Category Archives: Sanitation and Health

iDE Shares Lessons Learned in Building Markets for Sanitation

iDE is proud to announce a new microsite: sanitationmarkets.ideglobal.org. This site outlines the evolution of iDE’s sanitation program in Cambodia, from preliminary market studies to the largest program of its kind in the world.

Sanitationmarkets.ideglobal.org

We made this site because we hope that our experiences will inform the design, implementation, and cost-effectiveness of future sanitation marketing projects.

Here are a few featured posts on the site:

Are We Moving the Needle on Latrine Coverage? Sanitation coverage increased from 29% to 45%in the seven project provinces, a jump of 16% in just over just 2.5 years.

Latrine Sales Exceed “Excellent” Target The project surpassed the topline “excellent” target of latrines sold through project-connected businesses. Update in May 2016: 228,151 latrines have been sold through project-connected business, with average monthly sales at around 5,000.

Reaching the Poor with Sanitation Overall, there has been a doubling (12% increase) in sanitation coverage among the poor since the baseline in early 2012.

Professionalized Sales Drive Latrine Uptake Achieving the public health goal of rapid latrine uptake necessitated an active role by the project in managing latrine sales activities. Professionalization of sales is a crucial investment for sanitation market development efforts to ensure that the critical activity of selling is deliberate and based on industry best practices. With the support of Whitten & Roy Partnership, the project developed a sales training approach that included systematic sales training and sales management processes and a package of supporting tools, which were developed in collaboration with 17 Triggers.

Driving Latrine Affordability With Access to Finance In partnership with IDinsight, we learned that under certain conditions, financing has the potential to increase latrine uptake fourfold at a $50 market price and decrease operating costs by 70%.

To contact iDE about a potential partnership, send an email to: WASH@ideglobal.org

WASH in Health Care Facilities: Global Strategy, Burden of Disease, and Evidence and Action Priorities

WASH in Health Care Facilities: Global Strategy, Burden of Disease, and Evidence and Action Priorities, 2016. SHARE Project.

This report summarises the discussions and outcomes of a series of three workshops on WASH in HCFs co-convened by WHO, UNICEF and SHARE in London, 21st-24th March 2016.

Bringing together around 50 stakeholders including WHO and UNICEF technical staff, health specialists, policy-makers, WASH experts and implementers, researchers and donors, the workshops sought to take stock on progress made since the 2015 global meeting in Geneva and plan how to maximize efforts, formulate the basis for developing a burden of disease framework associated with WASH in HCFs, and update the global action plan accordingly.

Shifting the perspective: how urban CLTS can contribute to achieving universal access to sanitation

Shifting the perspective: how urban CLTS can contribute to achieving universal access to sanitation. Source: CLTS Blog, July 6 2016 |

Author: Sue Cavill

Urban sanitation differs from rural sanitation in many ways however one of the fundamental differences is that in urban areas one group, (usually the wealthy), benefits from the public provision of sanitation at the expense of others  (usually the poor). Poor households in urban areas must often find their own solutions to failures in sanitation services. During a workshop on urban CLTS (U-CLTS) held in Ethiopia and hosted by Plan International, we explored the potential of CLTS to support safely managed, city-wide sanitation. clts

We heard how communities in Ethiopia, Mauritania, India, Madagascar, Kenya and Nepal have participated in the design and management of sanitation services and exerted influence over public and private service providers through a U-CLTS approach. The examples highlighted how the collective nature of sanitation means that community structures, rather than individual choices, are critical to sanitation service delivery. The case studies illustrated how the ‘community-led’ aspect of U-CLTS has resulted in: (1) provision of sanitation facilities to substitute for public/private sanitation providers and to compensate for weak government institutions, (2) collaboration between communities and government to coproduce a range of services across the sanitation chain as well as (3) increasing poor people’s ability to make demands on government for universal access.

Read the complete article.

 

Trash and treasure in Brazil’s Jóquei landfill – in pictures

Trash and treasure in Brazil’s Jóquei landfill – in pictures | Source: The Guardian, July 6 2016 |

The Lixão do Jóquei is one of the largest open landfills in Latin America. Under a 2010 federal law, all solid waste in Brazil should be put in modern landfills that have been lined to stop toxins soaking into the soil. brazil

Jóquei, which does not meet those requirements, is scheduled to be closed this year, but hundreds of people still make a dangerous living from scavenging amid its mounds of trash.

Exact numbers of people working at the site are hard to come by. According to municipal authorities, about 600 people sort rubbish here, but the workers themselves, known as catadores, put the figure at more than 2,600.

Read the complete article.

Duncan Mara – Disease Priorities in Zambia

Disease Priorities in Zambia. Am Jnl Trop Med Hyg, July 2016.

Author: Duncan Mara. School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. E-mail: d.d.mara@leeds.ac.uk

An excerpt: Neonatal disorders are very important. Deaths due to neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections have been rising steadily from 2,121 in 2000 to 2,704 in 2013. This may reflect poor WASH, the difficulty of accessing even basic-level health-care facilities in rural areas, and/or rural mothers not recognizing early symptoms of these diseases. Poor WASH should be addressed, as it is known to adversely affect maternal, infant, and child mortality. There also needs to be improved rural health care and targeted health/hygiene education for mothers and mothers-to-be.

Diarrheal diseases caused significantly fewer deaths in 2013 than in 2000. This parallels the decrease in unsafe water, unsafe sanitation, and unsafe hand hygiene, which must be sustained. The most dramatic decrease, nearly 60%, was seen in the number of human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and tuberculosis deaths during 2010–2013. This truly excellent performance needs, of course, to continue.

As highlighted in this letter, an initial broad-brush approach using GBD Compare (or similar tools) is likely to produce good guidance on health priorities, especially in rural areas and periurban slums. Targeted detail can then follow.

 

 

 

 

Beyond Survival: The Case for Investing in Young Children Globally

Beyond Survival: The Case for Investing in Young Children Globally, 2016. National Academy of Medicine.

Authors: G. Huebner, N. Boothby, et. al.

Currently, U.S. government foreign assistance remains fragmented, with little focus on or cross-sectoral funding for holistic child development and with limited mechanisms in place to ensure effective coordination across sectors. Without a proactive effort to integrate programs for young children, harmonize implementation, and synchronize the measurement of results, program and outcome siloes are created, and an important opportunity to maximize results for children is lost.

Young children’s needs and risks are multidimensional. Tackling one issue at a time, divorced from a more complex reality, is ultimately a disservice to time- and resource-strapped vulnerable families. Young children require integrated support, including health,
nutrition, education, care, and protection. The science explains why. By turning attention and resources toward coordinated investments and delivery platforms, it is possible to close the gap between what is known and what is done to support young children globally.

Environmental Transmission of Diarrheal Pathogens in Low and Middle Income Countries

Environmental Transmission of Diarrheal Pathogens in Low and Middle Income Countries. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, June 2016.

Author: Timothy R. Julian. Pathogens and Human Health, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Swiss Federal Research Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Globally, more than half a million children die every year from diarrheal diseases. Recent studies have identified the diarrheal disease agents most responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrheal disease and diarrhea-related mortality. The agents – enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella spp., rotavirus, norovirus, and Cryptosporidium spp. – are characterized by high infectivity, high fecal shedding, and transmission through a wide range of environmental reservoirs.

This Perspective provides insight into the ecology of the diarrheal disease agents with emphasis on their relationship to environmental reservoirs. Based on this insight, the Perspective advocates for comprehensive interventions targeting exposure reductions across multiple environmental reservoirs. Single interventions are often inadequate, and this may be partly attributed to their failure to reduce environmental exposures below thresholds needed to initiate infection.