Category Archives: Africa

Tanzania – Scientists keen to change human waste to produce fertilizer and charcoal

Scientists keen to change human waste to produce fertilizer and charcoal |Source: Daily News, April 17 2016 |

The Ifakara Health Institute (I.H.I) in collaboration with Bremen Overseas Research Development Association (BORDA) in Tanzania, have come up with an innovative human waste treatment and management technology that finally makes human feces a risk-free resource for producing fuel and fertilizers. fecalsludge

The brains behind this human feces treatment project are Dr. Jacqueline Thomas and Mr. Emmanuel Mrimi from I.H.I and Ms. Jutta Camargo from BORDA. It is an innovation that has come at the right time, and badly needed by cities like Dar es Salaam and Nairobi. In a big way, this project promises a sanitation challenge solution Mathare valley and Dar es Salaam residents can benefit from.

“With the significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms”, Mr. Mrimi reassures you, “the treated human waste is safe. Users of these products do not put their health on the line.” The innovative Decentralized Waste Water Treatment Solutions (DEWATS) project is treating human waste in three different areas in Dar es Salaam. The project is supported by a grant from Human Development Innovation Fund (HDIF) which is part of an overall investment in innovation in Tanzania by UK Aid.

Read the complete article.

Sustainable Solutions for Sanitation Challenges in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

Sustainable Solutions for Sanitation Challenges in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda, 2015. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research – Rwanda.

Dwellers of informal settlements are inclined over time to reject traditional pit latrines for alternative low-cost options that are more sustainable, such as innovative decentralized sanitation and reuse (DeSaR) and water serving sanitation technologies. This is important because these options can play a part in reduction of over exploitation of natural water sources, which continue to be scarce, as a result of population pressure in the country.

DeSaR technologies are also appropriate in informal settlements of Kigali because they occupy less space, do not require emptying by vacuum tankers, pre treatment/composting, provides opportunity for nutrients re-cycling which is environmentally sustainable and, if well maintained, can have minimal harmful effects.

Waste not: How businesses can turn a profit from poo

Waste not: How businesses can turn a profit from poo | Source: CGIAR, Mar 10, 2016 |
By Miriam Otoo, Krishna Chaitanya Rao, Kalanithy Vairavamoorthy, and Marianne Gadeberg

A clean and private toilet is something a lot of us take for granted, but for thousands of people living in the slums of Rwandan capital Kigali, safe sanitation was long a luxury out of reach.

REC Kigali

Rwanda Environment Care (REC) constructs eco-san toilets in public places in Kigali. Photo Credit: Eugene Dusingizumuremyi.

In the past, these communities had no other option than to use either pit latrines, often full and overflowing, or flying toilets, essentially plastic bags serving as single-use toilets and then tossed to the wayside. Naturally, the absence of proper sanitation was a daily nuisance, causing both pollution and disease.

From sanitation challenge to business opportunity

Many megacities across Africa and Asia are bogged down by similar issues, and while proper sewage systems would be the ideal solution, there is virtually no chance of realizing such systems in the next few decades. But what if sanitation and waste challenges in urban centers could be turned into profitable business ventures?

In Kigali, Rwanda Environment Care (REC), now a privately owned company, recognized that the high demand for sanitation in cities coincided with an equally high demand for fertilizer among farmers throughout the country – and that the two could be combined to make up a viable business.

Now, REC builds and operates public ecological sanitation (eco-san) toilets and uses the collected fecal sludge to produce organic fertilizer and compost for sale to farmers. The revenue from sale of compost is complemented by fees paid for use of the public toilets, rental income from kiosks and shops nearby, and consultation services on how to construct eco-san latrines offered to other entrepreneurs. In total, the revenues are great enough to cover routine repairs and staff salaries.

REC’s new eco-san latrines in Kigali have not only improved quality of life for local people, they also contribute to a cleaner and healthier environment. As an added benefit, the increased supply of organic, environmentally friendly compost is expected to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, furthering sustainable farming.

Read the complete article.

Angola’s Yellow Fever Outbreak Death Toll Rises To 158 Amid Luanda’s Sanitation Crisis

Angola’s Yellow Fever Outbreak Death Toll Rises To 158 Amid Luanda’s Sanitation Crisis | Source: International Business Times, Mar 18 2016 |

A yellow fever outbreak in Angola that started late last year has claimed 158 lives, with a majority of the deaths from the disease occurring in the past month alone, the World Health Organization said Friday. Most of the victims were residents of the bustling capital Luanda, which has seen an increase in malaria, cholera and chronic diarrhea, due in part to deteriorated sanitation conditions.

luanda-angola-trash

People walk past a pile of uncollected garbage in Angola’s capital of Luanda on Jan. 20, 2016. PHOTO: STRINGER/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

A yellow fever outbreak in Angola that started late last year has claimed 158 lives, with a majority of the deaths from the disease occurring in the past month alone, the World Health Organization said Friday. Most of the victims were residents of the bustling capital Luanda, which has seen an increase in malaria, cholera and chronic diarrhea, due in part to deteriorated sanitation conditions.

“This is an urban pattern of outbreak of Yellow Fever, and it is much more complicated to tackle and deal with,” Hernando Agudelo Ospina, the World Health Organization representative in Luanda, told Reuters. “The possibility of spreading out to other provinces or even to the all country is much higher than if it had happened in a rural area.”

Read the complete article.

Access to Improved Sanitation in Informal Settlements: The Case of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

Access to Improved Sanitation in Informal Settlements: The Case of Dar es Salaam City, TanzaniaCurrent Urban Studies, Mar. 2016.

Authors: Samson Elisha Kasala, Marco Mathias Burra, Tumpale Sakijege Mwankenja

Based on the current study, this paper attempts to examine how and the extent to which residents in these informal settlements get access to improved sanitation. The paper also draws lessons to inform the way forward.

The findings show that community based initiatives, partnerships and law enforcement are instrumental in improving access to sanitation in informal settlements.

VIA Water second faecal sludge webinar report

Which technical options are available for the reuse of faecal sludge? Report of a VIA Water webinar led by Jan Spit.

foto_faecal_sludge_0

© S. Blume/SuSanA Secretariat

Report on the webinar: read the questions that were asked before and during the webinar, and Jan Spit’s answers to them:

  1. D2B: http://english.rvo.nl/subsidies-programmes/develop2build-d2b
  2. DRIVE: http://english.rvo.nl/subsidies-programmes/development-related-infrastructure-investment-vehicle-drive

In Germany: KfW: https://www.kfw.de/International-financing/. For innovative funding, look at: http://www.traidwheel.nl/appropriate-finance/Innovative-financing-mechanisms

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Waste to Wealth: Helping to Close the Sanitation Financing Gap in Rural Communities and Small Towns

Waste to Wealth: Helping to Close the Sanitation Financing Gap in Rural Communities and Small Towns | Source: Solutions Journal, Feb 2016 |

Waste to Wealth is a Ugandan initiative created in partnership with the Ministry of Water and Environment, its water and wastewater utility (the National Water and Sewerage Corporation), and other government, NGO, and academic partners. The concept is simple—to use modern bioenergy technologies to convert human and other organic wastes into resources that will provide economic benefits and improved environment and human health.

wastetowealth

The results of using EcoSan fertilizer on maize in South Nyanza, Kenya. No fertilizer was used on the left, while fertilizer from EcoSan toilet systems was used on the right. Both sections of maize were planted at the same time.

The biogas and slurry left from energy conversion will be used as a resource with economic value to provide a return on the investment in AD technology. The concept is an innovative and transformative technology-based approach to managing human wastes and providing sanitation services in low income countries.

Key Concepts

  • Human waste contains significant amounts of organic material that can be digested by specific bacteria in oxygen-free environments.
  • The byproducts from this digestion process can be used as energy for cooking, lighting, and generating electricity.
  • Revenue or savings from the sale or use of these products provides financing to pay back up-front capital costs.

Read the complete article.