Category Archives: Africa

Household survey: hygiene and sanitation behavior as well as willingness to pay in rural Senegal

Household survey: hygiene and sanitation behavior as well as willingness to pay in rural Senegal, 2015. 

Water and Sanitation Program.

The indicators for access to drinking water in Senegal suggest that 32% of the rural population have a piped connection on their premises while 35% cover their needs from other improved sources. This means that 33% of the population still satisfies their needs from unimproved sources, including 1% from surface water (WHO/UNICEF, JMP, 2015).

Access to water is also fundamental to good hygiene behavior, notably for washing hands. However, in rural areas, dedicated hand washing stations have been observed in 24.8% of all households. Among the members of these households, only 44.6% used water and soap for hand washing; 18.7% used water only and 35.2% had neither water nor soap or any other detergent to wash their hands (EDS, 2014).

With regard to sanitation, important efforts need to be made in Senegal as in the rural area, 34% of the population have access to improved sanitation; 42% use unimproved latrines (including 8% who share latrines) and 24% practice open defecation (OD; WHO/UNICEF, JMP, 2015). Hygiene and sanitation are thus priorities for the government of Senegal, as demonstrated by the inauguration of the Programme d’Eau Potable et d’Assainissement du Millénaire (PEPAM, Millennium Drinking Water and Sanitation Program).

 

USAID Sanitation Service Delivery – Addressing Shared Fecal Sludge Containment Needs in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Published on Oct 20, 2016

How do we solve sanitation in some of Africa’s poorest urban cities?

The USAID Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) project is pushing for shared containment systems in the city of Abidjan to help improve and solve sanitation conditions.

Let us know what you think of our approach on Twitter @POOPgroupSSD, Facebook @wcaSANITATION

WSUP -Webinar: A toilet in every compound – what we’ve learned so far from Kumasi and Accra, Ghana

Published on Oct 10, 2016
Many low-income residents of Kumasi and Ga West (Accra) live in compound housing where they share the same living space with more than 20 people. The vast majority will have no access to in-house sanitation, instead relying on the high number of public toilets which typify Ghana’s urban centres.

Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) and Ga West Municipal Authority (GWMA) are responding to this challenge through a 5-year compound sanitation strategy, now being implemented with support from the USAID Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) program.

This webinar presented the learning we’ve had so far, and the successes and failures of the strategy.

Presenters: Georges Mikhael (Head of Sanitation, WSUP), Frank Romeo Kettey (Project Manager, WSUP Ghana) and Richard Amaning (WASH Financing Expert, SNV). Moderated by Sam Drabble (Research and Evaluation Manager, WSUP).

 

Use public money to fund Africa’s water and sewerage systems

Use public money to fund Africa’s water and sewerage systems. Mail & Guardian Africa, October 25, 2016.

Developed countries used government revenue rather than private funds to build infrastructure, so why not Africa?

African stakeholders have called for water supply and sanitation to be a priority at the next meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They want the November meeting of COP22 to integrate issues related to water supply and sanitation with the climate change agenda.

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A refugee waits to collect water from a well at the Yida refugee camp in South Sudan on April 17 2013. (Andreea Campeanu, Reuters)

Some progress has been made on water and sanitation in the past 20 years. Under the millennium development goals, rates of access in sub-Saharan Africa increased by 20% for drinking water and 6% for sanitation between 1990 and 2015.

But far more needs to be done. Population growth means the number of people without access to drinking water increased from 265-million in 1990 to 316-million in 2015 and those without safe sanitation from 388-million to 692-million.

The sector is in dire need of extensive investment. Estimates vary slightly but, to achieve the millennium development goal targets, Africa would have to spend about $15-billion annually; current spending is about $3.6-billion.

To close the gap, there is support for greater private investment in water in developing countries. But the reality is that the financing gap in Africa can only be addressed viably and equitably with a major increase in public investment.

Read the complete article.

Community-generated data crucial for implementing New Urban Agenda

Community-generated data crucial for implementing New Urban Agenda. CitiScope, Oct 20 2016.

Good urban planning can’t happen without a better understanding of informal settlements, advocates say.

Earlier this year, when the Liberian government wanted to demolish informal housing in the West Point section of Monrovia, local community members had a strong argument to dissuade them.

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West Point, Monrovia. (Nick Fraser/flickr/cc)

Thanks to a slum profiling initiative done the previous year through Shack/Slum Dwellers International, the community knew that many of West Point’s rudimentary, wooden toilets — so-called “hanging toilets” because of how they are built over the water — were located where the demolitions would take place. The toilets likely would get destroyed too.

Destroying the toilets, they argued, would pose a public health threat.

“That was where we came with our data and said ‘no’,” recalls Bill Jlateh Harris, of Shack/Slum Dwellers International, who lives in West Point. “If you take away [toilets] you expose us to open defecation and disease outbreaks. We appealed to them, using our documents, to stop the demolition exercise. It worked. Those structures are still there, in fact. They were not touched.”

The data community members collected in West Point includes information about the number of taps and toilets in the area, as well as population figures. It is available online through the “Know Your City” campaign, a data initiative from Shack/Slum Dwellers international that provides community-generated data from more than 7,700 communities in 224 cities.

Read the complete article.

Dying for a pee – Cape Town’s slum residents battle for sanitation

Dying for a pee – Cape Town’s slum residents battle for sanitation | Source: Reuters, Oct 12 2016 |

Cape Town’s Khayelitsha township is seen

Cape Town’s Khayelitsha township is seen in this picture taken October 4, 2016. Picture taken October 4, 2016. THOMSON REUTERS FOUNDATION/Johnny Miller

CAPE TOWN (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – Siphesihle Mbango was just six years old when her friend, Asenathi, begged her to go with her to the toilet then ran outside alone – and was never seen again.

Now 12, Mbango tells the story with an intense, unflinching gaze but her hands, fidgeting nervously as she speaks, show the trauma is still raw.

“We were at the crèche and she wanted me to go with her,” but I told her I was busy, I was playing, I didn’t want to go and she went out by herself,” she said, at her home in a Cape Town slum.

“It was a long time she was away and when the teachers asked me, I told them she went to the toilet. They looked and looked for her for a long, long time. But then we lost hope. We never saw her again.”

Mbango shares a one-room shack with her grandmother and two younger siblings in Endlovisi, a vast sprawl of more than 6,600 corrugated iron shacks perched precariously over the sand dunes on the southeastern edge of the South African city.

Part of Khayelitsha, one of the world’s five biggest slums, Endlovini is home to an estimated 20,000 people who share just 380 or so communal toilets.

However, the family live in an area where there are no easily accessible toilets at all – and according to the community, residents have literally been dying for a pee.

Read the complete article.

Don’t think of treatment plants: building factories to meet the sanitation SDGs

Rwanda  - Pivot fecal sludge treatment 1

Pivot Works factory in Kigali, Rwanda. From left to right: Fecal sludge receiving tank, flocculation tanks, mechanical dewatering machine. Photo: Ashley Muspratt

4,900 days from now, in 2030, the Sustainable Development Goals will expire.  If that feels like a long time, consider the work ahead.  And by work, I dare not attempt to wrap my head around all 17 goals; I refer specifically to the WASH goal – SDG #6 – and even more specifically to the sanitation targets.

From my admittedly invested perch – I run a sanitation company – the most exciting thing about transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs is the belated inclusion of treatment.  There’s finally recognition that “improved sanitation” without treatment is not improved sanitation.  The WASH community’s new mandate: “halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally” (SDG 6.3).  But consider that the urban population still requiring “safely managed sanitation” today stands at 3.214 billion [1]. Serving them entails expanding safe management, i.e., some form of treatment, to 625,000 people each day for the next 4,900 days.  That’s basically a city a day.

How can we achieve such a massive expansion of safe fecal sludge and wastewater management?  For starters, let’s stop building treatment plants. Heresy? There’s a better way.

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