Category Archives: Sanitation and Health

A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water

A Third Of Hospitals In Developing Nations Don’t Have Clean Water: Study | Source: Huffington Post, June 23, 2016 |

Doctors often operate with dirty instruments because they have no other choice

At least a third of hospitals in developing nations do not have clean running water, a study has found, leading to unsanitary conditions and further spread of disease in drought-hit areas.

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YIDA REFUGEE CAMP, SOUTH SUDAN – JToto Kafi, 2 years, lays in a hospital bed suffering from painful skin infections and malnourishment at the MSF ( Medecins Sans Frontieres ) hospital inside the Yida refugee camp. (Photo by Paula Bronstein/Getty Images)

The study examined 430 hospitals in developing countries and found that one third of clinics did not have a reliable source of clean water to perform surgical operations.

Water availability ranged from 20 percent in Sierra Leone and Liberia to more than 90 percent in India, Malaysia and Guinea, according to the report, which used World Bank data and analysed previous studies between 2009 and 2015.

“Running water is something we take for granted and it doesn’t exist in a third of hospitals in these countries,” said Adam Kushner, lead author of the study, published in the Journal of Surgical Research.

“Instead of water just being there, some hospitals truck in water or collect it in rain barrels, with no guarantee of its cleanliness,” said Kushner, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University who is also a surgeon.

Every year, half a million babies die before they are one-month-old due to a lack of clean water and safe sanitation in hospitals, according to a 2015 report by sanitation charity WaterAid and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

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Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign

Peeing in public still a concern, Modi seeks changes in Swachh Bharat campaign | Source: Hindustan Times, June 23 2016 |

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has spotted a gap in his Swachh Bharat campaign: the grotesque but common sight of men urinating in public places.

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The PM’s point was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country. (HT file photo)

Modi has told the Union urban development (UD) ministry to ensure that the government’s outreach doesn’t just focus on open defecation in cities but target urination in public places as well. As the first step, the PM has asked the ministry to change the nomenclature of the campaign’s tagline. In line with the PM’s directive following a meeting on June 1 to review the progress of Swachh Bharat Mission, the ministry has set the ball rolling to call its campaign “Open Urination and Defecation Free Cities by 2019”.

The PM’s point, a senior government official who attended the meeting said, was that the earlier tagline – “Making Cities Open Defecation Free” – did not adequately reflect the challenge of public urination across the country.

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Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria, 2016. 

Co-authored by WaterAid and EDePo at IFS: Laura Abramovsky, Britta Augsburg, Erin Flynn, Francisco Oteiza.

CLTS works with an entire community to identify the negative effects of poor sanitation, especially the practice of open defecation, and empowers them to collectively find solutions. CLTS is understood to be more suitable for small, rural and homogeneous communities, however it is still considered an appropriate solution for more urbanised areas.

In this brief, we provide quantitative evidence to support this conjecture and bring forward a simple rule of thumb that allows more efficient programme targeting. We suggest that using this information can improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria, and possibly other countries, freeing up scarce resources to identify and test complementary sanitation approaches suitable for more urbanised communities.

 

Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP)

Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP)

To improve sustainable access to basic sanitation and safe  drinking water, GWPP will update knowledge on water pathogens using advanced information technologies by publishing and disseminating a state-of-the-art reference resource on water-related disease risks and intervention measures (replacing Sanitation and Disease Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management by Feachem, Bradley, Garelick and Mara. 1983) and create an online open-access data base and knowledge platform.

GWPP will provide an updated review of the efficacy of sanitation technologies and serve as a compendium of waterborne pathogen information and quantitative data to support risk assessment to protect water safety.  Work will also be conducted with the World Health Organization to support its Sanitation Guidelines.

Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries

Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countriesInt J Equity Health. 2016; 15: 86.

Authors: Marni Sommer, Sahani Chandraratna, Sue Cavill, et. al.

The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls’ and women’s contributions to the workplace, and their health and wellbeing.

There is an urgent need to document the specific social and environmental barriers they may be facing in relation to menstrual management, to conduct a costing of the implications of inadequate supportive workplace environments for menstrual hygiene management, and to understand the implications for girls’ and women’s health and wellbeing. This will provide essential evidence for guiding national policy makers, the private sector, donors and activists focused on advancing girls’ and women’s rights.

Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage

Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverageWater Research, Volume 100, 1 September 2016, Pages 232–244.

Authors: Mitsunori Odagiri, Alexander Schriewer, et al.

Highlights

  • Application of Bacteroidales MST to evaluate improved sanitation impacts
  • Widespread human and animal fecal contamination detected in homes.
  • Pathogens detected in drinking sources associated with subsequent child diarrhea.
  • Public ponds used domestically were heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens.
  • No decrease in human fecal or pathogen contamination from increased latrine coverage.

In conclusion, the study demonstrates that

  • (1) improved sanitation alone may be insufficient and further interventions needed in the domestic domain to reduce widespread human and animal fecal contamination observed in homes,
  • (2) pathogens detected in tubewells indicate these sources are microbiologically unsafe for drinking and were associated with child diarrhea,
  • (3) domestic use of ponds heavily contaminated with multiple pathogens presents an under-recognized health risk, and
  • (4) a 27 percentage point increase in improved sanitation access at village-level did not reduce detectable human fecal and pathogen contamination in this setting.

 

An Innovative Solution To Menstrual Hygiene In Developing Countries

An Innovative Solution To Menstrual Hygiene In Developing Countries | Source: Co.Design, June 2016 |

Meet Flo, an affordable, modular “period kit” that allows girls in impoverished countries to wash, dry, and store their reusable sanitary pads. 3050139-slide-s-3-a-device-that-makes-menstruation-safer

In underdeveloped countries where periods are stigmatized, adolescent girls have a lot more to deal with each month than physical discomfort and hormones. Pads and tampons aren’t always available in rural areas, and when they are they’re expensive. Reusable pads help solve some of the problem, but keeping them clean is tough when girls have to hide their period from others.

It’s that last problem that a group of students from the Art Center College of Design in California and Yale Business School set out to solve with Flo, a kit for washing, drying, and storing sanitary pads. It includes a detachable device using for spinning the pad dry and hanging it up in privacy, as well as a pouch for transporting.

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