Category Archives: Africa

Characterization of pit latrines to support design and selection of emptying tools in peri-urban Mzuzu, Malawi

Characterization of pit latrines to support design and selection of emptying tools in peri-urban Mzuzu, Malawi. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | in press | 2017

Authors: Rashid Chiposa, Rochelle H. Holm, Chimuleke Munthali, Russel C. G. Chidya and Francis L. de los Reyes III

The urban areas of many low-income countries must balance a rising demand for pit latrines for household sanitation provision against limitations in space, resulting in a need for pit latrine emptying services.

This study was undertaken in the peri-urban neighborhood of Area 1B in the city of Mzuzu, Malawi, to examine the characteristics of household pit latrines for designing and selecting pit latrine emptying tools. We used 150 structured household surveys and field observations. From this, a subset was selected and 30 manual cone penetrometer tests were conducted at full latrines. Chemical oxygen demand analysis was also performed at 14 pit latrines.

The results indicated that in addition to serving as a disposal for fecal matter, 90% of households also used pit latrines for domestic waste. Only 10% of the studied pit latrines were lined. The filling rate in the study area is calculated to be about three years, and no respondents reported previous emptying.

It is suggested pit latrine emptying technology development focuses on a maximum tool diameter of 10 cm to fit through the keyhole (squat hole) and height of 146 cm to fit inside the superstructure, as well as supporting unlined pits and the ability to pump trash.

Progress on CLTSH – Findings from a national review of rural sanitation in Ethiopia – UNICEF

Progress on CLTSH – Findings from a national review of rural sanitation in Ethiopia: WASH Learning Note. December 2016.

KEY POINTS

  • Rural sanitation coverage in Ethiopia continues to improve. The survey found on average 68% latrine usage, similar to the 2015 JMP estimate
  • The majority (89%) of household toilets are unimproved
  • There are strong regional disparities in coverage. 5 regions have over 50%, whilst in 3 regions open defecation is still dominant
  • CLTSH is not always implemented as intended. There are regional variations and some aspects of the triggering and follow-up are omitted
  • The Post-ODF follow-up of the CLTSH approach is limited. Very few communites are recorded as having reached ’level 2’ of ODF
  • Handwashing Rates are low. Only 19% of respondents were found to wash hands at all critical times, and only 45% after using the toilet

 

Why has Zimbabwe banned street food?

Why has Zimbabwe banned street food? TRT World, January 9, 2017.

The government is trying to control a typhoid outbreak caused by poor sanitation and unregulated water supplies. The ban on street food has been put in place to prevent the water-borne disease from spreading. 

trtworld-nid-271410-fid-307575

Under the ban, food, including fruit and vegetable, can no longer be sold at road side stalls.

How does the ban work?

The ban was imposed in Zimbabwe’s capital and most populous city, Harare.

Under the ban, food, including fruits and vegetables, can no longer be sold at road side stalls.

But the implementation of the order maybe a problem as the city does not have the capacity or the manpower to enforce the ban, a local government official said.

“The city of Harare itself also needs a very strong environment division. I think this has been absent and the municipal police must also do their work. I think those two, if we can have the right skills in those sectors, we should have order in Harare,” Zimbabwe’s Minister of Local Government Saviour Kasukuwere said.

Read the complete article.

Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 49; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010049

Authors: Sheillah Simiyu, Mark Swilling, Richard Rheingans and Sandy Cairncross

Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation.

This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices.

Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants.

Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies

Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya

Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1189; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121189

Authors: Kate Bohnert, Anna N. Chard, et. al.

The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic.

The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government. We conducted a randomized trial comparing private sector service delivery (PSSD) of urine-diverting dry latrines with routine waste collection and maintenance and government standard delivery (GSD) of cistern-flush toilets or ventilated improved pit latrines.

The primary outcomes were facility maintenance, use, exposure to fecal contamination, and cost. Schools were followed for one school year. There were few differences in maintenance and pathogen exposure between PSSD and GSD toilets. Use of the PSSD toilets was 128% higher than GSD toilets, as measured with electronic motion detectors.

The initial cost of private sector service delivery was USD 2053 (KES 210,000) per school, which was lower than the average cost of rehabilitating the government standard flush-type toilets (USD 9306 (KES 922,638)) and constructing new facilities (USD 114,889 (KES 1,169,668)). The private sector delivery of dry sanitation provided a feasible alternative to the delivery of sewage sanitation in Nairobi informal settlements and might elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

 

The Sanitation-Education Connection: What’s a toilet worth in Kenya?

Published on Nov 19, 2016

Sanitation is a critical, yet often overlooked fundamental human right. This documentary, first in a series, broadly describes the worth of the sanitation-education connection in one area of Kenya, by defining its challenges and presenting solutions.

Water may be life, but the quality of our lives is determined in part by our health and wellbeing. It may be surprising to many of us, but in countries like Kenya, health is largely affected by access to toilets. Sanitation is a critical, yet often overlooked fundamental human right. Globally 2.5 billion people lack access to adequate sanitation. The resulting health risks touch all ages and affect every aspect of life: education included. Impacts reverberate through economies and generations as individuals fail to meet their full potential. Unfortunately sanitation is generally not a topic of common conversation nor is it often an economic priority. It becomes then, a silent emergency.

CONNECTING COUNTRIES ON SOCIAL
Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ConnectingCo…
Follow us on Twitter: @CCAAS_Hamilton
Find other videos on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/ccaashamilton
Check out our webpage: http://www.connectingcountries.net

 

South Africa: Innovative decentralised wastewater system offers massive water and energy-saving benefits

Innovative decentralised wastewater system offers massive water and energy-saving benefits. Cape Business News, December 15, 2016.

Maskam Water’s premises in Brackenfell Industria was the venue for the launch of a highly-innovative decentralised wastewater treatment system, which could revolutionise the approach to providing dignified sanitation to disadvantaged and rural communities. In addition, the system will save the country millions of litres of precious potable water by substituting treated water with recycled water for sanitation, industrial or irrigation use all at a fraction of the cost.

wastewater

The newly-installed Clarus Fusion ZF4000 at a public school in Oyster Bay

These are the claims made for the Clarus Fusion Sewage Treatment System, which features 50%+ local manufacture by Maskam Water through a joint venture (JV) with licence holders, the Zoeller Pump Company in the USA.

The occasion commemorated the success of the JV and the unveiling of the largest single unit yet supplied to the local market, which will treat 15,000ℓ per day of black or grey water and serve a community of up to 100 people.

Gerhard Cronje, Founder and CEO, Maskam Water outlined the advantages of decentralised wastewater systems and the differences compared with large conventional systems.

“The traditional approach to treating sewage or wastewater has been through water borne sewage systems and large energy hungry wastewater treatment plants that more often ‘waste’ this valuable resource,” he said.

“The Clarus Fusion system is a grassroots product that is modular, easily expandable, simple to install and maintain, has very low energy requirements, can operate on solar power and recycles treated wastewater on site at less than R1.88 per kℓ.

Read the complete article.