Category Archives: East Asia & Pacific

SNV publications on urban sanitation

SNV’s Urban Sanitation & Hygiene for Health and Development (USHHD) programme works with municipal governments to develop safe, sustainable city-wide services. The programme integrates insights in WASH governance, investment and finance, behavioural change communication and management of the sanitation service chain. We engage private sector, civil society organisations, users and local authorities to improve public health and development opportunities in their city.

As part of our USHHD programme, we have a long term partnership with the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney focused on knowledge and learning to improve practice and contribute to the WASH sector knowledge and evidence. Our recent collaborative efforts have resulted in the following papers:

Are we doing the right thing? Critical questioning for city sanitation planning (2016)
Cities are clear examples of complex and rapidly changing systems, particularly in countries where urban population growth and economic development continue apace, and where the socio-political context strongly influences the directions taken. The concept of double-loop learning can be usefully applied to city sanitation planning. This paper prompts practitioners, policy-makers and development agencies to reflect on their approaches to city sanitation planning and the assumptions that underlie them.
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Exploring legal and policy aspects of urban sanitation and hygiene (2016)
During 2012-2014, SNV did four country reviews of legal arrangements for urban sanitation and hygiene in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Based on these experiences, this guide was developed to provide support and guidance for WASH practitioners undertaking a scan of legal arrangements to inform the design (use of frameworks and tools) and delivery (advocacy for improvements) of urban sanitation and hygiene programs.
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A guide to septage transfer stations (2016)
Septage transfer stations have the potential to significantly reduce the amount of faecal sludge entering the environment by providing a local solution for septage disposal. Localised transfer stations shorten the time required for local operators to collect and transport septage, and they will be able to use smaller vacuum tanks that can navigate the densely populated residential areas. This guide provides information on the salient aspects of selecting, designing, building, operating and maintaining a septage transfer station.
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Financing sanitation for cities and towns (2014)
Planning and financing for sanitation in cities and towns in developing countries is often ad hoc and piecemeal. Stronger capacity to plan financing for sanitation infrastructure (and services) for the long term will lead to better outcomes. Planning for adequate long-term services requires consideration of the complete sanitation service chain over the lifecycle of the associated service infrastructure. This paper focuses on access to the upfront finance and other lumpy finance needs for initial investment and for rehabilitation and/or replacement as physical systems approach their end of life.
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For further information about these papers or the organisations, please contact:
Antoinette Kome (SNV) – akome@snv.org
Juliet Willetts (ISF) on Juliet.willetts@uts.edu.au

Poor sanitation cost global economy US$ 223 billion in 2015

True cost poor sanitation cover

Lack of access to sanitation cost the global economy US$222.9 billion in 2015, up from US$182.5 billion in 2010, a rise of 22% in just five years, according to a new report released on 25 August 2016 by LIXIL Group Corporation (“LIXIL Group”), a global leader in housing and building materials, products and services.

The true cost of poor sanitation, published in collaboration with WaterAid and Oxford Economics, which conducted economic modeling to develop up-to-date estimations of the global cost of poor sanitation, brings to light the high economic burden in low-income and lower-middle income countries.

More than half (55%) of all costs of poor sanitation are a consequence of premature deaths, rising to 75% in Africa. A further quarter are due to treating related diseases, and other costs are related to lower productivity as a result of illnesses and time lost due to lack of access to a private toilet.

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iDE Shares Lessons Learned in Building Markets for Sanitation

iDE is proud to announce a new microsite: sanitationmarkets.ideglobal.org. This site outlines the evolution of iDE’s sanitation program in Cambodia, from preliminary market studies to the largest program of its kind in the world.

Sanitationmarkets.ideglobal.org

We made this site because we hope that our experiences will inform the design, implementation, and cost-effectiveness of future sanitation marketing projects.

Here are a few featured posts on the site:

Are We Moving the Needle on Latrine Coverage? Sanitation coverage increased from 29% to 45%in the seven project provinces, a jump of 16% in just over just 2.5 years.

Latrine Sales Exceed “Excellent” Target The project surpassed the topline “excellent” target of latrines sold through project-connected businesses. Update in May 2016: 228,151 latrines have been sold through project-connected business, with average monthly sales at around 5,000.

Reaching the Poor with Sanitation Overall, there has been a doubling (12% increase) in sanitation coverage among the poor since the baseline in early 2012.

Professionalized Sales Drive Latrine Uptake Achieving the public health goal of rapid latrine uptake necessitated an active role by the project in managing latrine sales activities. Professionalization of sales is a crucial investment for sanitation market development efforts to ensure that the critical activity of selling is deliberate and based on industry best practices. With the support of Whitten & Roy Partnership, the project developed a sales training approach that included systematic sales training and sales management processes and a package of supporting tools, which were developed in collaboration with 17 Triggers.

Driving Latrine Affordability With Access to Finance In partnership with IDinsight, we learned that under certain conditions, financing has the potential to increase latrine uptake fourfold at a $50 market price and decrease operating costs by 70%.

To contact iDE about a potential partnership, send an email to: WASH@ideglobal.org

PMA2020 WASH Brief on Indonesia

Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) uses innovative mobile technology to support low-cost, rapid-turnaround surveys to monitor key indicators for family planning and WASH. indonesia-pma-4

The project is implemented by local university and research organizations in 10 countries, deploying a cadre of female resident enumerators trained in mobile-assisted data collection at 6-month and 12-month intervals.

PMA2020 WASH briefs provide a two-page snapshot of key WASH indicators including number of household water sources, use of unimproved water sources and sanitation facilities, as well as percent of population using open defecation as a main or regular practice.

Our latest WASH brief from Indonesia is based off of a nationally representative survey conducted between June and August 2015.

For more information on PMA2020 WASH please visit http://www.pma2020.org, or contact Alec Shannon at ashannon@jhu.edu.

 

UNEP – Global Environment Outlook: Regional assessment for Asia and the Pacific

GEO-6: Global Environment Outlook: Regional assessment for Asia and the Pacific, 2016. 

United Nations Environment Programme

The assessment provides the first integrative baseline in light of global and regional megatrends supported by open access to data and information. This is a great success not only of science informing policy, but of nations at the regional level acting together on the basis of science to achieve an authoritative assessment of the state,trends and outlook of the their regional environment.

Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors

Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors. PLoS Neg Trop Dis, April 2016. Authors: Hannah R. Holt , Phouth Inthavong, et al.

In Lao PDR, pigs are an important source of food and income and are kept by many rural residents. This study investigated five diseases that are transmitted between pigs and humans (zoonoses), namely hepatitis E, Japanese encephalitis, trichinellosis, cysticercosis and taeniasis. Humans and pigs in Lao PDR were tested for antibodies against the agents (pathogens) responsible for these diseases. Human participants were classified into three groups or “clusters” based on hygiene and sanitation practices, pig contact and pork consumption.

Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practice. Cluster 2 had moderate hygiene practices: around half used toilets and protected water sources; most people washed their hands after using the toilet and boiled water prior to consumption. Most people in this cluster were involved in pig slaughtering, drank pigs’ blood and were more likely test positive for antibodies against hepatitis E and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Finally, people in cluster 3 had lowest access to sanitation facilities, were most likely to have pigs in the household and had the highest risk of hepatitis E, taeniasis and cysticercosis.

The diseases in this study pose a significant threat to public health and impact pig production. This study identified characteristics of high-risk individuals and areas with high disease burden and could be used to target future disease control activities to those most vulnerable.

 

Achieving total sanitation and hygiene coverage within a generation – lessons from East Asia

Achieving total sanitation and hygiene coverage within a generation: lessons from East Asia, 2016. WaterAid.

This paper introduces some of the findings from research in four East Asian countries – Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand – which aims to fill that gap. These countries were selected because they produced rapid and remarkable results in delivering total sanitation coverage in their formative stages as nation states.

Although their initial conditions were very different from those currently found in ‘fragile’ and ‘least-developed’ countries in Africa and South Asia, some useful conclusions can be used to inform discussions on development of strategic
approaches to delivering sanitation for all: