Small Doable Actions: A Feasible Approach to Behavior Change Learning Brief, 2015. WASHplus.
A small doable action is a behavior that, when practiced consistently and correctly, will lead to personal and public health improvement. It is considered feasible by the householder, from HIS/HER point of view, considering the current practice, the available resources, and the particular social context. Although the behavior may not be an “ideal practice,” more households likely will adopt it because it is considered feasible within the local context.
Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements.PLoS One, Aug 2015. Authors: Nadja Contzen , Sandra De Pasquale, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting.
Does building more toilets stop the spread of disease? Impact evidence from India, Aug 2015.
A 3ie-funded impact evaluation research team used a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the government’s Total Sanitation Campaign in Odisha, India to see if latrine coverage did indeed reduce exposure to disease. The intervention mobilised households in villages characterised by high levels of open defecation to build and use latrines. The study was conducted between May 2010 and December 2013, involving more than 50,000 individuals in 100 villages. The study results show that the assumption that more latrines will reduce exposure to faecal pathogens, and therefore disease, does not necessarily hold true. During the study period, latrine coverage in the intervention villages increased from 9 per cent of households to 63 per cent, compared to an increase from 8 per cent to 12 per cent in the control villages. The increase in latrine coverage did not prevent diarrhoea or reduce soil-transmitted helminth infection in the intervention villages. The seven-day prevalence of reported diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years was 8.8 percent in the intervention group and 9.1 percent in the control group.
Can disgust and shame lead to cleaner water and more handwashing? Impact evidence from Bangladesh, Aug 2015.
3ie supported a research team to conduct a randomised impact evaluation between 2011 and 2014. The team tested whether behaviour change messages provoking disgust and shame amongst people within each compound are more effective than public health-related messages promoting safe water and handwashing. This brief distills the main findings and the lessons learned. The impact evaluation showed that the intervention did not change behaviours. The messages aimed at creating disgust and shame did not increase demand for water treatment or improve handwashing behaviour compared to the standard health messages. Use of the chlorine dispenser was low. This study pointed up a number of implementation factors that may have affected the impact of the messages and use of the dispensers.