Category Archives: Regions

Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of evolvement of policy priorities and strategies

Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of
evolvement of policy priorities and strategies, 2016.

Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Blessing Mberu, Abdhalah K. Ziraba. African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya

Introduction: Since independence, there have been various policy frameworks developed to guide the management of solid wastes in Kenya. Analysis of the progressive development of the policy landscape would be useful to inform the implementation of existing policies and the formulation of future policies relevant to solid waste management in the country.
Objectives: To explore the evolution of solid waste management policies in Kenya from the
perspective of policy priorities and strategies for solid waste management that address health outcomes.

Methods: This study was an integrative synthesis of the policy priorities and strategies
stipulated by the major solid waste management policies in Kenya since independence and
how they address SWM associated health outcomes. The synthesis addressed the
evolvement, devolvement and segmentation of solid waste management policies as well as
the institutional mechanisms for policy processes and external policies shaping the policy

Results: Analysis of the progressive development of policy architecture indicated that solid waste management policies in Kenya has evolved to specificity in terms of focus, functions and scope. There is a magnificent shift from focusing criminalizing offences to promoting good practices; from generic Acts to specific ones; and from centralized mandates to more decentralized responsibilities. The roles of local level implementation mechanisms is also increasing. However, the environment perspective is more emphasized than the health and economic perspectives of solid waste management principles.

Conclusion: Despite the progressive and chronological development of solid waste
management policy priorities and strategies, their focus on environment dominates over
health outcomes.

Three out of five Ghanaians practice open defecation, UNICEF says

Three out of five Ghanaians practice open defecation, UNICEF says | Source:, April 30, 2016 |

Three out of five Ghanaians practice open defecation, UNICEF says, adding that Ghana could take 500 years to eliminate the practice due to the slow pace at which strategies, laws and interventions are being implemented. ghana-odf

Open defecation is the practice of attending natures call in the bush, at the beach, in drains and dump sites. The Chief Officer at the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, WASH, Unit of UNICEF Ghana, David Duncan, notes that in the last 25 years, Ghana made one percent progress at eliminating the practice.

Duncan made these known at a workshop in Cape Coast for members of the Parliamentary Press Corps on open defecation. According to him, though the current pace is nothing to write home about, he was hopeful Ghana could achieve an Open Defecation Free society within the four-year national target if actions are expedited on all fronts.

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Policy Note: Should Public Toilets Be Part of Urban Sanitation Solutions for Poor Families Living in Slums?

Policy Note: Should Public Toilets Be Part of Urban Sanitation Solutions for Poor Families Living in Slums? April 2016. Emory University’s Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene.

Although households would prefer to have private facilities, conditions suggest that shared public toilets will, for the foreseeable future, continue to be the main available option for defecation in the slums of Accra. In this context, efforts are needed to improve existing and new public toilets to make them hygienic and safely managed in order to provide sanitation services that result in public health benefits.

Since public toilets do not meet the JMP criteria for an improved toilet, they also do not meet current government of Ghana standards. This in turn creates a disincentive for local governments to invest in public toilets and related safe management of the fecal sludge as part of their urban sanitation services.

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USAID Ethiopia Water Fact Sheet

USAID Ethiopia Water Fact Sheet, March 2016. USAID Ethiopia.

Water cuts across nearly every aspect of USAID programming. Used for drinking, hygiene, and health care, water is also needed to irrigate crops, feed livestock and develop renewable energy. Scarce water supplies can become potential sources of conflict.

USAID incorporates WASH activities within its governance, health, nutrition, resilience and emergency assistance activities with a focus on sustainability. USAID also helps strengthen the Ethiopian Government’s capacity to coordinate WASH and water resource management.


SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana

SWIFT Story of Sustainable Change: Improving access to safe, sustainable sanitation in Nadapal, Turkana, 2016. OXFAM.

In Nadapal, a village in northern Kenya, residents had no access to sanitation, and instead practised open defecation in the bushes. Illnesses including diarrhoea, malaria and cholera were common. swift

Now, however, many of the households in Nadapal have built their own latrines within easy reach and have access to safe, sustainable sanitation for the first time, after Practical Action began implementing the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach.

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) sustainability management plan in Niger

Published on Apr 20, 2016

A member of the community-led total sanitation – CLTS committee in Gallo (Niger) introduces the annual CLTS management plan developed by the village to sustain the ODF (Open Defecation Free) status of the village which was attained 2 years ago.

This plan includes to rehabilitate damaged latrines, to conduct regular monitoring at household level, to organize regular meetings of the village CLTS committee, regular cleaning campaigns and upgrade all latrines in the village (to use hygienic concrete slabs) within a year.

Catholic Relief Services (CRS) PASAM TAI project in Niger funded by USAID/FFP supports the development and management of this type of CLTS sustainable plans in all villages where the project implements CLTS processes.

The SDGs at city level: Mumbai’s example

The SDGs at city level: Mumbai’s example, 2016. Authors: Paula Lucci and Alainna Lynch. Overseas Development Institute.

How countries manage urbanisation over the next 15 years will define governments’ ability to achieve most of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Our analysis of performance over time (1998–2006) for three SDG targets in Mumbai (at city and slum settlement levels) suggests the target on access to water will be easier to achieve than the sanitation and housing targets.
  • However, data limitations at subnational level make it difficult to reach definite conclusions on trends over time, let alone to project performance through 2030 for
    these and other targets.
  • The SDGs provide an opportunity to set up-to-date credible baselines for cities and slums and to make historical data (where they exist) more accessible, for instance through user-friendly online portals. Having such data would highlight areas where progress needs to be accelerated or trends reversed, motivating city governments and campaigners to act.