Category Archives: Africa

Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya

Handwashing With a Water-Efficient Tap and Low-Cost Foaming Soap: The Povu Poa “Cool Foam” System in Kenya. Global Health: Science and Practice, June 2016.

Authors: Jaynie Whinnery, Gauthami Penakalapati, Rachel Steinacher, Noel Wilson, Clair Null, Amy J Pickering.

The new handwashing system, designed with end user input, features an economical foaming soap dispenser and a hygienic, water-efficient tap for use in household and institutional settings that lack reliable access to piped water.

Cost of the soap and water needed for use is less than US$0.10 per 100 handwash uses, compared with US$0.20–$0.44 for conventional handwashing stations used in Kenya.

KEY PRODUCT FEATURES OF THE POVU POA HANDWASHING SYSTEM

  • Soap security: The soap foamer is attached to the system, preventing theft
  • Affordability: Just 5 g of powdered or liquid soap mixed with 250 mL of water can provide 100 uses for US$0.10 (cost includes soap and water).
  • Hygienic: The innovative swing-tap design is bidirectional and can be used with the back of the hand or wrist, limiting recontamination of hands after handwashing.
  • Water-frugality: The water flow is sufficient for handwashing while providing a 30-77% reduction in water usage compared with conventional methods.
  • Scalability: Components are specifically designed for low-cost mass production and deployment, estimated at US$12 per unit.
  • Adaptable: The 2 handwashing station configurations can be adapted to meet different needs and preferences and can be used in households and institutional settings, such as schools and health centers.

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria, 2016. 

Co-authored by WaterAid and EDePo at IFS: Laura Abramovsky, Britta Augsburg, Erin Flynn, Francisco Oteiza.

CLTS works with an entire community to identify the negative effects of poor sanitation, especially the practice of open defecation, and empowers them to collectively find solutions. CLTS is understood to be more suitable for small, rural and homogeneous communities, however it is still considered an appropriate solution for more urbanised areas.

In this brief, we provide quantitative evidence to support this conjecture and bring forward a simple rule of thumb that allows more efficient programme targeting. We suggest that using this information can improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria, and possibly other countries, freeing up scarce resources to identify and test complementary sanitation approaches suitable for more urbanised communities.

 

Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania

Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, 2016. 

Authors: Nelson Ekane, Nina Weitz, Björn Nykvist, Petter Nordqvist and Stacey Noel. Stockholm Environment Institute.

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the sanitation policy and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania based on a set of recommended criteria that comprehensive and supportive sanitation policies should meet. This assessment finds that the policies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania meet many of the recommended criteria, but are still lacking key aspects to adequately cater for sustainability of services and functionality of facilities.

Further, policies should reflect the needs and preferences of people. This is usually not the case because policies are very ambitious and hard to fully translate to action. Despite the existence of policies, the implementation process is flawed in many ways, and two key gaps are the lack or inadequate financing for sanitation, and serious lack of technical capacity, especially at the district level.

Furthermore, the assessment shows that the policy and institutional framework for sanitation and hygiene differs from country to country. Rwanda and Uganda have separate sanitation and hygiene policies while Tanzania is still in the process of developing a separate sanitation policy. The paper also shows that even though there are still serious shortfalls shortfalls that hindered the achievement of the sanitation MDG in Uganda and Tanzania in particular, major reforms in the sector have undoubtedly contributed to improved sector performance in all the three countries.

Regionally, access to improved sanitation in SSA is on a gradual increase while the practice of open defecation is decreasing. On a country level, however, there are significant variations in performance between countries, with countries like Rwanda making remarkable progress in sanitation and hygiene coverage.

Global Waters Radio: Piet deVries on Sanitation Behavior Change in Liberia

Global Waters Radio: Piet deVries on Sanitation Behavior Change in Liberia | Source: Global Waters, June 2016 |

Piet deVries is Senior WASH Specialist and Liberia Country Director for Global Communities, a Maryland-based NGO with programs in more than 20 countries around the world. In his recent sit-down with Global Waters Radio, deVries discussed his experiences in Liberia promoting community-led total sanitation (CLTS) over the past several years, as former chief of party for USAID/Liberia’s Improved Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IWASH) program.

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Photo Credit: Global Communities

CLTS is a methodology originally pioneered in Bangladesh that seeks to create sustainable improvements in community sanitation by prioritizing public education and equipping communities with the skills needed to build and maintain their own improved sanitation facilities. CLTS also encourages community members to support the behavioral changes necessary to eliminate the public health threats posed by open defecation — a common practice in much of rural West Africa.

Link to the podcast/complete article.

A Community Approach to Better Public Health in Rural Liberia

A Community Approach to Better Public Health in Rural Liberia. Global Waters, June 2016

Liberia is no stranger to difficult times, having weathered a devastating Ebola outbreak and now struggling through a slow economic recovery. Lost amid the headlines from these events is the story of Liberia’s quiet public health victories.

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Residents of Lofa County’s Vahun district in Liberia gather to discuss strategy for sustaining recent local sanitation improvements. Photo Credit: Global Communities

Half of Liberia’s 4.5 million people live in the countryside and roughly the same amount practice open defecation.

This practice has jeopardized public health by facilitating the spread of diseases that cause diarrhea, Liberia’s sixth leading cause of death and the primary cause of childhood morbidity and mortality.

However, thanks to two programs that championed community-led sanitation improvements, USAID has now helped 1,500 Liberian communities achieve open defecation-free (ODF) status — fueling optimism about continued public health improvements in the near term

Read the complete article.

Sometimes you don’t make enough money to buy food: An analysis of South African street waste pickers income

Sometimes you don’t make enough money to buy food: An analysis of
South African street waste pickers income:, 2016. Economic Research Southern Africa Brief.

Authors: By JMM Viljoen, PF Blaauw and CJ Schenck

Local governments however, can play an important role in protecting and enhancing the income-earning opportunities of street waste pickers. Local governments should create an environment in which higher quantities of quality waste are made accessible to the street waste pickers.

One such initiative is the ‘separation of waste at source’ initiative. The benefits of a well-considered system of ‘separation at source’ will provide street waste pickers access to bigger volumes of semi-sorted waste, as well as higher quality waste which will enhance their income-earning opportunities.

Local governments should further facilitate infrastructure such as Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs), sorting facilities, and more efficient BBCs to assist street waste pickers to collect and sell higher volumes of waste. It is difficult for street waste pickers to sort and clean the waste properly without a place or space to sort the waste. Therefore, there is an urgent need for sorting and storage space to enable street waste pickers to sort the waste they have collected properly as better-sorted and higher quality waste reach higher prices.

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WasteAid UK wins award for waste management work

WasteAid UK wins award for waste management work | Source: Resource, June 8, 2016 |

WasteAid UK, a charity helping to establish waste management processes in developing countries, has won a National Energy Globe Award for its work in The Gambia.

WasteAid2

Photo: Mike Webster, WasteAid UK

The charity aims to improve sanitation, environmental pollution and the use of resources in communities in developing countries that have no access to established waste services by delivering simple recycling processes that are low-cost and easily replicable.

Specifically, the Energy Globe Award panel recognised the charity for its work in Brikama in The Gambia, where it has brought ‘an entirely new approach to dealing with the longstanding and intransigent problem of bad waste management’.

WasteAid UK is working with local partners and has set up a local waste training and entrepreneurship centre that researches suitable waste reprocessing techniques, raises awareness about the problems caused by poor waste management and provides practical training in how to recycle waste.

Read the complete article.