Category Archives: Wastewater Management

Global Waters – USAID’s 40-Year Legacy in Water and Wastewater Meets the Needs of Egypt’s Growing Population

USAID’s 40-Year Legacy in Water and Wastewater Meets the Needs of Egypt’s Growing Population. Global Waters, June 13, 2017.

Egypt today is a country in transition. With one of the fastest growing populations in the world — estimates suggest that the population will increase from 93 to 120 million people by 2030 — Egypt’s infrastructure needs to keep pace.

egypt

A man turns on the new faucet in his home in Upper Egypt. Photo Credit: Mohamed Abdelwahab for USAID

In both urban and rural areas, population growth has led to an expansion of settlements that strain current water and wastewater systems.

Often, settlements are built over the heavily polluted, unsanitary waterways, posing a public health threat by carrying the risk of waterborne disease.

Since 1978, USAID invested more than $3.5 billion to help bring potable water and sanitation services to more than 25 million Egyptians, directly improving their health and environmental conditions.

Read the complete article.

Could alternative sanitation help South Africa’s water security?

Could alternative sanitation help SA’s water security? Infrastructure News, April 3, 2017.

As the 30th driest country in the world, South Africa is facing greater water security challenges with increasing periods of drought and unpredictable rainfall patterns.

According to a case study on alternative sanitation for water security done by Tomorrow Matters Now, 19.5% of South Africans are still without an improved sanitation service and 4.9% of South Africans have no access to sanitation. Caption-2-Knight-Piesold-768x510

For 60% of water management systems, water demand is overtaken by supply, while 98% of our available water resources are already being used. At the same time, South Africa’s water and sanitation infrastructure is crumbling because of a chronic lack of investment.

Local municipalities are faced with these challenges and its effects on a daily basis.

Some of these include the age old problems of institutional or financial shortcomings and capacity constraints, a delay in sanitation services linked to a delay in housing, and the continued maintenance and improvement of basic sanitation.

Waste management has also become an increasing problem with water treatment plants having released raw sewage into rivers in the past due to poor management and maintenance backlogs.

The case study found the need for alternative means of sanitation.

Providing universal access to conventional waterborne sanitation is one of government’s biggest challenges, and the critical aspects of hygiene and dignity, as well as a healthy and resilient environment need to be addressed.

The study said that ‘flushing’ cannot be the solution as we cannot continue to use clean, potable water to flush waste. “We need game-changing new technologies which require little or no water,” the findings suggested.

Read the complete article.

12 ways to turn water from waste to resource – The Guardian

12 ways to turn water from waste to resource. The Guardian, March 27, 2017.

As 80% of the world’s wastewater flows untreated into the environment, we asked an expert panel to discuss how to promote water reuse 

wastewater

A pedestrian walks past a wall adorned with water conservation messages in Mumbai. Photograph: Punit Paranjpe/AFP/Getty Images

1 | Highlight success stories

The main message we should give is that proper reuse can save money and generate income, and is good for the environment. In the Netherlands, there is now a wastewater plant that actually generates energy. As a sector we need to highlight such examples, provide technical options and work with the public to raise their awareness about the danger to their health around wastewater. Arjen Naafs, technical adviser, WaterAid South Asia, @Arjen_Naafs,@wateraid

2 | Tackle cultural stigma

Wastewater is often out of sight and out of mind. There is resistance not just from the public to re-use but also from governments and health authorities. In one recent project on wastewater management we demonstrated that water was safe for specific re-use. Christopher Corbin, programme officer, pollution prevention, UN Caribbean Environment Programme, @cristojc, @UNEP_CEP

We have examples of successful reuse – such as biogas installations in Ethiopia fuelling kitchen units, eco-san toilets in peri-urban Mozambique, and a co-composting plant in Bangladesh which produces fertiliser. In all examples, however, it takes a considerable effort for awareness raising and longer term presence. It is possible, but it requires determination and patience. Arjen Naafs

Read the complete article.

Treating Wastewater as a Resource – Global Waters

Treating Wastewater as a Resource. Global Waters, March 2017.

The theme of World Water Day 2017 — wastewater—provides an ideal moment to pause and reflect on how this often maligned and misunderstood water source can be treated safely to improve public health and enhance quality of life.

globalwaters2

The new Tacloban City Septage Treatment Facility is the first plant of its size in the Philippines to use a process called lime stabilization to treat wastewater. Photo Credit: USAID/Philippines

Thanks to technological advances in wastewater treatment and disposal, as well as improved sanitation management practices, many communities are even recognizing that water, once used, can still be put to productive use — making wastewater a largely untapped renewable freshwater source for increasing food production and facilitating economic development in water-stressed areas.

In celebration of World Water Day, USAID invites you to travel around the world in the photo essay below to see how the Agency’s wastewater programming is helping improve sanitation access, increase water security, drive job creation, and create healthier, more livable communities for millions of people.

View the photo essay.

 

World Water Day 2017 – Why Wastewater

World Water Day 2017 – Why Wastewater?

World Water Day, on 22 March every year, is about taking action to tackle the water crisis. Today, there are over 663 million people living without a safe water supply close to home, spending countless hours queuing or trekking to distant sources, and coping with the health impacts of using contaminated water. 

WWD2

Photo: Duda Arraes via Foter.com / CC BY-NC-ND

The Sustainable Development Goals, launched in 2015, include a target to ensure everyone has access to safe water by 2030, making water a key issue in the fight to eradicate extreme poverty.

In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly officially designated March 22 as World Water Day. World Water Day is coordinated by UN-Water in collaboration with governments and partners.

Find out more about this year’s theme: wastewater.

Microbiological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with wastewater in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and effect of green salads washing methods

Microbiological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with wastewater in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and effect of green salads washing methods. International Journal of Food Contamination, December 2017, 4:3.

Background

In Addis Ababa, where irrigation water for vegetable production is commonly derived from the highly polluted Akaki river, information on microbial contamination of water and irrigated vegetable is scanty. An assessment was done to determine the microbiological quality of irrigation water and lettuce harvested from 10 urban farming sites of Addis Ababa. The efficacy of 5 lettuce washing methods were also assessed. A total of 210 lettuce and 90 irrigation water samples were analyzed for faecal coliform and helminth eggs population levels.

Results

The mean faecal coliform levels of irrigation water ranged from 4.29-5.61 log10 MPN 100 ml−1, while on lettuce, the concentrations ranged from 3.46-5.03 log10 MPN 100 g−1. Helminth eggs and larvae were detected in 80% of irrigation water and 61% of lettuce samples. Numbers ranged from 0.9-3.1 eggs 1000 ml−1 and 0.8-3.7 eggs 100 g−1 wet weight for irrigation water and lettuce, respectively. The helminth eggs identified included those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia and Strongloyides larvae. Ascaris lumbricoides and Hookworm were most prevalent in both irrigation water and lettuce samples. Compared with the WHO recommendations and international standards, the faecal coliform and helminth eggs levels in irrigation water and lettuce samples exceeded the recommended levels. Irrespective of the tested washing methods, faecal coliform and helminth eggs levels were somehow reduced. Among the washing methods, potable tap water washing – rinsing (2 min) followed by dipping in 15 000 ppm vinegar solution for a minute supported the highest faecal coliorm reduction of 1.7 log10 units, whereas lowest reduction of 0.8 log10 units was achieved for the same procedure without vinegar.

Conclusion

Compared with international standards, both faecal coliform and helminth eggs levels exceeded recommended thresholds in water and lettuce, but still in a potential risk range which can be easily mitigated if farmers and households are aware of the potential risk. Aside preventing occupational exposure, potential risk reduction programs should target households which have so far no guidance on how best to wash vegetables. The result of the present study suggest that the vinegar based washing methods are able to reduce faecal coliform towards low level while the physical washing with running water may help to substantially decrease potential risk of helminth parasitic infections.

The role of nanomaterials as effective adsorbents and their applications in wastewater treatment

The role of nanomaterials as effective adsorbents and their applications in wastewater treatmentJournal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, March 2017, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 1–14.

Nanomaterials have been extensively studied for heavy metal ions and dye removals from wastewater. This article reviews the role of nanomaterials as effective adsorbents for wastewater purification.

In recent years, numerous novel nanomaterial adsorbents have been developed for enhancing the efficiency and adsorption capacities of removing contaminants from wastewater.

The innovation, forthcoming development, and challenges of cost-effective and environmentally acceptable nanomaterials for water purification are discussed and reviewed in this article.

This review concludes that nanomaterials have many unique morphological and structural properties that qualify them to be used as effective adsorbents to solve several environmental problems.