect detailed consideration of these specific issues to be embedded within a wider framework of analysis of urban freshwater pollution, and its regulation, in Bangladeshi cities.

Bids due: Before 1700 (UK) Tuesday 13th March 2018

Focus country: Bangladesh

Maximum budget: GBP 80,000

For more information and details on the bidding process, see the Urban Sanitation Research Initiative website (‘Current research calls’).

After Hyderabad, drug-resistant typhoid emerges in Karachi

After Hyderabad, drug-resistant typhoid emerges in Karachi. The International News, February 8, 2018.

Following two sub-districts of Hyderabad, drug-resistant typhoid in children has emerged in Karachi where cases of patients not responding to antibiotics commonly used to treat the enteric fever have been reported, leading gastroenterologists and paediatricians have told The News. pakistan

….

To a query, Dr Memon said sewage-mixed water was the main cause of typhoid among people in Karachi but added that people were becoming resistant to third-generation antibiotics because of overuse of antibiotics, which were being prescribed by doctors and consumed by the patients as if they were food.

Read the complete article.

A discussion between WASH funders and grantees

Innovative strategies, new pathways, and more to learn

By iDE

iDE had the opportunity to participate in a conversation amongst various WASH grantees and funders this past fall. From the power of incentives to output based aid, dive into the discussion—the latest innovations in sanitation marketing and questions that still need exploring. Read lessons learned from designing and implementing results-based WASH programs.

iDEglobal.org-_A_1200x900_Illus_DesignToContext.jpg

 

Fecal Sludge Management – Water Currents

Fecal Sludge Management – Water Currents, January 17, 2018.

Worldwide, 2.7 billion people rely on on-site sanitation, but many lack the means to manage fecal sludge—the muddy mix of fecal matter that accumulates over time in septage or pit latrines, which can have significant health and environmental implications. As a result, fecal sludge management (FSM) has become a key component of providing universal sanitation access. fsm.png

This issue of Water Currents contains studies from 2017 that focus on FSM, including research that discusses the health-related aspects, technological aspects, and related economic/financing issues. Also included are links to upcoming courses, announcements, and websites.

We are always looking for ideas and suggestions to make Water Currents more useful and relevant, so we would appreciate your responses to this brief survey.

Courses 
Introduction to Faecal Sludge Management. This introductory course by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne teaches how to apply concepts of sustainable FSM on a citywide scale. It started on January 8, 2018, but enrollment is still open. This course is one of four in the series “Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development.” This is an online course and there is no charge for participating.

Announcements
Field Test Innovative Sludge Management Tools in Malawi. Mzuzu University Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation in Malawi invites self-funded graduate students or experienced researchers to field test their innovative tools and techniques for the emptying, transport, and treatment of pit latrine or septic tank sludge. The site is well suited for conducting field testing on local pit latrines or septic tanks for a period of several weeks to months. Visit the centre’s website or contact Dr. Rochelle Holm for further information.

FSM and Health
Designing a Mixed-Methods Approach for Collaborative Local Water Security: Findings from a Kenyan Case StudyExposure and Health, July 2017. The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot a mixed-methods-coupled systems (human and physical) approach to understand strengths, challenges, and health impacts associated with WASH in a rural Kenyan community. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used for the analysis.

Read the complete article.

Quiet Heroes in the Fight against Ebola – Global Waters

Quiet Heroes in the Fight against Ebola. Global Waters, January 3, 2018.

While the Ebola crisis was at its peak in Liberia, a small group of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) entrepreneurs helped in a significant way by repairing hand pumps in clinics and other health facilities in some of the country’s hardest-hit counties.

By restoring access to water — not only for drinking, but also for infection prevention and control — these WASH entrepreneurs ensured that facilities had the resources they needed to promote handwashing and safe hygiene practices that could help combat the spread of the disease.

ebola

Newly graduated WASH entrepreneurs prepare to deploy to their target communities. Photo credit: Global Communities Liberia

Liberia’s Bong, Lofa, and Nimba counties were some of the areas most affected during the Ebola crisis. The communities in these counties are largely rural and hard to reach. Roads and infrastructure are poor and government services are limited.

In these rural communities access to water and sanitation facilities are extreme challenges. According to the latest data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, nearly 80 percent of rural Liberians do not have adequate sanitation facilities. At the same time, 47 percent of rural residents do not have safe drinking water sources.

Read the complete article.

Satellites Predict a Cholera Outbreak Weeks in Advance

Satellites Predict a Cholera Outbreak Weeks in Advance. Scientific American, January 3, 2018.

A test in Yemen showed satellite data could foresee an outbreak four weeks before it exploded 

cholera

Vibrio cholerae. Credit: Getty Images

Orbiting satellites can warn us of bad weather and help us navigate to that new taco joint. Scientists are also using data satellites to solve a worldwide problem: predicting cholera outbreaks.

Cholera infects millions of people each year, leading to thousands of deaths. Often communities do not realize an epidemic is underway until infected individuals swarm hospitals. Advanced warning for impending epidemics could help health workers prepare for the onslaught—stockpiling rehydration supplies, medicines and vaccines—which can save lives and quell the disease’s spread.

Back in May 2017 a team of scientists used satellite information to assess whether an outbreak would occur in Yemen, and they ended up predicting an outburst that spread across the country in June.

Read the complete article.

WHO – Achieving quality universal health coverage through better water, sanitation and hygiene services in health care facilities A focus on Cambodia and Ethiopia

Achieving quality universal health coverage through better water, sanitation and hygiene services in health care facilities: A focus on Cambodia and Ethiopia. WHO, December 2017. who-his-sds-2017-17-cover

The WHO/UNICEF Global Action Plan for WASH in HCFs recognises that sustained improvements in WASH in Health Care Facilities require integration between quality of care efforts and WASH. To date, little evidence is available on how such integration occurs at country level.

To address this knowledge gap, WHO has conducted several in-depth situational analysis in countries that are undertaking actions to improve WASH in Health Care Facilities as part of their quality of care improvement efforts.

The purpose of the situation analyses was to capture mechanisms that “jointly support” WASH in HCF and quality of care improvements and also identify barriers and challenges to implementing and sustaining these improvements.