Category Archives: Africa

WASH Alliance Kenya – Impact of a school WASH club

Obunga clean up & waste pickers 2014-2015

Combating poverty and building democracy through the co-production of participatory waste management services: The case of Kisumu, Kenya.

A research project by:
The inhabitants of Obunga, Nyalenda and Manyatta
The many waste actors in Kisumu
City of Kisumu
County Government of Kisumu
Kisumu Waste Management Services KWAMS
Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology JOOUST
Maseno University
University of Victoria
University of Gothenburg
Chalmers University of Technology

Funded by:
The Swedish International Centre for Local Democracy ICLD

About 500 Children Die Daily In Sub-Saharan Africa Due To Lack Of Clean Water, Sanitation

About 500 Children Die Daily In Sub-Saharan Africa Due To Lack Of Clean Water, Sanitation, by Eleanor Goldberg, in the Huffington Post, Dec 16, 2015.

West and Central Africa need about $30 billion a year to get access to universal sanitation and clean water. 

An excerpt – Every day, about 500 children in the sub-Saharan Africa die due to diarrheal diseases, a soaring figure that could be curbed with some simple measures, experts say.

UNICEF announced the grave rate on Tuesday, ahead of a conference in Dakar, Senegal, where investment banks, international organizations and businesses will work toward finding ways to raise the funds needed to prevent these fatalities. Kids are succumbing to these illnesses due to the fact that they lack access to clean drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene.

It would cost about $30 billion a year to bring sanitation and clean water to Central and West Africa, according to UNICEF.

“It cannot be business as usual,” Manuel Fontaine, UNICEF regional director for West and Central Africa, said in a statement. “The pace of progress has to speed up exponentially — and it’s going to take strong policies; robust financing; and a major shift in priorities among those who have the power to act.”

Read the complete article.

Webinar faecal sludge, 15 December 2015

VIA Water is organising a webinar on faecal sludge on 15 December 2015 at 14:00 hours CET (UCT +1).

In this webinar you will be able to discuss any issue you might have run into during your work on this topic, and ask VIA Water expert Jan Spit any question you might have. Jan will also kick off by sharing some of his insights. For more information about his background, visit his website.

Check out Jan’s invitation in the short clip below. On the 15th, you will be able to access the webinar through this link: http://bbb.ihe.nl/demo/create.jsp?action=invite&meetingID=VIA+Water+Webinar%27s+meeting

About Via Water

Via Water is a knowledge platform on water and develolpment funded by the Dutch government. It supports projects with innovative solutions for water problems facing cities in seven African countries: Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda and South Sudan. To learn more go to: www.viawater.nl/about-via-water

Will better sanitaton and nutrition reduce stunting?

Zimbabwe SHINE trial - Cornell University

Photo: Cornell University

A trial is underway in Zimbabwe to measure the independent and combined effects of improved sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and improved infant diet on stunting and anemia among children 0-18 months old [Cornell University CENTIR Group blog].

The Sanitation, Hygiene and Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial is led by the Zvitambo Institute for Maternal and Child Health Research in Harare, Zimbabwe in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Child Care/Government of Zimbabwe. Other contracted experts include Sandy Cairncross, Val Curtis and Peter Morgan.

The SHINE Trial is being undertaken in Chirumanzu and Shurugw, two districts with high HIV prevalence. Besides investigating the effects of sanitation and nutrition, SHINE will also test whether Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED)is a major cause of a major cause of child undernutrition. EED, also called environmental enteropathy, is a condition believed to be due to frequent intestinal infections.

SHINE is being being funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). There are additional contributions from Wellcome Trust, National Institutes of Health, and the Swiss Development Cooperation.

A special open access supplement of Clinical Infectious Diseases is devoted to SHINE containing the following articles:

  • The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial Team, doi:10.1093/cid/civ844
  • Design of an Intervention to Minimize Ingestion of Fecal Microbes by Young Children in Rural Zimbabwe, doi:10.1093/cid/civ845
  • The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe, doi:10.1093/cid/civ846
  • Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial, doi:10.1093/cid/civ847
  • Assessment of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in the SHINE Trial: Methods and Challenges, doi:10.1093/cid/civ848
  • The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial, doi:10.1093/cid/civ849
  • Assessing the Intestinal Microbiota in the SHINE Trial, doi:10.1093/cid/civ850
  • Assessing Maternal Capabilities in the SHINE Trial: Highlighting a Hidden Link in the Causal Pathway to Child Health, doi:10.1093/cid/civ851
  • Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of the SHINE Trial Using a Program Impact Pathway Approach, doi:10.1093/cid/civ716

New week NEW BRIEF! Finance Brief N. 8: “A few cents on your water bill: Tana’s (Anatanarivo) surcharge system” By Sylvie Ramanantsoa, Julie Ranaivo and Guy Norman

Tana 001    In Madagascar’s capital Antananarivo (Tana), water bills include various surcharges designed to help finance water and sanitation. In recent years, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) has been working with local government and with the utility JIRAMA to optimise the use of these revenues to support water supply improvements in low-income communities. This brief describes how this interesting system works, and considers how it might be further developed.

FB008 Tana fonds de travaux_Page_1

Download 

Toilet touring in Uganda: experiencing the true spirit of Community-Led Total Sanitation

Patrick England, who recently joined the Global Sanitation Fund secretariat, travelled to Uganda to participate in a learning exchange mission. The mission turned out to be a unique opportunity to experience the true spirit of community-led total sanitation (CLTS). Read about his experiences below.

Representatives from Madagascar’s Fond d’Appui pour l’Assainissement (FAA) programme demonstrating CLTS facilitation in Amuria District. Credit: Patrick England/WSSCC

Representatives from Madagascar’s Fond d’Appui pour l’Assainissement (FAA) programme demonstrating CLTS facilitation in Amuria District. Credit: Patrick England/WSSCC

When I first entered the field of international development, I had no idea that ‘shit’ would become a standard part of my professional vocabulary. But as a Portfolio Support Analyst with the WSSCC’s Global Sanitation Fund (GSF), my mission is to discover and document everything about shit: how communities are dealing with it, and how to support our programme partners to tackle the world’s growing sanitation and hygiene crisis. So in June 2015, I received my first opportunity to become a professional toilet tourist with the GSF during a cross-programme exchange to Uganda.

Just prior to my Ugandan journey, I was working with Concern Universal, the GSF Executing Agency in Nigeria. I supported the development of case studies and lessons learned for the GSF-supported Rural Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion in Nigeria programme, which carries out Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) activities in the south-east of the country. Similar to Uganda, Nigeria’s GSF-supported programme is fully owned and implemented by government agencies. However, for local officials and civil servants, the participatory, spontaneous, and dynamic ethos of CLTS often runs in direct contrast to decades of enforcing toilet construction. Not only must CLTS trigger improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour in communities themselves, but it must also trigger government authorities to create enabling environments for communities to climb the sanitation ladder.

CLTS learning journeys converge: the GSF cross-programme exchange
Dazed after two days of travel from Calabar to Kampala, I met my new Uganda colleagues in the rural district of Pallisa. Accompanying them was a delegation from Madagascar’s GSF-supported programme. While much could be written on this band of Malagasy medical doctors-cum-sanitation crusaders, let’s just say that they definitely know their ‘shit’. For them, CLTS isn’t just an approach to increase sanitation coverage and reduce under-five mortality; it’s an action-affirmative philosophy that underpins a movement to improve the health of entire countries. Most importantly, this movement must be wholly owned by communities themselves – a point continuously emphasized throughout our district visits in Uganda.

Map of districts visited in Uganda, based on image retrieved on d-maps.com.

Map of districts visited in Uganda, based on image retrieved on d-maps.com.

Our exchange crossed the entire country – from the shores of Lake Victoria to the jungles along the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo – working alongside District Health Office staff to improve their CLTS approach. Led by the Malagasy doctors, each visit comprised a systematic review of existing practices, a hands-on demonstration of best-practice triggering and follow-up, and a critical self-analysis by health staff to enhance their community engagement. As was the case in Nigeria where decades of latrine enforcement and health sensitization failed to achieve any notable impact, this intensive learning process focused on ‘de-programming’ the old behaviours of local government facilitators.

Compared to Nigeria, where 25 percent of the population practices open defecation, Uganda has a relatively high level of sanitation coverage (where seven percent practice open defecation)[1]. This was made evident by the number of well-built latrines I observed during our visits to rural communities. Until then, I never entertained the notion that a toilet could be beautiful: walls carefully smoothed and polished, meticulously patterned with charcoal and red mud paint, all topped with round thatch roofs. One elderly woman in Koboko District proudly demonstrated how she used a local weed to give her latrine’s mud floor a glossy sheen. However, the presence of toilets – even those ornately designed – did not mean that these communities were open defecation free (ODF). These latrines frequently went unused, especially during planting and harvesting seasons, while a lack of adequate fly-proof covers and handwashing facilities meant that these community members were still unintentionally eating their own, and others’, shit.

Read the full blog on the WSSCC website