Category Archives: Regions

Methane production for sanitation improvement in Haiti

Methane production for sanitation improvement in HaitiBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume 91, August 2016, Pages 288–295.

Authors: Stephanie Lansing, Holly Bowen,  et. al.

There is a great need for decentralized anaerobic digestion (AD) that utilizes wastewater for energy generation. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of Haitian latrine waste was determined and compared to other waste streams, such as grey water, septage, and dairy manure.

Average methane (CH4) production for the latrine waste (13.6 ml ml−1 substrate) was 23 times greater than septage (0.58 ml ml−1 substrate), and 151 times greater than grey water (0.09 ml ml−1 substrate), illustrating the larger potential when waste is source separated using the decentralized sanitation and reuse (DESAR) concept for more appropriate treatment of each waste stream.

Using the BMP results, methane production based on various AD configurations was calculated, and compared with the full-scale field AD design.

Methane potential from the BMP testing was calculated as 0.006–0.017 m3 person−1 day−1 using the lowest and highest latrine BMP results, which was similar to the values from the full-scale system (0.011 m3 person−1 day−1), illustrating the ability of BMPs to be used to predict biogas production from sanitation digesters in a smaller-scale setting.

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria, 2016. 

Co-authored by WaterAid and EDePo at IFS: Laura Abramovsky, Britta Augsburg, Erin Flynn, Francisco Oteiza.

CLTS works with an entire community to identify the negative effects of poor sanitation, especially the practice of open defecation, and empowers them to collectively find solutions. CLTS is understood to be more suitable for small, rural and homogeneous communities, however it is still considered an appropriate solution for more urbanised areas.

In this brief, we provide quantitative evidence to support this conjecture and bring forward a simple rule of thumb that allows more efficient programme targeting. We suggest that using this information can improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria, and possibly other countries, freeing up scarce resources to identify and test complementary sanitation approaches suitable for more urbanised communities.

 

From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods

From waste-picker to waste professional: A Bengaluru organisation recycles livelihoods | Source: The News Minute, June 17 2016 |

Hasiru Dala also creates awareness about segregating dry waste and wet waste.

Thirty-eight-year-old Lakshmi has been working as a waste-picker in Bengaluru for five years. “We are called thieves when we are collecting waste. Some have even gone to the extent of calling the police,” said Lakshmi lamenting the state of waste-pickers in the city. Hasiru (1)

However, all that changed when Hasiru Dala, a social enterprise that organise waste-pickers came forward and provided Lakshmi with an ID card. “The green card from Hasiru Dala helps us avoid such problems,” she said.

Hasiru Dala, an organisation that turn waste-pickers to waste professionals aids the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) in managing Bengaluru’s massive waste production by providing waste management services for homes, apartments, commercial set-ups and events.. From a family wedding to a city-wide marathon, Hasiru Dala (Green Army in Kannada) provides waste management services for all kinds of events.

Along with recycling waste, Hasiru Dala has also managed to recycle the livelihoods of thousands of waste pickers in the city like that of Lakshmi. Shekhar Prabhakar, Managing Director of Hasiru Dala said, “Waste-picking is a job totally dependent on luck. It is not an easy job. Waste pickers bend down hundreds of times in covering a 10 km stretch. We are aiming to create dignified labour by providing waste-pickers with ID cards.” Hasiru Dala has helped around 7500 waste-pickers obtain an ID card.

Read the complete article.

Sanitation in Bangladesh: Revolution, Evolution, and New Challenges

Sanitation in Bangladesh: Revolution, Evolution, and New Challenges, 2016. CLTS Knowledge Hub Learning Paper.

Author: Dr Suzanne Hanchett.

Our 2015 discussions with people at all levels of Bangladesh society reveal both pride in sanitation achievements and concern about meeting future challenges. A combination of approaches – subsidies, non-subsidies, micro-credit, sanitation market improvements, programming at various scales, motivating of individuals and groups – has resulted in a majority of households’ using latrines rather than defecating openly.

Policy documents have created frameworks to guide activities in diverse areas. Issues such as quality, faecal sludge removal, and appropriate subsidies for very poor households remain, however. Hard-to-reach geographical areas lag behind the rest of the country. As Professor Mujibur Rahman’s 2009 overview pointed out, failing to address these challenges will threaten the sustainability of achievements.

Unique characteristics of the Bangladesh sanitation situation include the focus on its local government institution (the union), its long history of NGO-sponsored community mobilisation, and its high population density. Donor involvement has been a regular feature of the sanitation scene for more than three decades. It is a relatively small country, the size of only one of India’s states. All of these special conditions and characteristics have supported its achievements to date.

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Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes

Approaches to Capital Financing and Cost Recovery in Sewerage Schemes Implemented in India: Lessons Learned and Approaches for Future Schemes, 2016. Water and Sanitation Program.

This report aims to highlight some of the successful financial management practices adopted by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India when implementing sewerage schemes. The findings are presented in two parts – the first part of the report discusses the approach adopted for capital financing of sewerage schemes in the state of Tamil Nadu, and the second part presents the findings from a review of the operational expenditure and revenue generation of various ULBs across the country.

The aim of the report is to share successful capital financing and cost recovery practices adopted by ULBs in India and enable improvement in provisioning of sewerage systems (only where feasible and economically viable, typically only in larger towns with a population greater than 50,000) and ensure availability of sufficient funds for proper Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the schemes implemented.

 

Community Slum Sanitation in India A Practitioner’s Guide

Community Slum Sanitation in India: A Practitioner’s Guide, 2016. Water and Sanitation Program.

Based on the experience of slum sanitation initiatives implemented in a number of urban centers in India, over the last decades, this Guide draws out the critical drivers that appear to explain some facets of successful community slum sanitation initiatives.

Initiatives from the cities of Ahmedabad, Pune, Mumbai, Bhopal, Trichy, and Kalyani are used as the examples to learn from (based on convenience and easy availability of information).

A set of generic steps are identified and described thereafter for the preparatory, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation stages of community sanitation initiatives.

Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania

Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, 2016. 

Authors: Nelson Ekane, Nina Weitz, Björn Nykvist, Petter Nordqvist and Stacey Noel. Stockholm Environment Institute.

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the sanitation policy and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania based on a set of recommended criteria that comprehensive and supportive sanitation policies should meet. This assessment finds that the policies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania meet many of the recommended criteria, but are still lacking key aspects to adequately cater for sustainability of services and functionality of facilities.

Further, policies should reflect the needs and preferences of people. This is usually not the case because policies are very ambitious and hard to fully translate to action. Despite the existence of policies, the implementation process is flawed in many ways, and two key gaps are the lack or inadequate financing for sanitation, and serious lack of technical capacity, especially at the district level.

Furthermore, the assessment shows that the policy and institutional framework for sanitation and hygiene differs from country to country. Rwanda and Uganda have separate sanitation and hygiene policies while Tanzania is still in the process of developing a separate sanitation policy. The paper also shows that even though there are still serious shortfalls shortfalls that hindered the achievement of the sanitation MDG in Uganda and Tanzania in particular, major reforms in the sector have undoubtedly contributed to improved sector performance in all the three countries.

Regionally, access to improved sanitation in SSA is on a gradual increase while the practice of open defecation is decreasing. On a country level, however, there are significant variations in performance between countries, with countries like Rwanda making remarkable progress in sanitation and hygiene coverage.