Category Archives: Sanitation and Health

WaterAid – Caught Short: how a lack of access to clean water and decent toilets plays a major role in child stunting

Caught Short: how a lack of access to clean water and decent toilets plays a major role in child stunting, 2016. WaterAid.

WaterAid’s new report reveals the extent of the global stunting crisis and the impact a lack of clean water and decent toilets is having on the futures of millions of children suffering from malnutrition.

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Sisters Manjula, 9, and Gouramma, 13, stand in front of a blackboard at their school in Karnataka State, India, showing how their height compares to the average for their age. Gouramma also suffers from hypothyroidism, which doctors say may in part explain her height.

50% of malnutrition cases are linked to chronic diarrhoea caused by lack of clean water, decent sanitation and good hygiene, including handwashing with soap.

For a child, experiencing five or more cases of diarrhoea before the age of two can lead to stunting. Beyond this age, the effects are largely irreversible.

“Stunting not only makes children shorter for their age, but affects their emotional, social and cognitive development, meaning their lives and life chances are forever changed,” says Barbara Frost, WaterAid’s Chief Executive.

The Caught Short report reveals that:

  • India has the highest number of children suffering from stunting in the world – 48 million, or two in every five.
  • Nigeria and Pakistan rank second and third with 10.3 and 9.8 million children suffering from stunting respectively.
  • Timor-Leste has the highest percentage of children who are stunted, at 58%.

 

2016 WEDC conference presentations on CLTS

The 122 presentations from the 2016 WEDC conference are now online at http://wedc.lu/wedc39 and below are titles of presentations on the topic of community-led total sanitation. wedc_moodle

  1. Building ODF communities through effective collaboration with governments
  2. CLTS plus : making CLTS ever more inclusive
  3. CLTS versus other approaches to promote sanitation: rivalry or complementarity?
  4. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in fragile contexts: the Somalia case
  5. Partial usage of toilets: a growing problem
  6. Seeking evidence of sustained sanitation successes
  7. Shocking imagery and cultural sensitivity: a CLTS case study from Madagascar
  8. To ODF and beyond: sharing experiences from the Pan African CLTS programme
  9. Using a CLTS approach and/or CLTS tools in urban environments: themes and trends
  10. Who is managing the post-ODF process in the community? A case study of Nambale District in Western Kenya
  11. Good governance for sustainable WASH programming: lessons from two USAID-funded projects

Global Waters Radio: Emily Rand on Improved Child Feces Management

A World Bank expert weighs in on the strategic importance of an emerging field in global public health.

Emily Rand is a water supply and sanitation specialist at the World Bank, who also teaches about the design, implementation, and evaluation of WASH programs at George Washington University in Washington, DC. rand

In her recent conversation with Global Waters Radio, Rand discusses key findings from recent research produced by the World Bank and UNICEF in the growing public health field of child feces management.

She also shares examples of improved caregiver behaviors and programs to promote those behaviors. Poor child feces management can result in substantial health impacts in children, including a higher prevalence of diarrheal disease, intestinal worms, enteropathy, malnutrition, and death. For that reason, safe disposal of children’s feces is as essential as that of adults’ feces.

“The behavior of the children’s caregiver is critical to disposing of their feces safely and shaping the child’s toilet training.”

Neurocysticercosis: Leading Cause of Acquired Epilepsy Worldwide

Neurocysticercosis: Leading Cause of Acquired Epilepsy Worldwide | Source: Medscape, August 1 2016 |

Hello. I am Dr Paul Cantey, a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). I am pleased to be speaking with you today as part of the CDC Expert Commentary Series on Medscape. Today I will be discussing neglected parasitic infections (NPIs), specifically neurocysticercosis.

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Scolex of T solium. Image courtesy of CDC DPDx.

First, a little background on NPIs. NPIs are a group of five parasitic infections in the United States, which are targeted by CDC as priorities for public health action based on the number of people infected, the severity of the illnesses, and the ability to prevent and treat them. These diseases include Chagas disease, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, and trichomoniasis.

Cysticercosis is infection with the encysted larval form of Taenia solium, or pork tapeworm.

Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis

Cysticercosis is endemic in developing countries where pigs are raised in close contact with humans and sanitation is poor, including areas in Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, infection is most common in persons who have immigrated from or traveled extensively to endemic areas.

Read the complete article.

World Hepatitis Day, 28 July 2016

World Hepatitis Day, 28 July 2016

WHO encourages countries to act now to reduce deaths from viral hepatitis

WHO urges countries to take rapid action to improve knowledge about hepatitis, and to increase access to testing and treatment services. Today, only 1 in 20 people with hepatitis know they have it. And just 1 in 100 with the disease is being treated. JESS3_WHO_WHD16_Final_English-v1

“The world has ignored hepatitis at its peril,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “It is time to mobilize a global response to hepatitis on the scale similar to that generated to fight other like HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.”

WHO – Trachoma fact sheet

Trachoma Fact sheet, July 2016. WHO

Key facts

  • Trachoma is a disease of the eye caused by infection with the bacteriumChlamydia trachomatis.
  • It is known to be a public health problem in 42 countries, and is responsible for the blindness or visual impairment of about 1.9 million people. Just over 200 million people live in trachoma endemic areas and are at risk of trachoma blindness.
  • Blindness from trachoma is irreversible.
  • Infection spreads through personal contact (via hands, clothes or bedding) and by flies that have been in contact with discharge from the eyes or nose of an infected person. With repeated episodes of infection over many years, the eyelashes may be drawn in so that they rub on the surface of the eye, with pain and discomfort and permanent damage to the cornea.
  • Resolution WHA51.11 adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1998 targets the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem by 2020.
  • The elimination strategy is encapsulated by the acronym “SAFE”: Surgery for advanced disease, Antibiotics to clear C. trachomatis infection, and Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement to reduce transmission.
  • In 2015, more than 185 000 people received surgical treatment for advanced disease, and 56 million people were treated with antibiotics for trachoma.

Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It is caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection is transmitted through contact with eye and nose discharge of infected people, particularly young children who harbour the principal reservoir of infection. It is also spread by flies which have been in contact with the eyes and noses of infected people.

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The 10 Most Innovative Health Technologies Saving Millions In The Developing World

The 10 Most Innovative Health Technologies Saving Millions In The Developing World | Source: Medical Futurist, July 19, 2016 |

There are striking differences in the general social, economic or political background of the developed and developing country-groups, and developing countries are in dire need for creative and innovative medical solutions. Here are the 10 most innovative health technologies which could save millions of lives in these corners of the Earth. 102213836-padeducation1.530x298

Featured in this article are innovations on the manufacture of sanitary pads and water purification.

Read the complete article.